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Y L He, W Haynes, C D Meyers, A Amer, Y Zhang, P Chen, A E Mendonza, S Ma, W Chutkow, E Bachman
BACKGROUND: There is an unmet need for a safer and more effective treatment for obesity. This study assessed the effects of licogliflozin, a dual inhibitor of sodium-glucose co-transporter (SGLT) 1/2, on body weight, metabolic parameters and incretin hormones in patients with T2DM and/or obesity. METHODS: Patients with obesity (BMI 35-50kg/m2 ) were enrolled into a 12-week study (N=88; licogliflozin 150 mg q.d.). Patients with type-2 diabetes-mellitus (T2DM) were enrolled into a second, two-part study, comprising a single-dose cross-over (N=12; 2...
February 5, 2019: Diabetes, Obesity & Metabolism
Zheng Bobo, Wang Xin, Li Jiang, Wang Quan, Bi Liang, Deng Xiangbing, Wang Ziqiang
BACKGROUND: To evaluate short- and long-term outcomes of robotic gastrectomy (RG) in patients with gastric cancer to determine whether RG is an acceptable alternative to laparoscopic gastrectomy (LG). METHODS: PubMed, Embase, the Cochrane Library, and Chinese Biomedical Database were searched for prospective observational studies (POSs) comparing RG with LG for gastric cancer until October 2017. We compared short-term and long-term outcomes using systematic review with meta-analysis and trial sequential analysis (TSA)...
February 4, 2019: Surgical Endoscopy
Andrea Kresz, Benjamin Mayer, Maria Zernickel, Carsten Posovszky
Background and study aims  Use of carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) instead of room air (RA) during colonoscopy in adults revealed significantly less flatulence and abdominal pain in several studies. The objectives of this study were to investigate the effects of CO 2 usage on post-interventional pain, abdominal discomfort, abdominal girth, pCO 2 levels, and narcotic requirement in deeply sedated pediatric patients. Patients and methods  A total of 97 children and adolescents aged 4 years to 17 years undergoing colonoscopy were randomized to RA or CO 2 in a prospective, randomized, controlled trial...
February 2019: Endoscopy International Open
Edward W Hook, Matthew R Golden, Stephanie N Taylor, Eugenia Henry, Carol Tseng, Jerri Swerdlow, Ashley Nenninger, Sue Cammarata
BACKGROUND: We evaluated single oral dose delafloxacin versus single intramuscular (IM) ceftriaxone in participants with uncomplicated urogenital gonorrhea (primary objective). Secondary objectives included the efficacy, safety, and tolerability of delafloxacin versus ceftriaxone for uncomplicated urogenital, rectal, and/or pharyngeal gonorrhea. METHODS: In this open-label, multicenter study, 460 participants at 25 study centers were randomized (2:1) to receive a single 900mg oral dose of delafloxacin or 250mg IM ceftriaxone...
January 19, 2019: Sexually Transmitted Diseases
Dominika Głąbska, Dominika Guzek, Paulina Zakrzewska, Gustaw Lech
The vitamin A deficiencies are commonly observed in the case of ulcerative colitis individuals. The decreased antioxidant defence may influence the intestine, inducing higher susceptibility to oxidative damage of tissues and altering the symptoms and course of disease. Intestinal symptoms, ranging from diarrhea to constipation, occur more commonly in remission ulcerative colitis individuals than in general population. The aim of the study was to analyze the association between retinoid intake and gastrointestinal symptoms in Caucasian individuals in the remission phase of ulcerative colitis...
January 11, 2019: Journal of Clinical Medicine
Philippe Marteau, Boris Le Nevé, Laurent Quinquis, Caroline Pichon, Peter J Whorwell, Denis Guyonnet
Background. Minor digestive symptoms are common and dietary approaches such as probiotic administration or fibre and fermentable carbohydrate intake adjustments are often recommended. A Fermented Milk Product (FMP) containing Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis CNCM I-2494 and lactic acid bacteria has been shown to improve digestive symptoms after 4 weeks of consumption, but the speed of onset of this effect and its dependence on fibre intake or physical activity is unknown. To answer these questions, data from two previously published trials on FMP for minor digestive symptoms were combined...
January 4, 2019: Nutrients
Rachel Gingold-Belfer, Sigal Levy, Olga Layfer, Lea Pakanaev, Yaron Niv, Ram Dickman, Tsachi Tsadok Perets
Lactose intolerance is a common condition caused by lactase deficiency and may result in symptoms of lactose malabsorption (bloating, flatulence, abdominal discomfort, and change in bowel habits). As current data is limited, the aim of our study was to assess the efficacy of probiotics with a β-galactosidase activity on symptoms of lactose malabsorption and on the lactose hydrogen breath test (LHBT). The study group comprised eight symptomatic female patients with a positive LHBT. Patients were treated for 6 months with a probiotic formula with β-galactosidase activity (Bio-25, Ambrosia-SupHerb, Israel)...
