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Article Review

Eric L Garland, Barbara L Fredrickson
The Mindfulness-to-Meaning Theory (MMT) is a temporally dynamic process model of mindful positive emotion regulation that elucidates downstream cognitive-affective mechanisms by which mindfulness promotes health and resilience. Here we review and extend the MMT to explicate how mindfulness fosters self-transcendence by evoking upward spirals of decentering, attentional broadening, reappraisal, and savoring. Savoring is highlighted as a key, potential means of inducing absorptive experiences of oneness between subject and object, amplifying the salience of the object while imbuing the sensory-perceptual field with affective meaning...
January 14, 2019: Current Opinion in Psychology
Weiming Xia
Twenty years ago, Wolfe, Xia, and Selkoe identified two aspartate residues in Alzheimer's presenilin protein that constitute the active site of the γ-secretase complex. Mutations in the genes encoding amyloid precursor protein (APP) or presenilin (PS) cause early onset familial Alzheimer's disease (AD), and sequential cleavages of the APP by β-secretase and γ-secretase/presenilin generate amyloid β protein (Aβ), the major component of pathological hallmark, neuritic plaques, in brains of AD patients. Therapeutic strategies centered on targeting γ-secretase/presenilin to reduce amyloid were implemented and led to several high profile clinical trials...
February 11, 2019: Neuroscience Letters
Majid Sharifi, Sara Haji Hosseinali, Ali Akbar Saboury, Eva Szegezdi, Mojtaba Falahati
With the expansion of the field of nanomedicine, the use of nanomaterials in cancer treatment has raised questions about their safety and unpredictable adverse effects. To date, the hazardous effects of nanomaterials have been investigated based on cell survival and cellular functionality, such as membrane integrity, mitochondrial activity and cell morphology. It is increasingly noted that more detailed analysis of regulated cell death pathways (RCD) triggered by nanomaterials is essential to understand their full mechanism of action...
February 11, 2019: Journal of Controlled Release: Official Journal of the Controlled Release Society
Rebecca A Aslakson, Katherine Ast
Practices to optimize palliative care delivery and new opportunities in which to integrate palliative care vary across populations and care settings. Systematic reviews are an efficient and methodologically rigorous approach to summarize existing research to identify both evidence-based best-practices as well as new areas for future research and clinical practice. This is the introduction to a special series of articles in which members of the AAHPM Research Committee report the results of circumscribed systematic reviews which in a specific population or care setting seek to: (a) summarize existing evidence for optimal palliative care practices or (b) identify opportunities where better palliative care delivery could improve patient and/or family outcomes...
February 11, 2019: Journal of Pain and Symptom Management
Amanda Agyemang, Scott Sicherer
Peanut allergy appears to have increased in prevalence, is often severe and is typically life-long. Therefore, reducing its incidence through a primary prevention strategy is a priority. Guidelines on peanut introduction have evolved with time and given evidence of peanut allergy risk reduction with early infant ingestion exposure, the current US advice promotes early introduction for infants, particularly targeting those at highest risk. Areas covered: This article describes the evolution of peanut introduction guidelines in infants in the US, as shaped by key research over the last 20-30 years and culminates in the landmark LEAP study It also compares and contrasts current iterations of peanut introduction guidelines in infants globally...
February 14, 2019: Expert Review of Clinical Immunology
Rebecca D Ganetzky, Claudia Stendel, Elizabeth M McCormick, Zarazuela Zolkipli-Cunningham, Amy C Goldstein, Thomas Klopstock, Marni J Falk
Mitochondrial complex V (CV) generates cellular energy as adenosine triphosphate (ATP). Mitochondrial disease caused by the m.8993T>G pathogenic variant in CV subunit gene, MT-ATP6, was among the first described human mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) diseases. Due to a lack of clinically-available functional assays, validating the definitive pathogenicity of additional MT-ATP6 variants remains challenging. We reviewed all reported MT-ATP6 disease cases (n=218) to date, to assess for MT-ATP6 variants, heteroplasmy levels, and inheritance correlation with clinical presentation and biochemical findings...
