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Justice in a medical group

Damien F Goldberg, Ranjan P Malhotra, Barry A Schechter, Angela Justice, Sidney L Weiss, John D Sheppard
OBJECTIVE: Evaluate the safety and efficacy of OTX-101, a novel aqueous nanomicellar formulation of cyclosporine (0.09%), in the treatment of subjects with dry eye disease (DED). DESIGN: A randomized, multicenter, vehicle-controlled, double-masked, phase 3 clinical trial. PARTICIPANTS: Adults (18-90 years of age) with a history and clinical diagnosis of DED, a global symptom score ≥40 (0-100 range), and a lissamine green conjunctival staining score of ≥3 and ≤9 (0-12 range) in at least 1 eye...
April 6, 2019: Ophthalmology
Andrea K Finlay, Mandy D Owens, Emmeline Taylor, Amia Nash, Nicole Capdarest-Arest, Joel Rosenthal, Jessica Blue-Howells, Sean Clark, Christine Timko
BACKGROUND: In the criminal justice system, special populations, such as older adults or patients with infectious diseases, have been identified as particularly vulnerable to poor health outcomes. Military veterans involved in the criminal justice system are also a vulnerable population warranting attention because of their unique healthcare needs. This review aims to provide an overview of existing literature on justice-involved veterans' health and healthcare to identify research gaps and inform policy and practice...
April 8, 2019: Health & Justice
Carina Oedingen, Tim Bartling, Axel C Mühlbacher, Harald Schrem, Christian Krauth
BACKGROUND: Solid organ transplantation is the treatment of choice for organ failure, but donor organs are a scarce resource because of a large mismatch between supply and demand. This scarcity leads to an ethical dilemma, forcing priority setting in organ allocation to individual patients. Little is known about public preferences regarding priority setting in organ allocation. A systematic review was performed to review the existing evidence and provide an overview of the criteria and criterion levels in regard to ethical aspects of distributive justice...
April 8, 2019: Patient
Kay de Vries, Elizabeth Banister, Karen Harrison Dening, Bertha Ochieng
In this discussion paper we consider the influence of ethnicity, religiosity, spirituality and health literacy on Advance Care Planning for older people. Older people from cultural and ethnic minorities have low access to palliative or end-of-life care and there is poor uptake of advance care planning by this group across a number of countries where advance care planning is promoted. For many, religiosity, spirituality and health literacy are significant factors that influence how they make end-of-life decisions...
April 3, 2019: Nursing Ethics
Maya Sabatello, Ying Chen, Yuan Zhang, Paul S Appelbaum
PURPOSE: Including people with disabilities in precision medicine research (PMR) is key for increasing cohorts' diversity, improving understanding of population health, and attaining social justice for the United States' largest health disparities group. We conducted a national survey to explore the views of people with disabilities about PMR. METHODS: An online survey was developed in disability-accessible formats. Key questions included views on PMR, willingness to participate and to provide data, perceived barriers to participation and potential remedies, and interest in engagement in the study...
March 22, 2019: Genetics in Medicine: Official Journal of the American College of Medical Genetics
Basile Njei, Denise Esserman, Supriya Krishnan, Michael Ohl, Janet P Tate, Ronald G Hauser, Tamar Taddei, Joseph Lim, Amy C Justice
BACKGROUND: Veterans with hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection may face geographic obstacles to obtaining treatment. OBJECTIVE: We studied the influence of region and rural versus urban residence on receipt of direct-acting antiretroviral (DAAs) medications for HCV. SUBJECTS: Veterans receiving care within Veterans Affairs Healthcare System born between 1945 and 1965. RESEARCH DESIGN: This is a observational study using national electronic health record data...
February 22, 2019: Medical Care
Heather Julie Wallace, Susan McDonald, Suzanne Belton, Agueda Isolina Miranda, Eurico da Costa, Livio da Conceicao Matos, Helen Henderson, Angela Taft
Despite national policies to support sexual rights, Timorese women are constrained when making sexual and reproductive health decisions. Contextual understanding of sexual decision making is vital for effective engagement by sexual and reproductive health service providers with communities. An intersectional reproductive justice approach broadens the sexual rights lens allowing for an examination of multi-system factors impacting on sexual rights and health. Using the Matrix of Domination as a conceptual framework, we explored Timorese perceptions around decisions to have sex, and examined intersecting systems of oppression impacting on these decisions...
