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Inflammatory response

Marco Bardenbacher, Barbara Ruder, Nathalie Britzen-Laurent, Benjamin Schmid, Maximilian Waldner, Elisabeth Naschberger, Michael Scharl, Werner Müller, Claudia Günther, Christoph Becker, Michael Stürzl, Philipp Tripal
The aberrant regulation of the epithelial barrier integrity is involved in many diseases of the digestive tract, including inflammatory bowel diseases and colorectal cancer. Intestinal epithelial cell organoid cultures provide new perspectives for analyses of the intestinal barrier in vitro. However, established methods of barrier function analyses from two dimensional cultures have to be adjusted to the analysis of three dimensional organoid structures. Here we describe the methodology for analysis of epithelial barrier function and molecular regulation in intestinal organoids...
February 7, 2019: Stem Cell Research
Meng Wang, Zhaowei Gu, Jing Yang, He Zhao, Zhiwei Cao
BACKGROUND: Allergic rhinitis is a common allergic disease resulting from inappropriate Th2 cell-mediated immune responses to environmental antigens. As such, regulatory B cells and T helper cells play a critical role in the occurrence and development of allergic rhinitis. METHODS: Wild-type mice received ovalbumin (OVA) intranasal challenge for varied lengths of time, then the inflammatory state of their nasal mucosa was analyzed by histology. Changes to the proportion and function of TGF-β1+ Bregs, T helper cells and plasma cells was analyzed by flow cytometry, real-time PCR, ELISA and cytometric bead arrays...
February 15, 2019: International Immunopharmacology
Natsuki Morimoto, Masakazu Kondo, Tomoya Kono, Masahiro Sakai, Jun-Ichi Hikima
Flagellin is the subunit protein that composes bacterial flagella and is recognized by toll-like receptor 5 (TLR5) as a ligand. Flagellin protein (e.g., FliC and FlaA) contains the D1, D2, and D3 domains; the D1 domain is important for recognition by TLR5 for activation of the innate immune system. In teleosts, there are two types of TLR5, the membrane form (TLR5M) and soluble form (TLR5S), the latter of which is not present in mammals. In this study, the potential of flagellin from Edwardsiella tarda (EtFliC) to induce inflammation-related genes interleukin (IL)-1β and NF-κB-p65 through TLR5S in Japanese flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus) was elucidated...
February 15, 2019: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
Subhashini Arimilli, Patrudu Makena, Gang Liu, G L Prasad
Cigarette smoking exerts diverse physiological effects including immune suppression. To better characterize the biological effects of different categories of tobacco products, a genome-wide gene expression study was performed. Transcriptomic profiling was performed in PBMCs treated with different equi-nicotine units of aqueous extracts of cigarette smoke (termed Whole Smoke-Conditioned Medium, or WS-CM), or a single dose smokeless tobacco extract (STE) prepared from reference tobacco products. WS-CM induced dose-dependent changes in the expression of several genes...
February 15, 2019: Toxicology in Vitro: An International Journal Published in Association with BIBRA
Bisera Stepanovska, Andrea Huwiler
The past two decades of intense research have revealed a key role of the sphingolipid molecule sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P) in regulating multiple physiological and pathophysiological processes including cell proliferation and survival, cell migration, inflammatory mediator synthesis and tissue remodeling. S1P mainly acts through five high-affinity G protein-coupled S1P receptors, which are ubiquitously expressed and mediate a complex network of signaling in a cell type dependent manner. S1P receptors have become an attractive pharmacological target to interfere with S1P-mediated cellular responses, which contribute to various autoimmune and inflammatory diseases...
February 15, 2019: Pharmacological Research: the Official Journal of the Italian Pharmacological Society
Xiangyang Wang, Xiaoqiang Su, Futai Gong, Jichao Yin, Qing Sun, L V Zeyi, Bo Liu
Spinal cord ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury is a severe complication in many surgeries. Although microRNAs (miRNAs) are involved in I/R-caused spinal cord injury (SCI), the mechanism that underlies miR-30c interacted with SCI remains elusive. In this study, I/R surgery or oxygen-glucose deprivation (OGD) were performed to establish SCI model in vivo or in vitro, respectively. Basso, Beattie and Bresnahan (BBB) score, spinal cord infarct, terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase mediated dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) staining, flow cytometry and enzyme linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA) were used to investigate SCI...
February 15, 2019: European Journal of Pharmacology
Yang Jing, Wang Zongming, Zhang Xilin
PURPOSE: Liraglutide, a glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) analogue, is an antidiabetic drug. It has been shown to improve the Psoriasis Area and Severity Index (PASI) in patients with type 2 diabetes and psoriasis in clinical practice, but the mechanism remains somewhat unclear. We used lipopolysaccharides (LPS) to induce inflammatory response in keratinocytes and explore the mechanism. METHODS: The HaCat cells were incubated with LPS for 16 h and then were treated with liraglutide for 30 min...
