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Waste material

Vikranth Volli, Mihir Kumar Purkait, Chi-Min Shu
The present work reconnoitres the feasibility of utilizing class F fly ash and calcined animal bone powder (CABP) as raw material for the synthesis of heterogeneous solid base catalyst with varying ratios (CABP of 10, 20, and 30 mass%), that is subsequently used for transesterification of mustard oil. Physicochemical characterization of CABP revealed crystalline behavior, signifying one of the components as hydroxyapatite (HAP); when calcined at 900 °C transforms to β-tricalcium phosphate having a specific surface area of 100 m2  g-1 ...
March 8, 2019: Science of the Total Environment
Vanessa Petry do Canto, Claudia Elizabeth Thompson, Paulo Augusto Netz
The global production of plastics increases every year, because these materials are widely used in several segments of modern life. Polyurethanes are a very important class of polymers, used in many areas of everyday life, from automotive equipments to mattresses. The waste management usually involves accumulation in landfills, incineration, and reuse processes. However, bioremediation processes are being increasingly tested, due to the efficiency of enzymes in the degradation, besides adding value to the generated waste...
March 6, 2019: Journal of Molecular Graphics & Modelling
Mai Thi Ngoc Pham, Hoang Quoc Anh, Xuan Truong Nghiem, Binh Minh Tu, Thi Nhung Dao, My Hang Nguyen
The emission profiles and levels of unintentionally produced persistent organic pollutants (U-POPs) comprising polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins/furans (PCDD/Fs) and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (dl-PCBs) were comprehensively investigated in flue gas released from 20 facilities belonging to 11 thermal industrial processes in Vietnam. Levels and patterns of PCDD/Fs and dl-PCBs in flue gas samples varied widely between sectors and different facilities in the same sector, suggesting different formation mechanisms involved...
March 7, 2019: Chemosphere
Emmanuel Joussein, Marilyne Soubrand, Grégoire Pascaud, Antoine Cogulet, Sylvie Rossignol
The aims of this study correspond to (i) determine the feasibility of synthesize geomaterial from two main Pb-contaminated mining sediments (Sed1 and Sed2) without prior activation in substitution to metakaolin (MK), (ii) understand the mechanisms involved toward two types of silicate solution (Na and K one), and (iii) to evaluate the change in the Pb metallic element speciation and leaching after alkali treatment. The raw material as well as consolidated material were characterized by X-ray diffraction, infrared spectroscopy, and electron microscopy...
March 14, 2019: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Shenghui Tian, Yuanfang Luo, Jizun Chen, Hui He, Yong Chen, Zhang Ling
In this study, non-metallic materials of waste-printed circuit board powders (WPCBP) were successfully used as reinforcing filler to produce polypropylene (PP)⁻wood composites, and their effect on the weathering properties of PP composites were fully evaluated via oxidation induction time (OIT), attenuated total reflectance Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR), differential scanning calorimetry, vicat softening point (VST), scanning electron microscopy, and mechanical properties analysis. The OIT analysis confirmed that the anti-thermal oxidative aging properties of PP⁻wood composites were decreased with the loading of WPCBP...
March 15, 2019: Materials
Shaik Anwar Ahamed Nabeela Nasreen, Subramanian Sundarrajan, Syed Abdulrahim Syed Nizar, Seeram Ramakrishna
Plenty of fresh water resources are still inaccessible for human use. Calamities such as pollution, climate change, and global warming pose serious threats to the fresh water system. Although many naturally and synthetically grown materials have been taken up to resolve these issues, there is still plenty of room for enhancements in technology and material perspectives to maximize resources and to minimize harm. Considering the challenges related to the purification of water, materials in the form of nanofiber membranes and nanomaterials have made tremendous contributions to water purification and filtration...
March 14, 2019: Membranes
Yichao Wang, Zhigang Zhang, Jiangtao Yu, Jianzhuang Xiao, Qingfeng Xu
To improve the greenness and deformability of engineered cementitious composites (ECC), recycled powder (RP) from construction and demolition waste with an average size of 45 μm and crumb rubber (CR) of two particle sizes (40CR and 80CR) were used as supplements in the mix. In the present study, fly ash and silica sand used in ECC were replaced by RP (50% and 100% by weight) and CR (13% and 30% by weight), respectively. The tension test and compression test demonstrated that RP and CR incorporation has a positive effect on the deformability of ECC, especially on the tensile strain capacity...
