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Type-2 diabetes

Rafael Calais Gaspar, Camilla Bertuzzo Veiga, Mariana Pereira Bessi, Marcella Neves Dátilo, Marcella Ramos Sant'Ana, Patrícia Brito Rodrigues, Leandro Pereira de Moura, Adelino Sanchez Ramos da Silva, Gustavo Aparecido Santos, Rodrigo Ramos Catharino, Eduardo Rochete Ropelle, José Rodrigo Pauli, Dennys Esper Cintra
GPR120 and GPR40 were recently reported as omega-3 (ω3) receptors with anti-inflammatory properties. Physical exercise could increase the expression of these receptors in the liver, improving hepatic metabolism in obesity and type 2 diabetes. Our aim was to investigate GPR120/40 in the liver of lean and obese mice after acute or chronic physical exercise, with or without the supplementation of ω3 rich flaxseed oil (FS), as well as assess the impact of exercise and FS on insulin signaling and inflammation...
December 12, 2018: Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry
Leandro Bueno Bergantin
The incidence of both cancer and diabetes is dramatically increasing in worldwide population, costing many millions from governments into expenditures related to medical health systems. Diabetes has been clinically linked to an increased risk for developing several types of cancer. The cellular mechanisms involved in this link are still under intensive debate in literature. In addition, a Ca2+ homeostasis dysregulation has been intensively debated as an issue involved in both cancer and diabetes. Calcium (Ca2+ ) channel blockers (CCBs), prescribed for treating hypertension, have also been showing anti-cancer effects along with reducing diabetes symptoms...
February 13, 2019: Cancer Letters
Attila Nagy, Nóra Kovács, Anita Pálinkás, Valéria Sipos, Ferenc Vincze, Gergő Szőllősi, Róza Ádány, Árpád Czifra, János Sándor
INTRODUCTION: Due to the increasing trends of recent decades, diabetes prevalence has reached a frequency of 1/11 adults worldwide. However, this disadvantageous trend has not been accompanied by worsened outcome indicators; better short-term (e.g., HbA1c levels) and long-term [e.g., all-cause mortality among type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) patients] outcomes can be observed globally. We aimed to describe changes in the effectiveness of type 2 diabetes mellitus care between 2008 and 2016 based on outcome indicators...
February 15, 2019: Diabetes Therapy: Research, Treatment and Education of Diabetes and related Disorders
Christoph Werner, Nicolle Müller, Ulrich Alfons Müller
AIMS: Agonistic autoantibodies directed against adrenergic, endothelin, and angiotensin receptors are known as pathogenic factors in disease-causing vascular impairments such as Buergers' disease, dilatative cardiomyopathy, dementia, and preeclampsia. Diabetes mellitus also causes micro- and macrovascular damages, but pathogenesis is still not fully understood. Following indications for a pathogenic role of the mentioned antibodies from our preliminary investigations, we investigated the prevalence in a bigger cohort of patients with longstanding diabetes with or without diabetic complications...
February 15, 2019: Acta Diabetologica
Antje Mohs, Nadine Kuttkat, Tobias Otto, Sameh A Youssef, Alain De Bruin, Christian Trautwein
In Western countries, a rising incidence of obesity and type 2 diabetes correlates with an increase of non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH)-a major risk factor for liver cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). NASH is associated with chronic liver injury, triggering hepatocyte death and enhanced translocation of intestinal bacteria, leading to persistent liver inflammation through activation of Toll-like receptors and their adapter protein myeloid differentiation factor 88 (MyD88). Therefore, we investigated the role of MyD88 during progression from NASH to HCC using a mouse model of chronic liver injury (hepatocyte-specific deletion of nuclear factor κB essential modulator, Nemo; NemoΔhepa)...
February 13, 2019: Carcinogenesis
Aurèle Besse-Patin, Stewart Jeromson, Philipa Levesque-Damphousse, Blandine Secco, Mathieu Laplante, Jennifer L Estall
Precise modulation of hepatic glucose metabolism is crucial during the fasting and feeding cycle and is controlled by the actions of circulating insulin and glucagon. The insulin-signaling pathway requires insulin receptor substrate 1 (IRS1) and IRS2, which are found to be dysregulated in diabetes and obesity. The peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator 1-alpha (PGC1A) is a fasting-induced transcriptional coactivator. In nonalcoholic fatty liver disease and in patients with type 2 diabetes, low hepatic PGC1A levels are associated with insulin resistance...
February 15, 2019: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Aye C Paing, Kathryn A McMillan, Alison F Kirk, Andrew Collier, Allan Hewitt, Sebastien F M Chastin
OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to investigate dose-response between frequency of breaks in sedentary time and glucose control. DESIGN: Randomised three-treatment, two-period balanced incomplete block trial. METHODS: Twelve adults with type 2 diabetes (age, 60±11years; body mass index, 30.2±4.7kg/m2 ) participated in two of the following treatment conditions: sitting for 7h interrupted by 3min light-intensity walking breaks every (1) 60min (Condition 1), (2) 30min (Condition 2), and (3) 15min (Condition 3)...
