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Electrochemical Behaviour

Pawan Sharma, Pulak M Pandey
The presented work aims to evaluate the effect of porosity on the corrosion behaviour of porous iron scaffold for biodegradable implant application. Two different types of iron scaffold samples were prepared using a newly developed process based on the amalgamation of 3D printing and pressureless microwave sintering. Random porous iron scaffold (RPIS) sample having only random microporous structure and topologically ordered porous iron scaffold (TOPIS) sample having designed interconnected macroporous structure were investigated...
June 2019: Materials Science & Engineering. C, Materials for Biological Applications
Alexander R Harris, Ben J Allitt, Antonio G Paolini
Recordings of neural activity can be used to aid communication, control prosthetic devices or alleviate disease symptoms. Chronic recordings require a high signal-to-noise ratio that is stable for years. Current cortical devices generally fail within months to years after implantation. Development of novel devices to increase lifetime requires valid testing protocols and a knowledge of the critical parameters controlling electrophysiological performance. Here we present electrochemical and electrophysiological protocols for assessing implantable electrodes...
March 19, 2019: Analyst
Mohammad Nikbakht, Babak Pakbin, Gholamreza Nikbakht Brujeni
Lymphocyte proliferation assays are widely used to assess the cell-mediated immunity. Current in vitro testing methods that are being used have extensive applications but still more problematic, due to the technical complexity and the needs for specialized equipment and reagents. Electrochemical methods such as cyclic voltammetry represent a very promising tool for the development of label-free in vitro assays of cell proliferation and viability. Here, a novel procedure based on voltammetric behaviours of proliferating cells was fabricated...
March 14, 2019: Scientific Reports
Peter Coburger, Gizem Kahraman, Axel Straube, Evamarie Hey-Hawkins
Two distorted square-planar RhI complexes (1 and 2) were obtained from [{RhCl(η4-cod)}2] and the respective P,N ligands. The metal-ligand interaction was probed with density functional theory (DFT) and ab initio (CASSCF-NEVPT2) calculations. NMR spectroscopy proved dynamic binding behaviour of the ligands in solution. The tetradenticity of the ligands also affects the electrochemical behaviour of complexes 1 and 2 significantly. Finally, preliminary catalytic studies, namely the dehydrocoupling of dimethylamine-borane, are presented...
March 13, 2019: Dalton Transactions: An International Journal of Inorganic Chemistry
Valeri Petkov, Yazan Maswadeh, Jorge A Vargas, Shiyao Shan, Haval Kareem, Zhi-Peng Wu, Jin Luo, Chuan-Jian Zhong, Sarvjit Shastri, Peter Kenesei
Catalysts for energy related applications, in particular metallic nanoalloys, readily undergo atomic-level changes during electrochemical reactions. The origin, dynamics and implications of the changes for the catalysts' activity inside fuel cells though are not well understood. This is largely because they are studied on model nanoalloy structures under controlled laboratory conditions. Here we use combined synchrotron X-ray spectroscopy and total scattering to study the dynamic behaviour of nanoalloys of Pt with 3d-transition metals as they function at the cathode of an operating proton exchange membrane fuel cell...
March 12, 2019: Nanoscale
Xiaolong Chen, Xinhua Liu, Mengzheng Ouyang, Jingyi Chen, Oluwadamilola Taiwo, Yuhua Xia, Peter R N Childs, Nigel P Brandon, Billy Wu
4D printing has the potential to create complex 3D geometries which are able to react to environmental stimuli opening new design possibilities. However, the vast majority of 4D printing approaches use polymer based materials, which limits the operational temperature. Here, we present a novel multi-metal electrochemical 3D printer which is able to fabricate bimetallic geometries and through the selective deposition of different metals, temperature responsive behaviour can thus be programmed into the printed structure...
March 8, 2019: Scientific Reports
David Ibáñez, Alejandro Pérez-Junquera, María Begoña González-García, David Hernández-Santos, Pablo Fanjul-Bolado
NIR spectroelectrochemistry has scarcely been used for deconvolving aqueous mixtures due to the water restriction in this spectral range. However, this work offers an interesting approach for the study of mixtures of molecules with similar electrochemical and spectroscopic behaviour by overcoming the limitations of this hybrid technique. As a proof of concept, the resolution of mixtures of two dyes with similar chemical structures demonstrates the usefulness of NIR spectroelectrochemistry.