January 7, 2019: Probiotics and Antimicrobial Proteins
Yuan Cao, Shi-Ming Liu
BACKGROUND: This study aimed to investigate the efficacy and safety of lactulose for the treatment of Chinese children with chronic constipation. METHODS: A total of 100 children with chronic constipation were included in this randomized controlled trial. They were equally and randomly allocated to a treatment group (n = 50) and a placebo group (n = 50). The participants in the treatment group received lactulose, while the subjects in the placebo group received placebo intervention...
December 2018: Medicine (Baltimore)
Essi S Sarkkinen, Markku J Savolainen, Jyrki Taurio, Tuuli Marvola, Inge Bruheim
BACKGROUND: Krill powder is rich in bioactive ingredients such as eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), phospholipids, protein and astaxanthin. Containing dominantly EPA, it is considered to be effective in lowering lipids, foremost serum triglycerides and LDL cholesterol. Krill-derived protein hydrolysates/peptides may have positive effect on blood pressure and astaxanthin has anti-oxidative and anti-inflammatory properties. Thus, krill powder has a lot of potential in improving lipid and metabolic profile and reinforcing the activity of the antioxidant system...
December 20, 2018: Lipids in Health and Disease
Weipeng Sun, Minying Li, Tong Lin, Zhizhong Sun, Zhenjie Zhuang, Junmao Wen, Shuliang Ji, Yizi Xie, Jingjing Lu, Chuanjin Luo, Wei Wu, Lin Wang, Liang Zheng, Danghan Xu
RATIONALE: Postoperative ileus with flatulence is a common symptom in patients who have undergone cesarean section, and it can lead to peritonitis and intestinal perforation. However, few previous reports described therapeutic effects of acupuncture in women with flatulence after cesarean delivery. We reported a case of 29-year-old woman with abdominal flatulence after cesarean section. PATIENT CONCERNS: The patient developed right abdominal pain and distention with no discharging bowel movement or passage of gas through the anus after cesarean section...
December 2018: Medicine (Baltimore)
Angel A Escobedo, Pedro Almirall, Elaine Chirino, Frank Pacheco, Ana Duque, Ivonne Avila
Giardia lamblia, the aetiological agent of human giardiasis, is a frequently identified protozoan infection of the upper small intestine. It mainly affects children and has a wide range of clinical manifestations, from asymptomatic carriage to acute or chronic diarrhoea with dehydration, abdominal pain, nausea, vomiting, excessive flatulence and weight loss. Standard treatment for giardiasis is commonly with 5-nitroimidazole (5-NI) compounds, or nitazoxanide; however, some individuals experience treatment failure...
December 1, 2018: Le Infezioni in Medicina
Katherine A Lyseng-Williamson
Macrogol 4000, a biologically inert, non-absorbable osmotic laxative, is a highly effective and well-tolerated first-line option for the treatment of the symptoms of chronic idiopathic/functional constipation in children and adults. High-molecular-weight (HMW) macrogols ± electrolytes have generally similar efficacy profiles; however, the taste of macrogol 4000 is generally preferred over that of macrogol 3350 + electrolytes. Macrogol 4000 is more effective than lactulose in improving stool frequency and consistency, and is associated with less vomiting and flatulence...
2018: Drugs & Therapy Perspectives: for Rational Drug Selection and Use
Ovidiu Burta, Claudia Iacobescu, Radu Bogdan Mateescu, Tudor Nicolaie, Nicoleta Tiuca, Corina Silvia Pop
Background: Bloating is a common symptom reported by around 16% to 31% of the general population. Functional bloating is diagnosed in patients with recurrent symptoms of bloating who do not meet the diagnostic criteria of irritable bowel syndrome or other functional gastrointestinal disorders. Methods: This double-blind, multicentre, randomised study compared the safety and efficacy of APT036 (xyloglucan plus tyndallized Lactobacillus reuteri and Bifidobacterium brevis ; Aprotecol® ) and simethicone in treating functional bloating in adults...
