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glenoid morphology

Aude Griffart, Pauline Joly-Monrigal, Julien Andrin, Cyril Lazerges, Michel Chammas, Bertrand Coulet
BACKGROUND: Malunion of the proximal humerus is common and variably tolerated. Classifications developed for proximal humerus malunion (PHM) rely on standard radiographs, which underestimate bone fragment displacement and lack accuracy. The clinical tolerance of PHM is subjective, and revision surgery is not always necessary. The primary objective of this study was to assess the reproducibility and relevance of four CT angle measurements for objectively quantifying the morphological disharmony caused by PHM in a control population then in a population with PHM...
February 7, 2019: Orthopaedics & Traumatology, Surgery & Research: OTSR
William S Burton, Irene Sintini, Jason M Chavarria, James R Brownhill, Peter J Laz
The design of total shoulder arthroplasty implants are guided by anatomy. The objective of this study was to develop statistical models to quantify shape and material property variation in the scapula. Material-mapped models were reconstructed from CT scans for a training set of subjects. Statistical shape (SSM) and intensity (SIM) models were created; SSM modes described scaling, changes in the medial border and acromial process, and elongation of the scapular blade. SIM modes captured bone quality changes in the anterior and inferior glenoid...
February 7, 2019: Computer Methods in Biomechanics and Biomedical Engineering
David L Haeni, Thibault Lafosse, Charles Haggerty, Johannes Plath, Yoshikazu Kida, Matthieu Sanchez-Brass, Françine Wolf, Emilio Calvo, Andreas M Müller, Andrea Barbero, Laurent Lafosse
BACKGROUND: Anterior shoulder instability is a debilitating condition that can require stabilization via a Latarjet procedure. PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to characterize the histological composition of the articular-sided surface of the coracoid bone graft after Latarjet procedure. Specific features of cells isolated from the coracoid and graft tissues were assessed. STUDY DESIGN: Case series; Level of evidence, 4. METHODS: Tissue samples were harvested from 9 consecutive patients undergoing arthroscopic debridement and screw removal after arthroscopic or open Latarjet procedure...
February 4, 2019: American Journal of Sports Medicine
Taiki Matsuo, Fumio Morita, Daisuke Tani, Hitomi Nakamura, Yasuo Higurashi, Junji Ohgi, Claudius Luziga, Naomi Wada
The mammalian forelimb is adapted to different functions including postural, locomotor, feeding, exploratory, grooming and defence. Comparative studies on morphology of the mammalian scapula have been performed in an attempt to establish the functional differences in the use of the forelimb. In this study, a total of 102 scapulae collected from 66 species of animals, representatives of all major taxa from rodents, sirenians, marsupials, pilosa, cetaceans, carnivores, ungulates, primates and apes, were analysed...
January 29, 2019: Anatomia, Histologia, Embryologia
Rohini Thirunavukkarasu, Saravanan Balasubramaniam, Sethurajan Balasubramanian, Suresh Kumar Gopalakrishnan, Srimathi Panchanathan
Background: Temporomandibular joint ankylosis is one of the most distressing clinical condition resulting in loss of jaw function and impairment of growth. Ankylosis is a greek word meaning "Stiff Joint". It is observed that in humans the Sternoclavicular joint and Temporomandibular joint are similar morphologically and histologically as they are the only two synovial joints covered with fibrocartilage. This similarity of the joints have encouraged the surgeons to use SCG as an alternative to costochondral grafts...
July 2018: Annals of Maxillofacial Surgery
Lionel Neyton, Marc Olivier Gauci, Pierric Deransart, Philippe Collotte, Gilles Walch, George S Athwal
BACKGROUND: The Walch classification describes glenoid morphology in primary arthritis. As knowledge grows, several modifications to the classification have been proposed. The type D, a recent modification, was defined as an anteverted glenoid with or without anterior subluxation. Literature on the anteverted glenoid in primary osteoarthritis is limited. The purpose of this study, therefore, was to analyze the anatomic characteristics of the type D glenoid on radiographs and computed tomography (CT)...
January 23, 2019: Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery
Julia Arias-Martorell
The glenohumeral joint, the most mobile joint in the body of hominoids, is involved in the locomotion of all extant primates apart from humans. Over the last few decades, our knowledge of how variation in its morphological characteristics relates to different locomotor behaviors within extant primates has greatly improved, including features of the proximal humerus and the glenoid cavity of the scapula, as well as the muscles that function to move the joint (the rotator cuff muscles). The glenohumeral joint is a region with a strong morphofunctional signal, and hence, its study can shed light on the locomotor behaviors of crucial ancestral nodes in the evolutionary history of hominoids (e...
