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Quantitative measurement

Elias Wagner, Georg Marckmann, Ralf J Jox
AIMS: In the case of acute brain injury, decision-making uncertainties can arise when both an advance decision to refuse treatment and a prior consent to post-mortem organ donation are present. It is yet unknown how the persons concerned view this potential conflict. The present study aims to investigate how frequent this situation is, whether the persons concerned are aware of the potential conflict and what they would prioritize. METHODS: Semi-quantitative cross-sectional survey of senior citizens of a metropolitan region in Germany using a literature-based questionnaire...
February 18, 2019: Das Gesundheitswesen
Hongling Liu, Laihao Shi, John P Giesy, Hongxia Yu
Polychlorinated diphenyl sulfides (PCDPSs) are a group of chemicals that can interact and activate the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR). Previous studies have shown that PCDPSs can cause oxidative stress in livers. However, information on genotoxicity of PCDPSs is limited. In this study, it is hypothesized that PCDPSs can produce reactive oxygen species (ROS) by activating the AhR and inducing expression of CYP1A1, which subsequently causes genotoxicity. HepG2 cells (transfected with AhR and CYP1A1 siRNA or not) were exposed to six PCDPSs...
February 1, 2019: Chemosphere
Jaewan Jung, Kyunghoon Lee, Jongwon Oh, Rihwa Choi, Hye In Woo, Hyung-Doo Park, Cheol-In Kang, Yae-Jean Kim, Soo-Youn Lee
Teicoplanin is a glycopeptide antibiotic used for treatment of severe Gram-positive bacterial infection. The aim of this study was to develop and validate a liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method for therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM) of teicoplanin and to review our clinical experience. We established an LC-MS/MS method to analyze serum concentration of teicoplanin using simple protein precipitation with a 5 min run time for each sample. The linearity, lower limit of quantitation, detection accuracy, precision, carryover, matrix effect, and extraction recovery were evaluated...
February 4, 2019: Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis
Mélanie Douziech, Rik Oldenkamp, Rosalie van Zelm, Henry King, A Jan Hendriks, Anne-Sophie Ficheux, Mark A J Huijbregts
The use of down-the-drain products and the resultant release of chemicals may lead to pressures on the freshwater environment. Ecotoxicological impact assessment is a commonly used approach to assess chemical products but is still influenced by several uncertainty and variability sources. As a result, the robustness and reliability of such assessments can be questioned. A comprehensive and systematic assessment of these sources is, therefore, needed to increase their utility and credibility. In this study, we present a method to systematically analyse the uncertainty and variability of the potential ecotoxicological impact (PEI) of chemicals using a portfolio of 54 shampoo products...
February 15, 2019: Environment International
Jonathan Visentin, Damien Le Leu, Arend Mulder, Frédéric Jambon, Laure Badier, Jar-How Lee, Gwendaline Guidicelli, Charlène Bouthemy, Mamy Ralazamahaleo, Frans Claas, Carmelo Di Primo, Jean-Luc Taupin
BACKGROUND: Although the Luminex single antigen flow beads (SAFB) and the flow cytometry crossmatch (FCXM) are the most sensitive assays used for anti-HLA antibodies characterization in transplant recipients, their semi-quantitative fluorescence read-out is not closely linked to graft outcome. METHODS: Surface plasmon resonance (SPR) was implemented to determine truly quantitative parameters of five human monoclonal anti-class I HLA antibodies (mAbs): first the active concentration and then the binding constants...
February 15, 2019: Molecular Immunology
Brenda Happell, Chris Platania-Phung, Brett Scholz, Julia Bocking, Aine Horgan, Fionnuala Manning, Rory Doody, Elisabeth Hals, Arild Granerud, Mari Lahti, Jarmo Pullo, Annaliina Vatula, Heikki Ellilä, Kornelis Jan van der Vaart, Jerry Allon, Martha Griffin, Siobhan Russell, Liam MacGabhann, Einar Bjornsson, Pall Biering
BACKGROUND: Understanding student attitudes towards people diagnosed with mental illness is central to realising evidence-based nursing education and policy at an international level. Redressing stigmatised views can assist in preparing nursing students to work in mental health settings and support the active involvement of consumers in all aspects of mental health service delivery (known as: consumer participation) at individual and systemic levels. Accurate research on nursing student attitudes is dependent on the availability of valid and reliable measures...