February 26, 2019: Culture, Health & Sexuality
Michelle DallaPiazza, Mercedes Padilla-Register, Megana Dwarakanath, Elyon Obamedo, James Hill, Maria L Soto-Greene
Introduction: Growing recognition of the deleterious effects of racism on health has led to calls for increased education on racism for health care professionals. As part of a larger curriculum on health equity and social justice, we developed a new educational session on racism for first-year medical students consisting of a lecture followed by a case-based small-group discussion. Methods: Over the academic years of 2016-2017, 2017-2018, and 2018-2019, a total of 536 first-year medical students participated in this mandatory session...
December 14, 2018: MedEdPORTAL Publications
Serena Maria Curti, Francesco Lupariello, Elena Coppo, Evan Julian Praznik, Sara Simona Racalbuto, Giancarlo Di Vella
The literature on child sexual abuse (CSA) perpetrated by female sexual offenders (FSOs) is exiguous, and many studies have focused on judicial databases. The present retrospective study, instead, analyzed clinical and judicial data of a group of both victims and alleged FSOs, to additionally include women who have not been convicted by the criminal justice system, but who hold strong clinical suspicions of being perpetrators of CSA. The medical records and the Court files of 11 children and their eight suspected FSOs have been collected and critically reviewed in light of the literature to date...
February 21, 2019: Journal of Forensic Sciences
Alexis Coulourides Kogan, Tony Rosen, Adria Navarro, Diana Homeier, Krithika Chennapan, Laura Mosqueda
BACKGROUND: Standardization in tools and documentation of child abuse and intimate partner violence have proven helpful in completely documenting injuries and suspected abuse among these populations. Similar tools do not yet exist for older adults and elder abuse. OBJECTIVE: To (1) use insights from experts to develop a tool to assist clinicians in appropriately and completely documenting physical findings in injured older adults for potential future forensic investigation of abuse or neglect and (2) to assess the feasibility of incorporating this tool into clinical practice...
February 13, 2019: Journal of General Internal Medicine
C Truong, N Krawczyk, M Dejman, S Marshall-Shah, K Tormohlen, D Agus, J Bass
OBJECTIVE: This qualitative study identifies and describes experiences and challenges to retention of individuals with opioid use disorder (OUD) who participated in a low-threshold combined buprenorphine-peer support treatment program in Baltimore. METHODS: In-depth semi-structured interviews with staff and former clients of the Project Connections Buprenorphine Program (PCBP) (9 people) and focus group discussions with current and previous clients of PCBP (7 people) were conducted...
January 17, 2019: Addictive Behaviors
Richard Rawson, Sarah J Cousins, Michael McCann, Regina Pearce, Anne Van Donsel
Opioid overdose deaths in the United States have risen dramatically in the past decade. In response to this public health crisis, Vermont created an innovative system called the "hub-and-spoke" (H & S) system, initiated in January 2013. The H & S system has 7 regional "hubs" that offer methadone and buprenorphine, as well as intensive support, and 77 local "spokes" (primary care settings) that offer buprenorphine (and naltrexone to a much lesser extent). Questionnaires were administered to 80 participants in the H & S system (stratified by geographic region, treatment site, and gender) and 20 participants with opioid use disorder not currently in treatment...
February 2019: Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment
William E Soares, Donna Wilson, Michael S Gordon, Joshua D Lee, Edward V Nunes, Charles P O'Brien, Milvin Shroff, Peter D Friedmann
BACKGROUND: Criminal justice involved (CJS) populations with opioid use disorder (OUD) have high rates of relapse, future arrests, and death upon release. While medication for OUD (MOUD) reduces opioid relapse, concerns regarding diversion and stigma limit treatment in CJS populations. Extended release naltrexone (XR-NTX), as an opioid antagonist, may be more acceptable to CJS administrators. However, the impact of XR-NTX on criminal recidivism remains unknown. METHODS: Arrest data from a published randomized trial comparing XR-NTX to treatment as usual (TAU) was captured by self-report and official state arrest records...
