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https://read.qxmd.com/read/30786325/quantitative-ct-derived-vessel-metrics-in-idiopathic-pulmonary-fibrosis-a-structure-function-study
#1
Joseph Jacob, Michael Pienn, Christian Payer, Martin Urschler, Maria Kokosi, Anand Devaraj, Athol U Wells, Horst Olschewski
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to investigate whether quantitative lung vessel morphology determined by a new fully automated algorithm is associated with functional indices in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF). METHODS: A total of 152 IPF patients had vessel volume, density, tortuosity and heterogeneity quantified from computed tomography (CT) images by a fully automated algorithm. Separate quantitation of vessel metrics in pulmonary arteries and veins was performed in 106 patients...
February 20, 2019: Respirology: Official Journal of the Asian Pacific Society of Respirology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30786005/in-vivo-prediction-of-temporomandibular-joint-disc-thickness-and-position-changes-for-different-jaw-positions
#2
Benedikt Sagl, Martina Schmid-Schwap, Eva Piehslinger, Claudia Kronnerwetter, Michael Kundi, Siegfried Trattnig, Ian Stavness
Temporomandibular joint disorders (TMD) are common dysfunctions of the masticatory region and are often linked to dislocation or changes of the temporomandibular joint (TMJ) disc. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is the gold standard for TMJ imaging but standard clinical sequences do not deliver a sufficient resolution and contrast for the creation of detailed meshes of the TMJ disc. Additionally, bony structures cannot be captured appropriately using standard MRI sequences due to their low signal intensity...
February 20, 2019: Journal of Anatomy
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30785495/repercussions-of-low-fructose-drinking-water-in-male-rats
#3
Carolina A Miranda, Tatiele E Schönholzer, Eduardo Klöppel, Yuri K Sinzato, Gustavo T Volpato, Débora C Damasceno, Kleber E Campos
Fructose consumption has increased worldwide, and it has been associated with the development of metabolic diseases such as insulin resistance (IR) and steatosis. The aim was to evaluate if lower fructose concentrations may cause pancreatic structural abnormalities, leading to a glucose intolerance without steatosis in male rats. Young male rats orally received 7% fructose solution for 12 weeks. Body weight, food, water, and energy intake were measured. An oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) was performed. After final experimental period, all rats were anaesthetized and killed...
February 14, 2019: Anais da Academia Brasileira de Ciências
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30785441/fabrication-of-bsa-pinus-koraiensis-polyphenol-chitosan-nanoparticles-and-their-release-characteristics-under-in-vitro-simulated-gastrointestinal-digestion
#4
Lu Wang, Xiaoyu Li, Hongchao Wang
BSA and chitosan were used to prepare nanoparticles of polyphenols from the pine cones of Pinus koraiensis (PKP-NPs). The physicochemical properties including the average particle size, zeta potential, crystal characteristics and morphology of PKP-NPs were measured. PKP-NPs were semi-crystalline, and possessed spherical and almost uniformly sized morphological features. The rheological particle size of PKP-NPs was 187.9 ± 16.32 nm, and the zeta potential was -7.34 ± 0.24 mV. In addition, PKP-NPs showed excellent storage stability at room temperature...
February 20, 2019: Food & Function
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30785176/protective-effect-of-mulberry-morus-atropurpurea-fruit-against-diphenoxylate-induced-constipation-in-mice-through-the-modulation-of-gut-microbiota
#5
Teng-Gen Hu, Peng Wen, Hui-Zhan Fu, Guang-Yue Lin, Sen-Tai Liao, Yu-Xiao Zou
Mulberry (Morus atropurpurea) has long been used to treat gastro-intestinal ailments; however, the functional basis of its therapeutic effects remains unclear. The aim of this study was to measure the effects of mulberry (administered by gavage) on diphenoxylate-induced constipation in mice and elucidate the mechanisms underlying these effects using constipation and physicochemical indexes, histological morphology and 16S rDNA amplicon analysis of fecal microbiota. Sixty Kunming mice were randomly divided into the following six groups (n = 10 per group): normal control, constipation model, positive control, and low-, mid- and high-dose mulberry groups...