March 8, 2019: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
Liya Guo, Edmund Lovell, Neil Wilson, Paul Burdett, Lesley F Cohen, Mary P Ryan
The degradation mechanism of La(Fe,Mn,Si)13Hx has been examined under conditions representative of the complex operating parameters of a refrigeration cycle. The magnetic field effects are found to be dominated by magneto-transport and are most significant when the material is in its paramagnetic state - resulting in significantly accelerated corrosion rates.
March 8, 2019: Chemical Communications: Chem Comm
Yinzi Yue, Li Zeng, Xiaopeng Wang, Lianlin Su, Mingming Sun, Bensheng Wu, Shuai Yan
In this work, silver nanoparticles prepared by a molten salt method were deposited onto the surface of hexagonal boron nitride nanosheet (NS/AgNP) to from a composite. The synthesized nanocomposite was applied for surface modification of screen-printed electrode (SPE). The modified electrode showed a superior performance for electrochemical detection of scopoletin. The electrochemical behaviour of NS/AgNP/SPE was studied in detail. An electrocatalytic oxidation was observed and used for analytical determination of scopoletin concentration...
March 7, 2019: Scientific Reports
Yiwei Tang, Nianwei Dai, Jun Wu, Yiming Jiang, Jin Li
The influence of surface roughness on the pitting corrosion behaviour of 2205 duplex stainless steel (DSS) in a chloride-containing environment was investigated using electrochemical noise (EN) techniques and morphology observation. A rougher surface condition increased the frequency of pit initiation because of the increase in more occluded pit sites. Rough surface finish also accelerated pit growth by increasing the actual dissolution rate in the pit. Metastable pits on rougher surfaces had longer lifetimes and grew to larger sizes, as their inner chemical environment was more easily maintained...
March 4, 2019: Materials
Yuanjun Zhang, Guanyao Wang, Liang Wang, Liang Tang, Ming Zhu, Chao Wu, Shi Xue Dou, Minghong Wu
Metal polyphosphides are regarded as the ideal anode candidates for sodium storage because of their high theoretical capacity, reasonable potential, and abundant resource alternative. However, most of them suffer from irreversibility problems, as reflected by their low reversible capacity, inferior Coulombic efficiency (CE), low rate capability, and poor cycling stability. In this work, we systematically compare the electrochemical behaviour of a variety of polyphosphides bulks, discovering that the CuP2 bulks have higher initial reversible capacity (416 mAh g-1 at 0...
March 5, 2019: Nano Letters
Jiajun Wang, Niels Fertig, Yi-Lun Ying
Multidrug-resistant bacteria are a great concern and a problem that must be addressed. Extended-spectrum β-lactamases are a common defence mechanism of bacteria to make β-lactam (BL) antibiotics ineffective. β-Lactamase inhibitors (BLIs) are consequently designed and are often clinically prescribed with a BL antibiotic to hinder degradation. Current studies focusing on how BL antibiotics or BLIs interact solely with the bacterial outer membrane nanopores (porins) on reaching the periplasmic side using a nanopore-based sensing technique...
March 2, 2019: Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry
Pradeep Singh, I B Singh, D P Mondal
Ti4wt%Al alloy foams of various porosities were prepared using milled and unmilled powders through space holder technique. Crystallographic and morphological change in milled powder compared to the unmilled one were also examined. Space holder content was varied to get foams of different porosities. After sintering, foams were thermally oxidized through heat treatment and characterised in terms of their pore size, pore morphology, pore interconnectivity, phase formation and compressive deformation behaviour...
May 2019: Materials Science & Engineering. C, Materials for Biological Applications
Claudio Greco, Ugo Cosentino, Demetrio Pitea, Giorgio Moro, Saveria Santangelo, Salvatore Patanè, Massimiliano D'Arienzo, Michele Fiore, Franca Morazzoni, Riccardo Ruffo
The chemical groups present at the surface of graphite have been thought for a long time to be mainly responsible for its catalytic activity in the oxygen reduction reaction. Recently, it was proposed that the surface defects of graphite also significantly contribute to promote this reaction. Although the behaviour of surface defects has been reported, only few comments have been dedicated to their involvement in the mechanism and the possible intermediate species in the oxygen reduction reaction. Herein, we aim to present a more detailed explanation of the catalytic activity of graphite particles based on the structure of their defects and their size...