December 3, 2018: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
Katie Bailey, Staci Rising Paquet, Bradley R Ray, Eric Grommon, Evan M Lowder, Emily Sightes
BACKGROUND: In an effort to reduce the increasing number of persons with mental illness (PMI) experiencing incarceration, co-responding police-mental health teams are being utilized as a way to divert PMI from the criminal justice system. Co-response teams are typically an inter-agency collaboration between police and mental health professionals, and in some cases include emergency medical personnel. These teams are intended to facilitate emergency response by linking patients to mental health resources rather than the criminal justice system, thus reducing burdens on both the criminal justice systems as well as local healthcare systems...
November 22, 2018: Health & Justice
Iduna Shah-Beckley, Victoria Clarke, Zoe Thomas
OBJECTIVES: Little research has examined the discourses that shape therapists' sense-making around heterosex. This paper explores the discourses of sexuality and gender underpinning therapists' and non-therapists' responses to a sexual experimentation scenario in a heterosexual relationship. It also considers the value of the novel technique of story completion (SC), in which participants are asked to write a story in response to a hypothetical scenario, for qualitative psychology and psychotherapy research...
November 19, 2018: Psychology and Psychotherapy
Brendan Saloner, Emma E McGinty, Leo Beletsky, Ricky Bluthenthal, Chris Beyrer, Michael Botticelli, Susan G Sherman
Drug overdose is now the leading cause of injury death in the United States. Most overdose fatalities involve opioids, which include prescription medication, heroin, and illicit fentanyl. Current data reveal that the overdose crisis affects all demographic groups and that overdose rates are now rising most rapidly among African Americans. We provide a public health perspective that can be used to mobilize a comprehensive local, state, and national response to the opioid crisis. We argue that framing the crisis from a public health perspective requires considering the interaction of multiple determinants, including structural factors (eg, poverty and racism), the inadequate management of pain, and poor access to addiction treatment and harm-reduction services (eg, syringe services)...
November 2018: Public Health Reports
Johann J Go
Transgender people have among the highest rates of suicide attempts of any group in society, driven strongly by the perception that they do not belong in the sex of their physical body. Gender reassignment surgery (GRS) is a procedure that can change the transgender person's physical body to accord with their gender identity. The procedure raises important ethical and distributive justice concerns, given the controversy of whether it is a cosmetic or medical procedure and the economic costs associated with performing the procedure...
December 2018: Journal of Bioethical Inquiry
Paul P Christopher, Bradley Anderson, Michael D Stein
INTRODUCTION: Civil commitment is an increasingly used policy intervention to combat the opioid epidemic. Yet little is known about persons who get committed and outcomes following commitment for opioid use. In the current cross-sectional study, we compared the characteristics of persons with and without a history of civil commitment, and the correlates of post-commitment abstinence. METHODS: Between October 2017 and May 2018, we surveyed consecutive persons entering a brief, inpatient opioid detoxification (n = 292) regarding their lifetime experiences with civil commitment for opioid use...
December 1, 2018: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
Steve O'Hern, Jennie Oxley
OBJECTIVES: The number of casualty road crashes in Australia has steadily reduced over the past few decades; however, a concurrent reduction has not been achieved for crashes involving cyclists. This has resulted in a disproportionate overrepresentation of cyclists in fatal injury statistics. This article explores the contributing factors and injury mechanisms among coronial reported fatal cyclist crashes in Australia. METHODS: The National Coronial Information System (NCIS) is a remote data entry and retrieval system containing detailed coronial information managed by the Victorian Department of Justice and Regulation...
October 18, 2018: Traffic Injury Prevention
Kelly E Moore, Robyn L Hacker, Lindsay Oberleitner, Sherry A McKee
Justice-involved individuals with substance use problems have heightened risk of relapse and recidivism after release from incarceration, making reentry a critical time to provide evidence-based treatments (EBTs) for substance use; however, the extent to which reentry interventions incorporate EBTs for substance use is unclear. This systematic review identified studies of reentry interventions in the past 10 years that address substance use, assessed whether EBTs were used, and explored which interventions were effective in reducing substance use and recidivism postrelease...
October 11, 2018: Psychological Services
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