February 20, 2019: Food & Function
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30785068/mapping-meditative-states-and-stages-with-electrophysiology-concepts-classifications-and-methods
#6
REVIEW
Poppy LA Schoenberg, David R Vago
Exploration of human consciousness remains a final frontier within basic neuroscience; that is, how the finite biological structure and function of the brain give rise to the seemingly infinite expanse that encompasses the terrain of the mind. Contemporary mindfulness and other contemplative practices across historical and post-modern traditions involve systematic forms of mental training that allow a practitioner to develop the mind in very specific and quantifiable ways. While there has been some progress identifying specific electrophysiological markers of meditation, some fundamental questions remain to this scientific enquiry; (1) how to concisely classify discrete and developmentally specific 'mind states' of consciousness that are in line with the subtle complex phenomenology of experience so to yield ontological quantifications? (2) what measures best represent such classification/quantification systems? (3) can the present electrophysiological purview map developmentally specified mind states and stages to neurobiological substrates, based on extant contention (i...
January 23, 2019: Current Opinion in Psychology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30785046/determination-of-norfloxacin-in-urine-and-pharmaceutical-samples-using-terbium-doped-zinc-sulphide-nanomaterials-sensitized-fluorescence-method
#7
Balwinder Kaur, Rajesh Kumar, Subhash Chand, Karamjit Singh, Ashok Kumar Malik
Highly crystalline polyethylene glycol (PEG) coated Tb3+ doped ZnS nanoparticles have been synthesized and successfully used for norfloxacin sensing. The crystallographic and morphological analyses of PEG coated Tb3+ doped ZnS nanoparticles were performed by X-ray diffraction and Transmission electron microscopy, respectively. The confirmation of Tb3+ doping in ZnS host matrix was done by emission spectroscopy and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. Further, the interaction of norfloxacin with PEG coated Tb3+ doped ZnS nanomaterials was confirmed by optical analysis: spectrophotometrically and spectrofluorimetrically...
February 12, 2019: Spectrochimica Acta. Part A, Molecular and Biomolecular Spectroscopy
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30784319/in-vitro-and-in-vivo-characterization-of-pharmaceutical-nanocarriers-used-for-drug-delivery
#8
Akhlesh K Jain, Suresh Thareja
Nanotechnology has emerged strongly in most of the field of sciences at a tiny scale. At this size, atoms and molecules work differently and present a diversity of amazing and appealing applications. Pharmaceutical nanocarriers comprise nanoparticles, nanospheres, nanocapsules, nanoemulsion, nanoliposomes and nanoniosomes. The major objectives in designing nanocarriers are to manage particle size, surface properties as well as drug release in order to fulfil specific objectives. Hence, characterizations of nanocarriers are very critical to control their desired in vitro and in vivo behaviour...
December 2019: Artificial Cells, Nanomedicine, and Biotechnology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30784198/outbreak-of-swimmer-s-itch-in-central-italy-description-causative-agent-and-preventive-measures
#9
Claudio De Liberato, Federica Berrilli, Teresa Bossù, Adele Magliano, Margherita Montalbano Di Filippo, David Di Cave, Mariano Sigismondi, Annunziata Cannavacciuolo, Paola Scaramozzino
Swimmer's itch is caused by the penetration of free-swimming larvae of trematodes of the family Schistosomatidae in human skin. It is usually reported in people engaged in recreational water activities in freshwater bodies and in most of cases, it is provoked by bird schistosomes of the genus Trichobilharzia. In the summer 2017, many cases of dermatitis were recorded in people bathing in the waters of the Albano Lake (Rome, Italy) and a parasitological investigation was carried out in order to ascertain the causative agent of these cases...
February 19, 2019: Zoonoses and Public Health
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30784090/ultrasonographic-appearance-and-measurement-of-abdominal-structures-in-healthy-capuchin-monkeys-sapajus-spp
#10
Fabio Spina, Laura Brizzi, Giliola Spattini, Fabio Faiola, Francesco Birettoni
BACKGROUND: Previous ultrasonographic studies of Sapajus apella to determine the normal anatomy and physiology are incomplete. The aim of this study was to determine normal ultrasonographic appearance and measurements of all abdominal organs and structures of interest. METHODS: Twelve adult monkeys were recruited considered healthy on the basis of history, physical examination, and general blood work. To avoid additional anesthesia, the ultrasonographic examinations were performed during routine screening, annually scheduled by the Unit of Cognitive Primatology & Primate Center, CNR-Rome, where the animals were housed...