January 2019: Ecology and Evolution
Patrick J Denard, Matthew T Provencher, Alexandre Lädermann, Anthony A Romeo, Bradford O Parsons, Joshua S Dines
Background: Our purpose was to compare the output of glenoid measurements with 2 commercially available preoperative 3-dimensional (3D) total shoulder arthroplasty planning systems. The hypothesis was that there would be no difference in product-derived measurements between the systems. Methods: Preoperative 3D computed tomography scans of 63 consecutive patients undergoing primary arthroplasty were analyzed using 2 product-derived techniques: Blueprint and VIP...
December 2018: JSES open access
Shigeto Nakagawa, Ryo Iuchi, Hiroto Hanai, Takehito Hirose, Tatsuo Mae
BACKGROUND: Recurrence of glenohumeral joint instability after primary traumatic anterior instability is not rare, and bipolar bone loss is one of the most critical factors for recurrent instability, but the development process of bipolar bone defects is still unclear. PURPOSE: To investigate the development process of bipolar bone defects from primary to recurrent instability among shoulders with traumatic anterior instability evaluated at least twice by computed tomography (CT)...
January 23, 2019: American Journal of Sports Medicine
Jonathan Rassi, Naveen Subhas, Jennifer Bullen, Michael Forney, Joshua Polster
OBJECTIVE: To characterize the appearance, location, severity, and prevalence of focal glenoid retroversion on shoulder MRI in professional baseball pitchers versus age-matched controls. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In this retrospective review, two musculoskeletal radiologists evaluated shoulder MRI examinations from 40 professional baseball pitchers and 40 age-matched controls. Images were scored for the presence of a focal posterior glenoid convexity and the clock face positions involved...
January 21, 2019: Skeletal Radiology
Matthaeus Cieciera, Ralf Schoeniger, Ujwal Bhure, Klaus Strobel
Scapular notching (SN) is a unique complication in reverse shoulder arthroplasty, caused by repetitive impingement of the humeral polyethylene liner against the inferior scapular neck. It occurs in up to 96% of cases, with bone loss beneath the glenoid baseplate and polyethylene wear. SN can be associated with pain, decreased range of motion, and might result in glenoid implant failure. Modification of glenosphere design and humeral neck angle showed substantially less SN. SPECT/CT is a promising tool providing combined morphologic and metabolic information in symptomatic SN...
January 4, 2019: Clinical Nuclear Medicine
M R Nadaes, L P Lagos de Melo, F Haiter Neto, D Q Freitas
The aim of this study was to evaluate whether a correlation exists between temporal bone pneumatization and the morphology of the articular eminence and glenoid fossa. A sample of 100 cone beam computed tomography scans was used, for a total of 200 temporomandibular joints (TMJ). Paracoronal and parasagittal images of the TMJ were evaluated by two examiners. For all TMJ, pneumatization was classified in the mid-lateral direction using a score of 0 or 1, and in the anteroposterior direction using a score ranging from 0 to 3...
December 27, 2018: International Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery
Dave R Shukla, Richard J McLaughlin, Julia Lee, Robert H Cofield, John W Sperling, Joaquin Sánchez-Sotelo
BACKGROUND: The Walch classification was introduced to classify glenoid morphology in primary glenohumeral osteoarthritis. A modified Walch classification was recently proposed, with 2 additional categories, B3 (monoconcave glenoid with posterior bone loss leading to retroversion > 15° or subluxation > 70%) and D (excessive anterior subluxation), as well as a more precise definition of subtypes A2 and C. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the intraobserver and interobserver agreement of the modified Walch classification system using both plain radiographs and computed tomography (CT)...
December 6, 2018: Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery
Dipit Sahu, Jairam Jagiasi
BACKGROUND: Our objective was to study the anatomic and intraoperative coracoid measurements with an aim to closely replicate the Latarjet-Walch technique and find the similarities and dissimilarities in our population. METHODS: In the cadaveric study, 20 shoulders in 10 fresh cadavers were dissected, and the coracoid length, width, and thickness were measured. In the intraoperative study, 10 patients underwent the classic Latarjet procedure according to the Walch technique...