February 14, 2019: Human Mutation
Niranjan J Sathianathen, Yiannis A Philippou, Gretchen M Kuntz, Badrinath R Konety, Shilpa Gupta, Alastair D Lamb, Philipp Dahm
OBJECTIVES: Androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) has historically been the main management option for men with metastatic, hormone-sensitive prostate cancer. Over the last two decades, a number of agents have demonstrated a benefit in castration-resistant disease[1] and there has been interest to employ these drugs earlier in the disease course when the cancer is hormone-sensitive. Taxane-based chemotherapy has been utilized in such a manner and we aimed to assess the effects of early taxane-based chemohormonal therapy for newly diagnosed, metastatic, hormone-sensitive prostate cancer...
February 14, 2019: BJU International
Olivia Magwood, Victoire Kpadé, Kednapa Thavorn, Sandy Oliver, Alain D Mayhew, Kevin Pottie
[This corrects the article DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0209278.].
2019: PloS One
Hayelom Gebrekirstos Mengesha, Pammla Petrucka, Cara Spence, Tadesse Bekele Tafesse
BACKGROUND: Hypertension is dramatically increasing in Africa with evidence of increased severity and resistance to treatment. Although angiotensin converting enzyme gene polymorphism is associated with higher prevalence of hypertension, the evidence is inconclusive on its influence on the emerging pattern in Africa. This meta-analysis is conducted to pool the available evidence to inform future research and interventions. METHODS: Articles published through May 2018 were systematically searched in PubMed, Scopus and EMBASE databases...
2019: PloS One
Sharon Guthrie
Clean, accurate data, also known as data fidelity, support school nurses' professional credibility in the school setting by allowing them to report their work and outcomes to important stakeholders. School nurses collect data every day through documentation, creating an essential record of the health needs of students and how school nurses meet those needs. To report these data effectively, school nurses should use standard definitions, technology, or standardized forms and review their data regularly to maintain accurate data...
March 2019: NASN School Nurse
Sally Griffin
PRACTICAL RELEVANCE: Abdominal ultrasound plays a vital role in the diagnostic work-up of many cats presenting to general and specialist practitioners. Ultrasound examination of the liver can be key in the diagnosis of diseases such as hepatic lipidosis and hepatic neoplasia. CLINICAL CHALLENGES: Despite ultrasonography being a commonly used modality, many practitioners are not comfortable performing an ultrasound examination or interpreting the resulting images...
January 2019: Journal of Feline Medicine and Surgery
Wazir Muhammad, Matiulluh, Asad Ullah, Sajjad Tahir, Fawad Ullah, Matiulluh Khan
In our environment, various naturally occurring radionuclides are present (both underground and overground) in several places, which results in lifelong human exposure. The radiation dose received by human beings from the radiation emitted by these naturally occurring radionuclides is approximately 87%. Exposure to radiation poses radiological health hazards. To assess the human health hazards from radiation, the concentration of these naturally occurring radionuclides are measured in soil (used for cultivation), building materials (soil, bricks, sand, marble, etc...
February 12, 2019: Reviews on Environmental Health
Elsa Gonzalez Nguyen-Tang, Paloma Parvex, Alexandra Goischke, Alexandra Wilhelm-Bals
Vitamin D deficiency is increasing in Switzerland. If cases of rickets are scarce, pediatricians are often dealing with patients presenting vitamin D deficiency. The increase in vitamin D deficiency is certainly due to modification of life habits in recent decades. Clinical presentation varies according to age and severity of deficit. Treatments differ based on the level of vitamin D deficiency and symptoms. Vitamin D deficiency rickets is the most common cause of rickets and is predominantly seen in patients with risks factors They are other types of rickets like pseudo-vitamin D deficiency and hypophosphatemic rickets that the clinician needs to recognize...
February 13, 2019: Revue Médicale Suisse
Martin F Bjurström, Michael R Irwin
BACKGROUND: Sleep macrostructure is commonly disturbed after surgery. Postoperative pain control remains challenging. Given the bidirectional interaction between sleep and pain, understanding the role of modulation of sleep during the perioperative period on postoperative pain is needed. METHODS: Systematic review. Controlled trials examining the effects of perioperative sleep-promoting pharmacological agents on postoperative pain and analgesic consumption were identified through a systematic search strategy utilizing multiple electronic databases...