February 15, 2019: Experimental and Molecular Pathology
Ashok Saluja, Vikas Dudeja, Rajinder Dawra, Raghuwansh P Sah
Premature activation of digestive enzymes in the pancreas has been linked to development of pancreatitis for more than a century. Recent development of novel models to study the role of pathologic enzyme activation has led to advances in our understanding of the mechanisms of pancreatic injury. Co-localization of zymogen and lysosomal fraction occurs early after pancreatitis causing stimulus. Cathepsin B activates trypsinogen in these co-localized organelles. Active trypsin increases permeability of these organelles resulting in leakage of cathepsin B into the cytosol leading to acinar cell death...
February 15, 2019: Gastroenterology
Anna Holm, Urban Hellman, Claude Laurent, Göran Laurell, Karin Nylander, Katarina Olofsson
BACKGROUND: Hyaluronan (HA) is a glycosaminoglycan with viscoelastic properties necessary for vocal fold (VF) vibration and voice production. Changes in HAs molecular mass, possibly related to human papilloma virus, could affect formation/persistence of recurrent respiratory papillomatosis (RRP). Aims/Objective: Describing mass and localization of HA and localization of HA receptor CD44 in VF and false vocal folds (FVF) in RRP. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Biopsies from VF and FVF from 24 RRP patients...
November 2018: Acta Oto-laryngologica
Heiko Roedig, Madalina Viviana Nastase, Malgorzata Wygrecka, Liliana Schaefer
It is well established that biglycan, a small leucine-rich proteoglycan, acts as an extracellular matrix-derived danger signal in its soluble form. By binding to innate immunity Toll-like receptors (TLR) 2 and 4, biglycan initiates and perpetuates the inflammatory response. Previous work has conveyed that biglycan's role in inflammation extends far beyond its function as a canonical danger signal. It has been shown that biglycan acts in an anti-inflammatory capacity, wherein it tightly regulates the inflammatory response...
February 18, 2019: FEBS Journal
Lumin Zhang, Arevik Mosoian, Myron E Schwartz, Sander S Florman, Ganesh Gunasekaran, Thomas Schiano, M Isabel Fiel, Wei Jiang, Qi Shen, Andrea D Branch, Meena B Bansal
IL-1β is an important mediator of innate inflammatory responses and has been shown to contribute to liver injury in a number of etiologies. HIV patients have increased necroinflammation and more rapid fibrosis progression in chronic liver injury compared to non-HIV-infected patients. As the resident liver macrophage is critical to the IL-1β response to microbial translocation in chronic liver disease, we aim to examine the impact of HIV-1 and LPS stimulation on the IL-1β response of the resident hepatic macrophages...
February 18, 2019: Journal of Leukocyte Biology
Pedro Zapater, Susana Almenara, Ana Gutiérrez, Laura Sempere, Marifé García, Raquel Laveda, Antonio Martínez, Michael Scharl, José I Cameo, Raquel Linares, José M González-Navajas, Reiner Wiest, Gerhard Rogler, Rubén Francés
BACKGROUND: Patients with Crohn's disease (CD) responding to anti-tumor necrosis factor (anti-TNF) show great variability in serum drug levels, even within the therapeutic range. We aimed at exploring the role of inflammatory, genetic, and bacterial variables in relation to anti-TNF through levels in CD patients. METHODS: Consecutive CD patients receiving stable doses of infliximab or adalimumab were included. Clinical and analytical parameters were recorded. Cytokine response, bacterial DNA translocation, and several immune-related genes' genotypes were evaluated, along with serum through anti-TNF drug levels...
February 19, 2019: Inflammatory Bowel Diseases
Xiaoliu Liang, Ka Wu, Meizhen Liu, Bin Yang
Carbon tetrachloride (CCl4 ), a potent hepatotoxin, is linked to the histopathological outcomes of inflammatory or oxidative stress, and cell death. However, further study of additional dysmetabolism induced by CCl 4 toxicant has not yet been investigated. In current study, chronical and acute exposures of CCl 4 in mice were used to unmask the biological molecular mechanism responsible for insulin-dependent metabolic disorder. In experimental methods, a number of biochemical assays were used in assessment of biological impacts on insulin-produced pancreas and insulin-responsive hepatocyte after long- and short-term exposures of CCl 4 toxicant, respectively...
February 18, 2019: Journal of Cellular Biochemistry
Abdrakhmanov Azat Rasimovich, Abdrakhmanov Rasim Mindrakhmanovich
Background: Sexually transmitted infections play a great role in formation of inflammatory diseases of female urogenital system. These diseases can cause a decrease in the level of female sex hormones, as well as the ratio of estrogens and androgens. Objective: To determine changes in the state of sex hormones in women with inflammatory diseases of ovaries associated with opportunistic urogenital flora. Materials and Methods: 136 women aged 18-39 yr participated in this cross-sectional clinical study...