February 27, 2019: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
Gianluca Milano, Luca Boarino, Carlo Ricciardi
Metal-semiconductor interfaces play a crucial role not only for regulating the electronic conduction mechanism but also in determining new functionalities in nanosized devices. In this work, we reported the investigation of the junction properties of single ZnO NWs asymmetrically contacted by means of a Pt electrochemically inert and a Cu electrochemically active electrode. At low applied voltages, these devices operate as diodes where the conduction mechanism was found to be dominated by the Schottky barrier at the Cu/ZnO interface...
February 26, 2019: Nanotechnology
Yan Ouyang, Yanpeng Guo, Dian Li, Yaqing Wei, Tianyou Zhai, Huiqiao Li
The dendritic lithium formation and sustained lithium consumption caused by the uncontrollable side reactions between lithium and electrolyte seriously restrict the applications of lithium anode in high-energy density batteries, especially in carbonate electrolyte. Ameliorating the surface status of lithium anode is critical for modulating lithium deposition behaviour and improving the cycling stability of lithium metal batteries. Herein, magnesium chloride salt is firstly reported as a carbonate electrolyte additive for lithium surface modification by in-situ reaction...
February 26, 2019: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Marcello B Solomon, Bun Chan, Clifford P Kubiak, Katrina A Jolliffe, Deanna M D'Alessandro
Salens are well-known for their ability to catalyse electrochemical transformations; however, despite their rich history, the fundamental reduction chemistry of these systems remains relatively unexplored. This work reports the design and synthesis of eight discrete, functionalised Mn(iii) pyridyl salen metal complexes, in which the diamine is varied. The electrochemical properties of the complexes were examined using cyclic voltammetry (CV), spectroelectrochemical (SEC) techniques and Density Functional Theory (DFT) computational modelling to explore the mechanisms that underly Mn salen reduction chemistry...
February 25, 2019: Dalton Transactions: An International Journal of Inorganic Chemistry
Muqing Ding, Tao Liu, Yimin Zhang, Zhenlei Cai, Yadong Yang, Yizhong Yuan
It is important to study the effect of Fe(III) on the positive electrolyte, in order to provide some practical guidance for the preparation and use of vanadium electrolyte. The effect of Fe(III) on the thermal stability and electrochemical behaviour of the positive electrolyte for the vanadium redox flow battery (VRFB) was investigated. When the Fe(III) concentration was above 0.0196 mol l-1 , the thermal stability of V(V) electrolyte was impaired, the diffusion coefficient of V(IV) species decreased from (2...
January 2019: Royal Society Open Science
Xiaopeng Han, Xiaofei Ling, Ying Wang, Tianyi Ma, Cheng Zhong, Wenbin Hu, Yida Deng
The size effect of transition metal nanoparticles on electrocatalytic performance remains ambiguous especially when decreasing the size to atomic level. Herein, we report the spatial isolation of cobalt species at atomic scale through tuning zinc dopants content in predesigned bimetallic Zn/Co zeolitic imidazole frameworks (ZnCo-ZIFs), affording the successful synthesis of nanoparticles, atomic clusters and single atoms of Co catalysts on N-doped porous carbon. This novel synthetic strategy allows the investigation of size effect on electrochemical behaviours from nanometer to angstrom...
February 21, 2019: Angewandte Chemie
Kit McColl, Furio Corà
Orthorhombic V2O5 is a promising Mg battery cathode material, and reversible intercalation in the layered α-phase has been claimed experimentally. However, these results, based on electrochemistry and XRD, are controversial. Previous computational studies have predicted high activation barriers (∼1 eV) for ionic migration in α-V2O5, although improved Mg2+ mobility is expected in the δ-phase. Here, hybrid-exchange density functional theory is used to discuss structure, stability and intercalation in the α and δ phases, beginning with a model system with MV2O5 stoichiometry, and varying ionic radius of the M cations...
February 20, 2019: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
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