February 14, 2019: Pain Practice: the Official Journal of World Institute of Pain
Brent A Becker, Shadi Lahham, Mark A Gonzales, Jason T Nomura, Michelle K Bui, Taylor A Truong, Barbara A Stahlman, John C Fox, Thompson Kehrl
OBJECTIVE: The main objective of this study was to evaluate the accuracy of emergency physician-performed point-of-care ultrasound (POCUS) for the diagnosis of small bowel obstruction (SBO) compared to computed tomography (CT). METHODS: We performed a prospective, multicenter, observational study examining a convenience sample of adult patients with potential SBO presenting to the emergency department (ED) between July 2014 and May 2017. Each emergency physician-performed POCUS was interpreted at the bedside and retrospectively by an expert reviewer...
February 14, 2019: Academic Emergency Medicine: Official Journal of the Society for Academic Emergency Medicine
Kevin Phan, Deshan F Sebaratnam
BACKGROUND: There have been a number of case reports and small clinical trials reporting promising outcomes of JAK inhibitors tofacitinib, ruxolitinib, and baracitinib for alopecia areata (AA). The majority of the literature to date is based on small volume data, with a lack of definitive evidence or guidelines. OBJECTIVE: To determine the expected response of AA to JAK inhibitor therapy, and factors which influence response and recurrence rates. METHODS: A systematic review and meta-analysis was performed according to PRISMA guidelines...
February 14, 2019: Journal of the European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology: JEADV
Iqbal Al-Zirqi, Anne Kjersti Daltveit, Siri Vangen
INTRODUCTION: Complete uterine rupture, a rare peripartum complication, is often associated with a catastrophic outcome for both mother and child. However, few studies have investigated large data sets to evaluate maternal outcomes after complete ruptures, particularly in unscarred uteri. This paucity of studies is partly due to the rarity of both the event and the serious outcomes, such as peripartum hysterectomy and maternal death. The incidence of uterine rupture is expected to increase, due to increasing cesarean section rates worldwide...
February 14, 2019: Acta Obstetricia et Gynecologica Scandinavica
Jorge Ariel Rasmussen, Federico Landriel, Santiago Hem, Sebastián Kornfeld, Claudio Yampolsky
STUDY DESIGN: Systematic review and descriptive data meta-analysis. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to appropriately establish the accuracy in the percutaneous transpedicular screws (PTS) placement using biplane radioscopy (Rx-2D). SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA: The Rx-2D is a widely-used technique for PTS as it is practical, ubiquitous, and cost-effective. However, the reported "acceptable" accuracy attained by this method is widely variable ranging between 76% and 100%...
February 12, 2019: Clinical Spine Surgery
Jialei Feng, Wei Wang, Yuan Zhong, Chonghui Xing, Taipin Guo
BACKGROUND: Perimenopausal depressive disorder (PDD) is a disease that plagues many perimenopausal women. There is an urgent need for a safe way to treat the disease. With few side effects, acupuncture treatment for PDD has been gradually accepted. However, at present, the evidence is insufficient and relevant studies are not in-depth enough. The purpose of this study is to explore the efficacy and safety of acupuncture for PDD. METHODS: All randomized controlled trials articles on acupuncture treatment of PDD will be searched in databases such as MEDLINE, EBASE, Cochrane Library, Springer, World Health Organization International Clinical Trials Registry Platform, China National Knowledge Infrastructure, Wan Fang, Chinese Biomedical Literature Database, Chinese Scientific Journal Database and so on...
February 2019: Medicine (Baltimore)
Decai Zeng, ChunLan Jiang, Chunxiao Su, Ying Tan, Ji Wu
BACKGROUND: It is well known that atrial fibrillation (AF) carried a high risk of cognitive decline, which is independent of stroke or transient ischemic attack (TIA). Whether anticoagulation is associated with reduced risk of cognitive decline in participants with AF still remains controversial. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to explore the effect of anticoagulation on the risk of cognitive decline in patients with AF. METHODS: We systematically searched the PubMed, Embase and the Cochrane Database for eligible studies published up to January 2018...
February 2019: Medicine (Baltimore)
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