February 19, 2019: Journal of Medical Primatology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30783821/quantitative-magnetic-resonance-evaluation-of-the-trigeminal-nerve-in-familial-dysautonomia
#11
Eugene Won, Jose-Alberto Palma, Horacio Kaufmann, Sarah S Milla, Benjamin Cohen, Lucy Norcliffe-Kaufmann, James S Babb, Yvonne W Lui
PURPOSE: Familial dysautonomia (FD) is a rare autosomal recessive disease that affects the development of sensory and autonomic neurons, including those in the cranial nerves. We aimed to determine whether conventional brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) could detect morphologic changes in the trigeminal nerves of these patients. METHODS: Cross-sectional analysis of brain MRI of patients with genetically confirmed FD and age- and sex-matched controls. High-resolution 3D gradient-echo T1-weighted sequences were used to obtain measurements of the cisternal segment of the trigeminal nerves...
February 19, 2019: Clinical Autonomic Research: Official Journal of the Clinical Autonomic Research Society
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30783803/a-new-variant-ligament-of-the-atlantooccipital-joint-the-lateral-oblique-atlantooccipital-ligament
#12
Shogo Kikuta, Joe Iwanaga, Rod J Oskouian, R Shane Tubbs
PURPOSE: During routine dissection of the anterior craniocervical junction (CCJ), a variant ligament just anterior to the articular capsule of the atlantooccipital joint was observed. To our knowledge, no literature has previously described this ligament. Therefore, the aim of this study was to clarify the anatomy, incidence, and biomechanics of this undescribed structure of the anterior atlantooccipital joint. METHODS: Twenty-six sides from 13 fresh-frozen adult cadavers were used for this study and the morphology of the variant ligament examined...
February 19, 2019: European Spine Journal
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30783761/comparison-of-microclimate-measurements-and-perceptions-as-part-of-a-global-evaluation-of-environmental-quality-at-neighbourhood-scale
#13
A Lemonsu, A Amossé, D Chouillou, N Gaudio, S Haouès-Jouve, J Hidalgo, J Le Bras, D Legain, S Marchandise, B Tudoux
The EUREQUA project raises the issue of the definition and evaluation of the environmental quality of neighbourhoods. The approach consists of integrating and cross-referencing observable data characterising the physical environment and people's perception of their quality of life. The study area is a neighbourhood in Toulouse (France) with high social and typo-morphological diversity, subject to noise and air pollution nuisances. Three 3-day field campaigns were organised in January, April, and June 2014. Instrumented and commented walks took place three times per day...
February 19, 2019: International Journal of Biometeorology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30783756/an-investigation-of-the-ocular-toxic-effects-of-levetiracetam-therapy-in-children-with-epilepsy
#14
Betul Diler Durgut, Adem Turk, Elif Acar Arslan, Tulay Kamasak, Sevim Sahin, Beril Dilber, Tugce Turkcan Soguksulu, Ali Cansu
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the potential toxic effects of levetiracetam monotherapy on ocular tissues in cases of pediatric epilepsy using optical coherence tomography (OCT). METHODS: Thirty epileptic children (group 1) receiving levetiracetam monotherapy at a dosage of 20-40 mg/kg/day for at least 1 year with a first diagnosis of epilepsy and 30 age- and gender-matched healthy children (group 2) were included in the study. In addition to a detailed eye examination, peripapillary retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) thickness, ganglion cell complex (GCC) thickness, foveal thickness (FT), and central corneal thickness (CCT) were measured in all children by means of spectral domain OCT...
February 20, 2019: Child's Nervous System: ChNS: Official Journal of the International Society for Pediatric Neurosurgery
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30783559/geometric-morphometric-analysis-in-female-freshwater-crabs-of-sarawak-borneo-permits-addressing-taxonomy-related-problems
#15
Jongkar Grinang, Indraneil Das, Peter K L Ng
The taxonomy of freshwater crabs requires a paradigm change in methodological approaches, particularly in investigations that use morphological techniques. The traditional morphometric approach (two-dimensional measurements) tends to be inappropriate for the identification of freshwater crabs due to their variable external morphology and lack of gonopods (conventionally used for the identification of male crabs) in females. In this study, we explore the potential use of the geometric morphometric technique for identification of female freshwater crabs, and identify taxonomic key characteristics of species...