March 14, 2019: Materials
James R Crosby, Tunyaboon Laemthong, April M Lewis, Christopher T Straub, Michael Ww Adams, Robert M Kelly
Going forward, industrial biotechnology must consider non-model metabolic engineering platforms if it is to have maximal impact. This will include microorganisms that natively possess strategic physiological and metabolic features but lack either molecular genetic tools or such tools are rudimentary, requiring further development. If non-model platforms are successfully deployed, new avenues for production of fuels and chemicals from renewable feedstocks or waste materials will emerge. Here, the challenges and opportunities for extreme thermophiles as metabolic engineering platforms are discussed...
March 12, 2019: Current Opinion in Biotechnology
Titilayo Dorothy Odetola, Emmanuel Oluwabukunmi Fakorede
INTRODUCTION: Patient satisfaction has been identified as a major index in the assessment of quality of healthcare globally. Mothers judge the quality of perinatal care received based on their satisfaction with the services provided, thus influencing their utilization of the available health facilities. There is currently a dearth of literature on users' satisfaction of services rendered at the primary level of care, which is the first port of call to the health system aimed at serving majority of the populace...
April 30, 2018: Annals of Global Health
Ehsan Boustani, Hassan Ranjbar, Aref Rahimian
99 Mo is an important radioisotope and mainly produced using uranium fission reaction in a nuclear reactor. Investigation for probable improvements, especially on target geometry and in-core location of target is the main goal of this research. This is for producing more efficient of 99 Mo in a typical Material Testing Reactors (MTRs). A parametric investigation is done focused on the target characteristics such as geometry, location, material, density, heat flux (power density) and also usability in Tehran Research Reactor (TRR) as a MTR case study...
March 7, 2019: Applied Radiation and Isotopes
Yi Li, Shanxue Zhang, Wenlong Zhang, Wei Xiong, Quanliang Ye, Xing Hou, Chao Wang, Peifang Wang
Continuous exposure to pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) is a critical concern given potential toxicity impacts on aquatic environments and human health, although concentrations of PPCPs in the environment are low. While several studies have focused on the fate and toxicity of organic micropollutants in wastewater, the environmental impacts of life cycle assessment induced by these organic micropollutants in advanced wastewater treatment processes are still unknown. To address this need, an environmental evaluation of three representative advanced wastewater treatment processes (ozonation, granular activated carbon adsorption and reverse osmosis) involving PPCPs removal was conducted using life cycle assessment and USEtox model in this study...
March 11, 2019: Journal of Environmental Management
Yohan Jayawardhana, Sameera R Gunatilake, Kushani Mahatantila, Maneesha P Ginige, Meththika Vithanage
The remediation of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from aqueous solution using Municipal solid waste biochar (MSW-BC) has been evaluated. Municipal solid waste was pyrolyzed in an onsite pyrolyzer around 450 ° C with a holding time of 30 min for the production of biochar (BC). Physiochemical properties of BC were assessed based on X-Ray Fluorescence (XRF) and Fourier transform infra-red (FTIR) analysis. Adsorption capacities for the VOCs (m-xylene and toluene) were examined by batch sorption experiments...
March 11, 2019: Journal of Environmental Management
Kei Wagatsuma, Kiichi Ishiwata, Fumiyoshi Nobuhara, Iwane Koumura, Masayuki Kunugi, Keiichi Oda, Kenta Miwa, Jun Toyohara, Kenji Ishii
PURPOSE: The concrete vault, cyclotron body, and peripheral equipment in a cyclotron room become radioactivated by neutrons generated by operating an unshielded cyclotron. Radionuclides and the amounts of radioactivated materials must be identified before discarding a cyclotron system. The present study aimed to reduce the amounts of concrete from cyclotron vaults, as well as cyclotron components and peripheral equipment, that will be disposed of as radioactivated waste by clarifying the nature and quantity of radioactivated materials remaining in facilities after cyclotron operations have ceased...
March 14, 2019: Medical Physics
Andrea R Gerson, Peter J Rolley, Catherine Davis, Sandrin T Feig, Stephen Doyle, Roger St C Smart
Most rock extraction sites, including mine sites and building construction sites, require a plan to assess, and mitigate if present, the risk of acid mine drainage (AMD). AMD is typically the major environmental concern where sulfide minerals are present in the excavated material and AMD prediction and remediation is based on internationally-accepted acid-base accounting (ABA) tests of representative field samples. This paper demonstrates that standardized ABA tests may not always be provide the correct AMD classification for commonly occurring waste rocks containing low-pyrite and -carbonate due to mineralogic assumptions inherent in their design...