January 31, 2019: Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport
Yuetao Wen, Kunlun Wu, Yanfeng Xie, Wei Dan, Yan Zhan, Quanhong Shi
Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) and its receptor, GLP-1R, are valuable tools in the therapy of type 2 diabetes mellitus. Although GLP-1R stimulation is also potentially applicable to neurological disorders, few investigators have evaluated its beneficial effects in neurological disease models. Thus, we aimed to look into the antiepileptic effects of GLP-1R on epilepsy and its underlying mechanisms. The cerebral cortex of 22 patients with temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) and 16 patients with trauma were collected to the epilepsy and control groups, respectively...
February 12, 2019: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
Christopher J Nolan, Marc Prentki
While few dispute the existence of the metabolic syndrome as a clustering of factors indicative of poor metabolic health, its utility above that of its individual components in the clinical care of individual patients is questioned. This is likely a consequence of the failure of clinicians and scientists to agree on a unifying mechanism to explain the metabolic syndrome. Insulin resistance has most commonly been proposed for this role and is generally considered to be a root causative factor for not only metabolic syndrome but also for its associated conditions of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), obesity-related type 2 diabetes (T2D) and atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD)...
February 15, 2019: Diabetes & Vascular Disease Research
Harish S Appiakannan, Daniel R Kestyus, E Todd Weber
Both high-fat diet and chronic circadian disruption have been associated with increased incidence of obesity and type 2 diabetes in humans. Chronically elevated glucocorticoids, which have considerable impacts on physiological processes such as intermediary metabolism, inflammation, and fat metabolism, have also been implicated in insulin resistance associated with obesity and diabetes. In this study, the effects of high-fat diet (HFD) or chronic circadian challenge in C57BL/6J mice on basal and stress-induced corticosterone (CORT) and blood glucose levels were assessed...
February 12, 2019: Physiology & Behavior
Yoshihisa Shimada, Naoto Kino, Daisuke Tonomura, Yuki Yamanaka, Satoshi Nishiura, Kentaro Yano, Kazato Ito, Masataka Yoshida, Takao Tsuchida, Hitoshi Fukumoto
BACKGROUND: Chronic total occlusion (CTO) of femoropopliteal artery (FP) continues to be a lesion subset where maintaining long-term patency after endovascular treatment is challenging. We evaluated the efficacy of cutting balloon angioplasty (CBA) for de novo FP-CTOs in patients with symptomatic lower limb ischemia. METHODS: Seventy-three limbs of 67 symptomatic patients with de novo FP-CTOs successfully recanalized using CBA alone were enrolled in this study. Primary patency was defined as the absence of recurrent symptoms and no deterioration of the ankle-brachial index (ABI) >0...
February 12, 2019: Annals of Vascular Surgery
Alaaeldin M K Bashier, Azza Khalifa Bin Hussain, Fatheya Alawadi, Fatima Alsayyah, Maryam Alsaeed, Fauzia Rashid, Elamin Abdelgadir, Fawzi Bachet, Sona Abuelkheir, Mohamed Elsayed, Mohamed Hassanein
AIM: we aimed at evaluating the safety of fasting Ramadan for insulin treated type 2 diabetes patients by assessing the biochemical, biometric parameters, flash glucose monitoring (FGM) data as compared to pre-Ramadan and hospital admissions with diabetes or non-diabetes conditions. The risks of fasting between those treated with basal insulin vs intensive insulin during Ramadan was also assessed. METHODS: we included insulin treated patients with type 2 diabetes and we excluded those with co-morbidities...
February 12, 2019: Diabetes Research and Clinical Practice
Wataru Ogawa, Yushi Hirota
Sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitors, the newest class of oral antidiabetes drugs for type 2 diabetes, ameliorate hyperglycemia primarily by preventing the reabsorption of urinary glucose in the kidneys. Within less than 5 years, abundant evidence for favorable characteristics of SGLT2 inhibitors has accumulated. Of note, large-scale clinical trials have revealed that these drugs prevent cardiovascular events, at least in cohorts at high risk for such events, and that they slow the decline in renal function...
February 15, 2019: Journal of Diabetes Investigation
Krzysztof Tucholski, Magdalena Sokołowska, Dagmara Tucholska, Halla Kamińska, Przemysława Jarosz-Chobot
OBJECTIVE: Assessment of postprandial glucose concentration after carbohydrates rich meals using continuous glucose monitoring in 30 children with type 1 diabetes treated using continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion with a rapid-acting analogs insulin. METHODS: During 3 days, participants administering simple boluses with different delay time between insulin administration and beginning of carbohydrates rich meals consumption (meal №1 containing - 197 kcal, №2 - 247 kcal and meal №3 - 323 kcal; practically not containing protein and fat)...