2019: PeerJ
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30783194/green-tea-catechins-alleviate-autoimmune-symptoms-and-visual-impairment-in-a-murine-model-for-human-chronic-intraocular-inflammation-by-inhibiting-th17-associated-pro-inflammatory-gene-expression
#16
Jian Li, Yolanda Wong Ying Yip, Jialin Ren, Wing Ki Hui, Jing Na He, Qiu Xiao Yu, Kai On Chu, Tsz Kin Ng, Sun On Chan, Chi Pui Pang, Wai Kit Chu
Autoimmune uveitis is a sight-threatening disease mainly caused by dysregulation of immunity. We investigated the therapeutic effects of green tea extract (GTE) and its major component, epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG), on a murine model of experimental autoimmune uveoretinitis (EAU). Oral administration of GTE, EGCG, dexamethasone, or water, which started 5 days before the induction, was fed every two days to each group. On day 21 post induction, the eyes were examined by confocal scanning laser ophthalmoscopy, optical coherence tomography (OCT), fundus fluorescein angiography (FFA) and electroretinography (ERG) prior to sacrificing the animals for histological assessments and gene expression studies...
February 19, 2019: Scientific Reports
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30781992/mild-or-borderline-hip-dysplasia-are-we-characterizing-hips-with-a-lateral-center-edge-angle-between-18%C3%A2-and-25%C3%A2-appropriately
#17
Michael P McClincy, James D Wylie, Yi-Meng Yen, Eduardo N Novais
BACKGROUND: Controversy surrounds the classification and treatment of hips with a lateral center-edge angle (LCEA) between 18° and 25°. It remains undetermined as to whether periacetabular osteotomy (PAO) or arthroscopic surgery is best used to treat this patient population. HYPOTHESIS: Patients with hip pain and mild or borderline acetabular dysplasia defined by an LCEA between 18° and 25° have different features of acetabular and femoral morphology, as determined by other relevant radiographic measures assessing the anterior and posterior acetabular walls, anterior coverage of the femoral head by the acetabulum, and femoral head and neck junction sphericity...
January 2019: American Journal of Sports Medicine
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30781879/fabrication-of-a-low-adhesive-superhydrophobic-surface-on-ti6al4v-alloys-using-tio%C3%A2-ni-composite-electrodeposition
#18
Jianbing Meng, Xiaojuan Dong, Yugang Zhao, Rufeng Xu, Xue Bai, Haian Zhou
A superhydrophobic surface with low adhesion and good wear resistance was fabricated on Ti6Al4V substrates via TiO₂/Ni composite electrodeposition, and subsequently modified with a fluoroalkylsilane (FAS) film. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), and optical contact angle measurements were used to characterize the surface morphologies, chemical compositions, and surface wettability. The superhydrophobicity of the as-prepared surface results from the fabrication of a hierarchical structure and the assembly of low-surface energy fluorinated components...
February 13, 2019: Micromachines
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30781746/phosphorus-concentration-in-knee-joint-structures-of-patients-following-replacement-surgery
#19
Ciosek Żaneta, Kosik-Bogacka Danuta, Łanocha-Arendarczyk Natalia, Kot Karolina, Karaczun Maciej, Ziętek Paweł, Kupnicka Patrycja, Szylińska Aleksandra, Bosiacki Mateusz, Rotter Iwona
The aim of the study was to assess phosphorus (P) concentration in structures of the knee joint-including the tibial spongy bone, articular cartilage, meniscus, anterior cruciate ligament, and infrapatellar fat pad (Hoffa's fat pad)-of patients following knee joint replacement. The study also aimed to assess the influence of selected biological and environmental factors on P concentration in studied parts of the knee joint. Phosphorus concentration was determined using inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES)...
February 13, 2019: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30781568/enhanced-expression-of-qtl-qll9-dep1-facilitates-the-improvement-of-leaf-morphology-and-grain-yield-in-rice
#20
Xue Fu, Jing Xu, Mengyu Zhou, Minmin Chen, Lan Shen, Ting Li, Yuchen Zhu, Jiajia Wang, Jiang Hu, Li Zhu, Zhenyu Gao, Guojun Dong, Longbiao Guo, Deyong Ren, Guang Chen, Jianrong Lin, Qian Qian, Guangheng Zhang
In molecular breeding of super rice, it is essential to isolate the best quantitative trait loci (QTLs) and genes of leaf shape and explore yield potential using large germplasm collections and genetic populations. In this study, a recombinant inbred line (RIL) population was used, which was derived from a cross between the following parental lines: hybrid rice Chunyou84, that is, japonica maintainer line Chunjiang16B (CJ16); and indica restorer line Chunhui 84 (C84) with remarkable leaf morphological differences...
February 17, 2019: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
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