March 13, 2019: Scientific Reports
Juan Yang, Gai-Fei Peng, Guo-Shuang Shui, Gui Zhang
Experimental investigations on the mechanical properties of ultra-high performance concrete (UHPC) incorporating two types of recycled steel fiber processed from waste tires and three types of industrial steel fiber were carried out for comparison. Mechanical properties of UHPC include compressive strength, splitting tensile strength, fracture energy, and elastic modulus. Their explosive spalling behaviors under high temperatures were also investigated. The results show that all types of steel fiber exhibit a beneficial effect on the mechanical properties and the anti-spalling behavior of UHPC, except that recycled steel fiber with rubber attached (RSFR) has a slightly negative effect on the compressive strength of UHPC...
March 7, 2019: Materials
Ying-Ying Wang, Bao-Hua Hou, Qiu-Li Ning, Wei-Lin Pang, Xian-Hong Rui, Mingkai Liu, Xing-Long Wu
An advanced hierarchically porous nanosheets-constructed three-dimensional (3D) carbon material (HPNSC) is prepared by using low-cost agricultural waste-nelumbium seed-pods as the precursor, and potassium hydroxide (KOH) as the activator. The as-prepared HPNSC material has a hierarchically porous nanosheets-constructed structure with 3D carbon nanosheet network morphology, which can enable fast and efficient transfer of Li+ /Na+ /H+ during charge-discharge process. The assembled HPNSC//HPNSC symmetric supercapacitors exhibit an improved energy density of 41...
March 13, 2019: Nanotechnology
Mehdi Mehrali, Ashish Thakur, Firoz Babu Kadumudi, Malgorzata Karolina Pierchala, Julio Alvin Vacacela Cordova, Mohammad-Ali Shahbazi, Mohammad Mehrali, Cristian Pablo Pennisi, Gorka Orive, Akhilesh K Gaharwar, Alireza Dolatshahi-Pirouz
The emergence of non-toxic, ecofriendly and biocompatible polymers derived from natural sources have added a new and exciting dimension to the development of low-cost and scalable biomaterials for tissue engineering applications. Here, we have developed a mechanically strong and durable hydrogel comprised of an ecofriendly biopolymer that exists within the cell walls of fruits and plants. Its trade name is pectin and it bears many similarities with natural polysaccharides in the native extracellular matrix (ECM)...
March 13, 2019: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Janduir Egito da Silva, Dulce Maria de Araújo Melo, Marcus Antônio de Freitas Melo, Emerson Moreira de Aguiar, Alexandre Santos Pimenta, Everaldo Paulo de Medeiros, Guilherme Quintela Calixto, Renata Martins Braga
Cotton crops generate millions of tons of lignocellulosic waste in Brazil that could be used in energy generation; however, the main destination of this raw material is soil incorporation. The aim of this work was to perform an energetic characterization and evaluation of briquettes produced from different agricultural waste of naturally colored cotton for power generation. The cultivars Brasil Sementes (BRS) Jade and Topazio were studied, with white cotton (BRS 286) as standard for comparison purposes. Two different parts of each species, stalk and cotton shell, were analyzed by bulk density, proximate analysis, higher heating value, cellulose, hemicellulose, protein, fat and lignin content, thermogravimetric analysis, and briquette mechanical strength...
March 12, 2019: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Anu N Mohan, Manoj B, Sandhya Panicker
Antibacterial screening of graphene-tin oxide nanocomposites synthesized from carbonized wood and coconut shell is investigated against Pseudomonas aeruginosa for the first time. Efficient and facile one step hydrothermal process adopted in the present work for the synthesis of graphene-tin oxide nanoparticles provides an ideal method for the economic large-scale production of the same. Graphene-tin oxide nanocomposites derived from wood charcoal possess a spherical morphology whereas rod like structures are seen in the case of coconut shell derivatives...
March 12, 2019: Scientific Reports
Jiansheng Shen, Yidong Xu, Jian Chen, Yao Wang
The use of desulfurization gypsum and steel/furnace slag composite cementitious material (DGSC) to solidify soft soil can fully utilize industrial wastes, reduce cement use and protect natural resources. By studying the unconfined compressive strengths of DGSC-solidified soil with different mix ratios, water-binder ratios and curing periods, the influence of those factors on the unconfined compressive strength of the soil can be analyzed. Furthermore, the quasi-water-cement ratio is introduced to predict the strength of the DGSC-solidified soil...
March 11, 2019: Materials
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