November 2018: International Journal of Reproductive Biomedicine (Yazd, Iran)
Jian Ji, Yibin Xu, Mingzhu Zheng, Chenglong Luo, Huangtao Lei, Hao Qu, Dingming Shu
Methionine (Met) is an essential and multifunctional nutrient in vertebrate diets. It is a precursor of S -adenosylmethionine (SAM), the methyl donor for DNA methylation, which has an important role in the inflammatory responses. However, whether Met exerts anti-inflammatory effects by altering DNA methylation in macrophages is unclear. In this study, Met was found to diminish the activation of the mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling pathway; decrease the production of tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin-6, and interferon-β; and enhance the levels of intracellular SAM after lipopolysaccharide (LPS) treatment in macrophages...
January 31, 2019: ACS Omega
Srinath Rajaraman, Denis Canjuga, Michael Ghosh, Marius Cosmin Codrea, Raika Sieger, Florian Wedekink, Marcos Tatagiba, Marilin Koch, Ulrich M Lauer, Sven Nahnsen, Hans-Georg Rammensee, Michael D Mühlebach, Stefan Stevanovic, Ghazaleh Tabatabai
Glioblastoma is an aggressive primary brain tumor with bad prognosis. On the other hand, oncolytic measles virus (MeV) therapy is an experimental glioma treatment strategy with clinical safety and first evidence of anti-tumoral efficacy. Therefore, we investigated the combination of MeV with conventional therapies by cytotoxic survival assays in long-term glioma cell lines LN229, LNZ308, and glioma stem-like GS8 cells, as well as the basal viral infectivity in primary glioblastoma cultures T81/16, T1094/17, and T708/16...
March 29, 2019: Molecular Therapy Oncolytics
Ivan Peres Costa, Fabiano Politti, Lawrence P Cahalin, Etiene Farah Teixeira de Carvalho, Dirceu Costa, João Carlos Ferrari Corrêa, Rodolfo P Vieira, Manoel Carneiro Oliveira-Junior, Kátia De Angelis, Roberto Stirbulov, Simone Dal Corso, Paulo de Tarso de Carvalho, Nivaldo Antonio Parizotto, Ross Arena, LucianaMaria Malosá Sampaio
The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of acute application of LEDT in improving peripheral muscle performance during isometric exercise in patients with asthma. Eleven patients, with a mean age 38 ± 10, underwent a single LEDT and sham application in the femoral quadriceps' dominant member (cluster with 50 LED λ = 850 nm, 50 mW, 15 s; 37.5 J), 48 h apart in a randomized crossover design. Before and after LEDT and sham application, the patients were submitted an isometric endurance test (60% of the maximum isometric voluntary contraction), up to the limit of tolerance simultaneous recording of surface electromyography...
2019: BioMed Research International
Antonio Segado-Arenas, Lidia Atienza-Cuevas, José Roman Broullón-Molanes, Moisés Rodríguez-González, Simón Pedro Lubián-López
Listeriosis is a sporadic infectious disease, which affects high-risk populations, such as the elderly, pregnant women, newborns, and immunocompromised patients. During pregnancy, listeriosis usually presents like a mild non-specific infection, but it may be responsible for fetal loss, preterm labor, early onset neonatal sepsis, and neonatal death. We report the case of a late stillbirth secondary to maternal chorioamnionitis. Listeria monocytogenes was isolated from the amniotic fluid and the fetal pleural fluid...
October 2018: Autopsy & Case Reports
Vítor Devezas, Laura Elisabete Barbosa, Rosa Ramalho, Cristina Sarmento, José Costa Maia
Desmoid tumors develop from connective tissue, fasciae, and aponeuroses, and may occur in the context of familial adenomatous polyposis or may arise sporadically; also, they may be extra-abdominal, intra-abdominal, or located in the abdominal wall. These benign tumors have a great aggressiveness with a high rate of local recurrence. Familial adenomatous polyposis is an inherited condition with autosomal dominant transmission, and is characterized by the development of multiple colonic and rectal adenomatous polyps, as well as desmoid tumors...
October 2018: Autopsy & Case Reports
Wendy Jo Svetanoff, Benjamin Zendejas, Farokh R Demehri, Alex Cuenca, Bharath Nath, C Jason Smithers
Introduction: There are no reported survivors of gastroschisis with complete liver herniation. We describe a case report of two patients, one of whom survived. Case #1: The patient was born with gastroschisis and herniation of the entire liver. Along with silo placement, the abdominal fascia was attached to an external traction system for growth. Complete closure was achieved at 5 months. Due to pulmonary hypoplasia, high-frequency ventilation was required. The patient is doing well, on a home ventilator wean, at 20 months...
2019: Case Reports in Surgery
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