February 15, 2019: Journal of Diabetes Investigation
Luigi F Meneghini, Didac Mauricio, Emanuela Orsi, Nebojsa M Lalic, Anna M G Cali, Jukka Westerbacka, Peter Stella, Christophe Candelas, Valerie Pilorget, Riccardo Perfetti, Kamlesh Khunti
AIMS: To describe in a real-world setting the achievement of physician-selected individualized HbA1c targets in people with type 2 diabetes, newly or recently initiated on basal insulin, and the association of hypoglycemia with target achievement. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A 12-week, prospective, single-arm, observational study of adults with type 2 diabetes either newly initiated with any basal insulin or started on basal insulin within the preceding 12 months. At enrollment, eligible participants from 28 countries were treated with or without oral antihyperglycemic drugs and/or GLP-1 receptor agonists...
February 15, 2019: Diabetes, Obesity & Metabolism
Stephen S Johnston, Eric M Ammann, Sangeeta R Kashyap, Andrew Stokes, Carine Chia-Wen Hsiao, Mehmet Daskiran, Robin Scamuffa
AIMS: To study the association of body mass index (BMI) and insulin use with type 2 diabetes-related healthcare expenditures (T2D-HE). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Retrospective study using de-identified electronic health records linked to insurance claims data. Study included a prevalence-based sample of overweight or obese patients with antihyperglycemic-treated T2D. Patients had ≥1 A1c measurement in 2014 (last observed=index A1c), ≥1 BMI measurement within ±90d of index (average BMI=baseline BMI), and continuous enrollment for 180d before (baseline) through 395d after index (day 30-395=follow-up)...
February 15, 2019: Diabetes, Obesity & Metabolism
Georgios A Christou, Niki Katsiki, John Blundell, Gema Fruhbeck, Dimitrios N Kiortsis
Semaglutide is a glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonist (GLP-1 RA) with a long elimination half-life, allowing subcutaneous (sc) administration once per week. Both the European Medicines Agency (EMA) and the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) recently approved once-weekly sc semaglutide for the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). The weight loss efficacy of once-weekly sc semaglutide appears to be superior compared with the other once-weekly GLP-1 RAs in patients with T2DM. Semaglutide was recently evaluated as an antiobesity drug in a phase II dose-finding trial, which demonstrated superior weight loss efficacy of once daily sc semaglutide compared with both placebo and once daily 3...
February 15, 2019: Obesity Reviews: An Official Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
Sarah Skinner, Mor Diaw, Maïmouna Ndour Mbaye, Philippe Joly, Céline Renoux, Céline Masson, Charlotte Cuerq, Philomène Lopez, Malick Ndour, Demba Diedhiou, Djiby Sow, Saliou Diop, Abdoulaye Samb, Vincent Pialoux, Philippe Connes
Fasting glucose (FG) and glycated hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) perform sub-optimally in people of African origin, especially in individuals with sickle-cell trait (SCT). The purpose of this study was to compare the relationships between HbA1c, FG, and fructosamine in individuals from Senegal with and without SCT. HbA1c, FG, and fructosamine were measured in 203 adults from Senegal (100 control: 45 with type 2 diabetes (T2D); 103 SCT: 51 with T2D). Significant, positive correlations were observed between HbA1c and FG, fructosamine and FG, and fructosamine and HbA1c in both groups...
2019: PloS One
Marah C Runtsch, Morgan C Nelson, Soh-Hyun Lee, Warren Voth, Margaret Alexander, Ruozhen Hu, Jared Wallace, Charisse Petersen, Vanja Panic, Claudio J Villanueva, Kimberley J Evason, Kaylyn M Bauer, Timothy Mosbruger, Sihem Boudina, Mary Bronner, June L Round, Micah J Drummond, Ryan M O'Connell
Identifying regulatory mechanisms that influence inflammation in metabolic tissues is critical for developing novel metabolic disease treatments. Here, we investigated the role of microRNA-146a (miR-146a) during diet-induced obesity in mice. miR-146a is reduced in obese and type 2 diabetic patients and our results reveal that miR-146a-/- mice fed a high-fat diet (HFD) have exaggerated weight gain, increased adiposity, hepatosteatosis, and dysregulated blood glucose levels compared to wild-type controls. Pro-inflammatory genes and NF-κB activation increase in miR-146a-/- mice, indicating a role for this miRNA in regulating inflammatory pathways...
February 15, 2019: PLoS Genetics
Katriona Brooksbank, Joanne O'Donnell, Vicky Corbett, Sarah Shield, Rachel Ainsworth, Ross Shearer, Susan Montgomery, Andrew Gallagher, Hannah Duncan, Lorna Hamilton, Valerie Laszlo, Rhonda Noone, Anna Baxendale, David Blane, Jennifer Logue
BACKGROUND: Guidelines for the management of type 2 diabetes universally recommend that adults with type 2 diabetes and obesity be offered individualized interventions to encourage weight loss. Yet despite the existing recommendations, provision of weight management services is currently patchy around the United Kingdom and where services are available, high attrition rates are often reported. In addition, individuals often fail to take up services, that is, after discussion with a general practitioner or practice nurse, individuals are referred to the service but do not attend for an appointment...
February 15, 2019: JMIR Research Protocols
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