February 12, 2019: Nurse Education Today
Manju S Devi, R B Sashidhar
Aflatoxins are potent carcinogenic mycotoxins produced as secondary metabolites mainly by the fungi Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus parasiticus. Control measures to curtail the contamination of aflatoxin in food products is still a challenge. Although there are several reports on the antifungal peptides, there is no specific study on the action of antifungal peptides on aflatoxin synthesis. This work details the effect of four antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) - PPD1 (FRLHF), 66-10 (FRLKFH), 77-3 (FRLKFHF) and D4E1 (FKLRAKIKVRLRAKIKL) on the aflatoxin production by A...
February 15, 2019: Peptides
Dong In Yu, Ho Jae Kwak, Chulmin Park, Chiwoong Choi, Narayan Pangdurang Sapkal, Jiwoo Hong, Moo Hwan Kim
In this study, existing knowledge on the wetting criterion, i.e., the intrinsic contact angle, for distinguishing between hydrophilic and hydrophobic textured surfaces is verified experimentally. A precise apparent contact angle is measured on micro-, nano- and micro/nano-textured surfaces to quantitatively define the surface wetting conditions. In particular, X-ray tomography is introduced to measure precise geometric morphologies of nano- and micro/nano-textured surfaces, and the wetting state of the textured surfaces is clearly visualized using synchrotron X-ray imaging...
February 18, 2019: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
Yunwen Tao, Wenli Zou, Daniel Sethio, Niraj Verma, Yue Qui, Chuan Tian, Dieter Cremer, Elfi Kraka
The local vibrational mode analysis developed by Konkoli and Cremer has been successfully applied to characterize the intrinsic bond strength via local bond stretching force constants in molecular systems. A wealth of new insights into covalent bonding and weak chemical interactions ranging from hydrogen, halogen, pnicogen, chalcogen to tetrel bonding has been obtained. In this work we extend the local vibrational mode analysis to periodic systems, i.e. crystals, allowing for the first time a quantitative in situ measure of bond strength in extended systems of one-, two- and three-dimensions...
February 18, 2019: Journal of Chemical Theory and Computation
Charles DeCarli, Sylvia Villeneuve, Pauline Maillard, Danielle Harvey, Baljeet Singh, Owen Carmichael, Evan Fletcher, John Olichney, Sarah Farias, William Jagust, Bruce Reed, Dan Mungas
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVE: To determine the impact of vascular burden on rates of decline in episodic memory and executive function. We hypothesize that greater vascular burden will have an additive negative impact on cognition after accounting for baseline cognitive impairment, positron emission tomography (PET) amyloid burden, and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) measures. METHODS: Individuals were followed an average of 5 years with serial cognitive assessments. Predictor variables include vascular burden score (VBS), quantitative brain MRI assessment, and amyloid imaging...
February 11, 2019: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
Leonardo Guzmán-Martínez, José Pablo Tapia, Gonzalo A Farías, Andrea González, Matías Estrella, Ricardo B Maccioni
The establishment of a molecular biomarker for early detection of Alzheimer's disease (AD) is critical for diagnosis and follow up of patients, and as a quantitative parameter in the evaluation of potential new drugs to control AD. A list of blood biomarkers has been reported but none has been validated for the Alzheimer's clinic. The changes in hyperphosphorylated tau and amyloid peptide in the cerebrospinal fluid is currently used as a tool in the clinics and for research purposes, but this method is highly invasive...
February 11, 2019: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
Eun-Seok Shin, Ju-Hyun Chung, Seung Gu Park, Ahmed Saleh, Yat-Yin Lam, Jong Bhak, Friedrich Jung, Sumio Morita, Johannes Brachmann
BACKGROUND: Exercise electrocardiography (ECG) is frequently used as a diagnostic measure in patients with suspected coronary artery disease (CAD). However, it has low sensitivity for the detection of CAD. Magnetocardiography (MCG) has been proposed as an alternative tool to accurately diagnose CAD. OBJECTIVE: To date, a direct comparison of MCG to ECG has not been performed. This study sought to compare them for predicting the presence of significantly obstructive CAD...
February 8, 2019: Clinical Hemorheology and Microcirculation
Na Yang, Zhuoran Li, Min Yan, Wende Xiao, Weihong Zhang, Youmin Long, Yingzi Cheng, Kaihua Ming, Banglao Xu
BACKGROUND: Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection represents an important risk factor for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) is a widely used biomarker for HCC. However, elevated serum AFP levels in different statuses of chronic hepatitis C (CHC) is not well defined. This study aimed to evaluate the relationship between AFP levels and HCV viral load in CHC patients. We also analyzed the correlation between three liver func-tion enzyme levels (AST, ALT, GGT) and HCV RNA viral load in CHC patients...