November 30, 2018: Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery
Maximilian Haas, Fabian Plachel, Guido Wierer, Philipp Heuberer, Thomas Hoffelner, Eva Schulz, Werner Anderl, Philipp Moroder
BACKGROUND: Instability arthropathy (IA) is a major long-term concern in patients with anterior shoulder instability. This study investigated the association of glenoid morphology with the development of IA. METHODS: The study included 118 patients with unilateral anterior shoulder instability and available bilateral computed tomography scans. Instability-specific information was obtained from all patients. The glenoid morphology of the affected shoulder was compared with the nonaffected contralateral side resembling the constitutional preinjury glenoid shape...
November 30, 2018: Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery
David J Green, Habiba Chirchir, Emma Mbua, John W K Harris, David R Braun, Nicole L Griffin, Brian G Richmond
KNM-ER 47000A is a new 1.52 Ma hominin scapular fossil belonging to an associated partial skeleton from the Koobi Fora Formation, Kenya (FwJj14E, Area 1A). This fossil effectively doubles the record of Early Pleistocene scapulae from East Africa, with KNM-WT 15000 (early African Homo erectus) preserving the only other known scapula to date. KNM-ER 47000A consists of a complete glenoid cavity preserving a portion of the scapular spine and neck, the proximal half of the acromion, and a majority of the axillary border...
December 2018: Journal of Human Evolution
Seulgi Han, Sang Min Shin, Yong-Seok Choi, Ki Beom Kim, Tetsutaro Yamaguchi, Koutaro Maki, Chooryung J Chung, Yong-Il Kim
OBJECTIVE: To examine the morphologic similarities and differences in mandibular condyle and glenoid fossa between the deviated and non-deviated sides in patients with facial asymmetry using statistical analysis. METHODS: One hundred eighty-four patients (95 men, 89 women; mean age, 22.30 ± 3.87 years) with facial asymmetry were examined with cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT). Shape analysis was performed to compare the shapes and sizes of the condyle and fossa between the deviated and non-deviated sides in the frontal and lateral aspects...
August 25, 2018: Oral Radiology
Jason C Ho, Michael H Amini, Vahid Entezari, Bong Jae Jun, Bashar Alolabi, Eric T Ricchetti, Joseph P Iannotti
BACKGROUND: The primary objectives of this study were to evaluate the ability of a posteriorly stepped augmented glenoid component, used in patients with primary glenohumeral osteoarthritis with B2 or B3 glenoid morphology, to correct preoperative retroversion and humeral head subluxation and to identify factors associated with radiographic radiolucency and patient-reported clinical outcomes. METHODS: We identified 71 shoulders with B2 or B3 glenoid morphology that underwent anatomic total shoulder arthroplasty with use of a posteriorly stepped augmented glenoid component and with a preoperative 3-dimensional computed tomography (3D-CT) scan and a minimum of 2 years of clinical and radiographic follow-up...
November 21, 2018: Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery. American Volume
Maria Grazia Piancino, Michele Tepedino, Francesco Cavarra, Ennio Bramanti, Giuseppina Laganà, Claudio Chimenti, Stefano Cirillo
OBJECTIVE: To compare morphologic findings in MRI and skeletal divergence of a group of patients with temporomandibular joint disorders (TMD) subdivided into condylar symmetric and asymmetric. METHODS: Fifty-nine adults (26.7 years old) with TMD were retrospectively recruited. Condylar height symmetry was evaluated by orthopantomography (Habets's method) and used to divide patients into Symmetric and Asymmetric groups; skeletal divergence was assessed on lateral cephalograms...
October 17, 2018: Cranio: the Journal of Craniomandibular Practice
Mohammad Samim, Mandeep Virk, David Mai, Kamran Munawar, Joseph Zuckerman, Soterios Gyftopoulos
OBJECTIVE: A major factor that impacts the long-term outcome and complication rates of total shoulder arthroplasty is the preoperative posterior glenoid bone loss quantified by glenoid retroversion. The purpose of this study was to assess if glenoid retroversion varies significantly at different glenoid heights in Walch B2 and B3 glenoids. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Patients with B2 and B3 glenoid types were included following retrospective review of 386 consecutive CT shoulder studies performed for arthroplasty preoperative planning...
October 17, 2018: Skeletal Radiology
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