2018: Translational Gastroenterology and Hepatology
Theertham Pradyumna Rao, Giuseppina Quartarone
Digestive health plays key role in our active daily life; but maintaining proper bowel movements, i.e., being free from constipation, diarrhea, irritable bowel syndrome, inflammatory bowel disease, flatulence, bloating, and abdominal pain, is complex. Dietary fibers often are recommended to maintain proper digestive health, but none seems to provide a single comprehensive solution for overall maintanance of proper digestive health. Guar fiber, however, has emerged as a credible candidate for just such a solution...
March 2019: Nutrition
Zhiqin Wong, Chu-Zhen Mok, Hazreen Abdul Majid, Sanjiv Mahadeva
Background: The efficacy and acceptance of a low fermentable oligosaccharides, disaccharides, monosaccharides and polyols (FODMAP) diet in Asian adults with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) remain uncertain. We aimed to describe our early experience in a single center with a dedicated gastroenterology dietetic service. Methods: Consecutive patients with IBS referred to our dedicated Dietetic Gastroenterology Clinic between February 2016 and May 2016 were screened...
October 2018: JGH open: an open access journal of gastroenterology and hepatology
Aamer Imdad, Maribeth R Nicholson, Emily E Tanner-Smith, Joseph P Zackular, Oscar G Gomez-Duarte, Dawn B Beaulieu, Sari Acra
BACKGROUND: Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is a chronic, relapsing disease of the gastrointestinal tract that is thought to be associated with a complex interplay between microbes and the immune system, leading to an abnormal inflammatory response in genetically susceptible individuals. Dysbiosis, characterized by the alteration of the composition of the resident commensal bacteria in a host compared to healthy individuals, is thought to play a major role in the pathogenesis of ulcerative colitis (UC) and Crohn's disease (CD), two subtypes of IBD...
November 13, 2018: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
Bonnie J Bristow, Merrylee McGuffin, Ewa Szumacher, Margaret Fitch, Lisa Di Prospero, Laura D'Alimonte
PURPOSE: Evidence has shown that the prostate moves depending on filling of the rectum and, to a lesser extent, the bladder; many radiation therapy departments have adopted standardized bladder filling/rectal emptying protocols for radiotherapy treatment. Daily treatments may be delayed until appropriate volumes are attained; the resultant psychological impact of these delays on patients is unknown. The purpose of this study was to determine levels of anxiety, depression, distress, and bother related to bowel preparation for prostate cancer patients undergoing radiation therapy treatment...
March 2018: Journal of Medical Imaging and Radiation Sciences
Seyed Morteza Mousavi Naeini, Alireza Khalaj, Ali Abbaszadeh-Kasbi, Seyed Rouhollah Miri
Background  There are several surgical approaches to treat obesity not cured with medical approaches. Each method has its advantages and complications. In here, we have conducted a study to evaluate complications of biliointestinal bypass surgery (BIBP). Methods  A prospective study was conducted in a private hospital from 2002 to 2016. Those patients, not previously operated for morbid obesity, were eligible. Mean follow-up period was 89 months ( ± 54 months; range: 73-108 months). Main outcome measures were weight, BMI (body mass index), concentrations of blood lipids and glucose, liver transaminases, and obesity-related comorbidities and complications...
October 2018: Surgery Journal
Irene Koulinska, Katherine Riester, Spyros Chalkias, Michael R Edwards
PURPOSE: Flushing and gastrointestinal (GI) events are commonly associated with the use of delayed-release dimethyl fumarate (DMF) treatment for relapsing multiple sclerosis. METHODS: PREVENT (A Multicenter, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Study of Pepto-Bismol [Bismuth Subsalicylate] on Gastrointestinal Tolerability in Healthy Volunteers Receiving Oral TECFIDERA [Dimethyl Fumarate] Delayed-Release Capsules Twice Daily) is a double-blind, placebo-controlled, 8-week study that evaluated the effect of bismuth subsalicylate on DMF-related GI events...
November 14, 2018: Clinical Therapeutics
Nittaya Chansiw, Kamonnaree Chotinuntakool, Somdet Srichairatanakool
BACKGROUND: Polygonum odoratum is an indigenous vegetable that has been used as a favoring agent and also used as a Thai traditional medicine to treat flatulence. OBJECTIVE: To analyze active ingredients, total phenolic and total flavonoid contents, anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activities from leaf and stem extracts of P. odoratum. METHODS: Leaves and stems were dried and extracted by using methanol, dichloromethane and water for obtaining methanolic leaf extract (MLE), methanolic stem extract (MTE), dichloromethane leaf extract (DLE), dichloromethane stem extract (DTE), water leaf extract (WLE) and water stem extract (WTE)...
November 9, 2018: Anti-inflammatory & Anti-allergy Agents in Medicinal Chemistry
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