January 1, 2019: Clinical Laboratory
Elena Kalfova
The main purpose of the current analysis is to evaluate the effect of multiple factors (including impact of the quality of governance) upon implementation of Regional policy in Bulgaria and more precisely upon absorption of structural and investment transferred funds. The methodology used is in line with the relatively recent trend in research that attempts to measure the "quality of governance" (as a complex quantitative concept) and its impact on various aspects of public governance and public policies and on the implementation of EU regional policy in particular...
January 2019: Heliyon
Ho Sung Kim, Eun Sun Jeong, Myung Hwa Yang, Seoung-Oh Yang
Dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) has become the most common method for measuring bone mineral density (BMD) of small animals in metabolic bone disease research, and errors should be minimized in all procedures involved in research studies in order to increase the accuracy of the study results. DXA is simpler and rapid compared to micro-computed tomography for quantitative analysis of change in trabecular bone of test subject. In human research, measuring BMD is widely used; postoperative evaluation on orthopedic surgery, evaluation of osteoporosis medication in menopause and many other areas of study...
September 2018: Osteoporosis and Sarcopenia
Jacqueline M McBride, Daniel Sheinson, Jenny Jiang, Nicholas Lewin-Koh, Barbara G Werner, Jennifer K L Chow, Xiaoning Wu, Jorge A Tavel, David R Snydman
Background: The rate of cytomegalovirus (CMV) viral load increase and peak viral loads are associated with CMV disease in kidney and liver transplant recipients, but relationships to disease severity or mortality have not been shown. Methods: Using stored serial serum specimens from renal (n = 59) and liver (n = 35) transplant recipients (D+R-; CMV-seropositive donors, CMV-seronegative recipients) from 2 prospective, randomized, controlled, interventional prophylaxis trials of CMV immune globulin (CMVIG), CMV viral load was measured using the COBAS quantitative polymerase chain reaction assay and the World Health Organization CMV standard...
February 2019: Open Forum Infectious Diseases
Satoshi Tanaka, Kei Ando, Kazuyoshi Kobayashi, Tetsuro Hida, Kenyu Ito, Mikito Tsushima, Masayoshi Morozumi, Masaaki Machino, Kyotaro Ota, Koji Suzuki, Taisuke Seki, Naoki Ishiguro, Yukiharu Hasegawa, Shiro Imagama
Purpose: Osteoporosis is a common age-related disorder leading to increased bone fragility and risk of fracture. Early diagnosis of osteoporosis is a vital step in providing early therapeutic intervention. Serum cystatin C is a marker of early renal dysfunction, a predictor of cardiovascular and inflammatory diseases, and an inhibitor of the differentiation of osteoclast precursor cells. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the relationship between serum cystatin C and osteoporosis...
2019: BioMed Research International
Ryan P McNabb, James Polans, Brenton Keller, Moseph Jackson-Atogi, Charlene L James, Robin R Vann, Joseph A Izatt, Anthony N Kuo
Current conventional clinical OCT systems image either only the anterior or the posterior eye during a single acquisition. This localized imaging limits conventional OCT's use for characterizing global ocular morphometry and biometry, which requires knowledge of spatial relationships across the entire eye. We developed a "whole eye" optical coherence tomography system that simultaneously acquires volumes with a wide field-of-view for both the anterior chamber (14 x 14 mm) and retina (55°) using a single source and detector...
January 1, 2019: Biomedical Optics Express
Mircea Mujat, Yang Lu, Gopi Maguluri, Youbo Zhao, Nicusor Iftimia, R Daniel Ferguson
The platform described here combines the non-invasive measurement of the retina/choroid structure and ocular blood flow based on optical coherence tomography (OCT) and wide-field semi-quantitative global flow visualization using line-scanning Doppler flowmetry (LSDF). The combination of these two imaging modalities within the same platform enables comprehensive assessment of blood flow in the retina and choroid in animals and human subjects for diagnostic purposes. Ultra-widefield vasculature visualization is demonstrated here for the first time without injecting additional contrast agents and based only on the motion of particles within the vasculature...
January 1, 2019: Biomedical Optics Express
Yaolong Zhang, Reinhard J Maurer, Hua Guo, Bin Jiang
The breakdown of the Born-Oppenheimer approximation gives rise to nonadiabatic effects in gas-surface reactions at metal surfaces. However, for a given reaction, it remains unclear which factors quantitatively determine whether these effects measurably contribute to surface reactivity in catalysis and photo/electrochemistry. Here, we systematically investigate hot electron effects during H2 scattering from Ag(111) using electronic friction theory. We combine first-principles calculations of tensorial friction by time-dependent perturbation theory based on density functional theory and an analytical neural network representation, to overcome the limitations of existing approximations and explicitly simulate mode-specific nonadiabatic energy loss during molecular dynamics...
January 28, 2019: Chemical Science
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