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Ahnalee M Brincks, Karen Shiu-Yee, Lisa R Metsch, Carlos Del Rio, Robert P Schwartz, Petra Jacobs, Georgina Osorio, James L Sorensen, Daniel J Feaster
Medical mistrust is an important risk factor for many health outcomes. For individuals with HIV and substance use co-morbidities, mistrust may influence engagement with health care, and affect overall health and transmission risk. Medical mistrust can be measured by an individual's mistrust of his/her physician, or mistrust of the medical system. This study examined both types of mistrust among 801 substance-using individuals with uncontrolled HIV infection. The aims were to determine how physician mistrust, medical system mistrust, and discrimination experiences were associated with engagement in HIV primary care...
March 16, 2019: AIDS and Behavior
Gustavo Machado Rocha, Mark Drew Crosland Guimarães, Ana Maria de Brito, Ines Dourado, Maria Amélia Veras, Laio Magno, Carl Kendall, Ligia Regina Franco Sansigolo Kerr
The aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence and factors associated with unprotected receptive anal intercourse (URAI), stratified by age (18-24 or 25 + years old), in a sample of 4,129 MSM recruited by respondent driven sampling in 12 Brazilian cities in 2016. The prevalence of URAI was higher among younger MSM (41.9% vs 29.7%) (p < 0.01). Multivariate analysis indicated that perception of risk, sexual identity, self-rated health status, and having commercial sex were associated with URAI among younger MSM...
March 16, 2019: AIDS and Behavior
Don Des Jarlais, Anneli Uuskula, Ave Talu, David M Barnes, Mait Raag, Kamyar Arasteh, Greete Org, Donna Demarest, Jonathan Feelemyer, Hayley Berg, Susan Tross
We tested the hypothesis that an updated "Break the Cycle" (BtC) intervention, based in social cognitive theory and motivational interviewing, would reduce the likelihood that current persons who inject drugs (PWID) would assist persons who do not inject drugs (non-PWID) with first injections in Tallinn, Estonia and Staten Island, New York City. 402 PWID were recruited, a baseline interview covering demographics, drug use, and assisting non-PWID with first drug injections was administered, followed by BtC intervention...
March 16, 2019: AIDS and Behavior
Catharina Majer, Jan Moritz Schüssler, Renate König
SAMHD1 was initially described for its ability to efficiently restrict HIV-1 replication in myeloid cells and resting CD4+ T cells. However, a growing body of evidence suggests that SAMHD1-mediated restriction is by far not limited to lentiviruses, but seems to be a general concept that applies to most retroviruses and at least a number of DNA viruses. SAMHD1 anti-viral activity was long believed to be solely due to its ability to deplete cellular dNTPs by enzymatic degradation. However, since its discovery, several new functions have been attributed to SAMHD1...
March 16, 2019: Medical Microbiology and Immunology
Lei Zhang, Yusha Tao, Joseph Woodring, Kim Rattana, Samreth Sovannarith, Tung Rathavy, Kannitha Cheang, Shafiqul Hossain, Laurent Ferradini, Serongkea Deng, Chay Sokun, Chham Samnang, Mari Nagai, Ying-Ru Lo, Naoko Ishikawa
BACKGROUND: The Regional Framework for Triple Elimination of Mother-to-Child Transmission (EMTCT) of HIV, Hepatitis B (HBV) and Syphilis in Asia and the Pacific 2018-30 was endorsed by the Regional Committee of WHO Western Pacific in October 2017, proposing an integrated and coordinated approach to achieve elimination in an efficient, coordinated and sustainable manner. This study aims to assess the population impacts and cost-effectiveness of this integrated approach in the Cambodian context...
March 16, 2019: International Journal of Epidemiology
Jessica J Wyse, Jonathan L Robbins, Kathleen A McGinnis, E Jennifer Edelman, Adam J Gordon, Ajay Manhapra, David A Fiellin, Brent A Moore, P Todd Korthuis, Julie R Gaither, Kirsha Gordon, Melissa Skanderson, Declan T Barry, Stephen Crystal, Amy Justice, Kevin L Kraemer
BACKGROUND: Opioid use disorder (OUD) is prevalent among people with HIV (PWH). Opioid agonist therapy (OAT) is the most effective treatment for OUD and is associated with improved health outcomes, but is often not initiated. To inform clinical practice, we identified factors predictive of OAT initiation among patients with and without HIV. METHODS: We identified 19,698 new clinical encounters of OUD between 2000 and 2012 in the Veterans Aging Cohort Study (VACS), a national observational cohort of PWH and matched uninfected controls...
March 9, 2019: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
Trang Thi Thu Hau, Midori Nakamura-Hoshi, Yoshiaki Kanno, Takushi Nomura, Masako Nishizawa, Sayuri Seki, Hiroshi Ishii, Ai Kawana-Tachikawa, William W Hall, Lan Anh Nguyen Thi, Tetsuro Matano, Hiroyuki Yamamoto
In human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) infections, host major histocompatibility complex class I (MHC-I) genotypes have a great impact on viral replication and MHC-I-associated viral genome mutations are selected under CD8+ T-cell pressure. Association of MHC-I genotypes with HIV/SIV control has been investigated at MHC-I allele levels but not fully at haplotype levels. We previously established groups of rhesus macaques sharing individual MHC-I haplotypes. In the present study, we compared viral genome diversification after SIV infection in macaques possessing a protective MHC-I haplotype, 90-010-Id, with those possessing a non-protective MHC-I haplotype, 90-010-Ie...
March 13, 2019: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
Andrew J Prendergast, Ameena E Goga, Catriona Waitt, Antoine Gessain, Graham P Taylor, Nigel Rollins, Elaine J Abrams, E Hermione Lyall, Philippe Van de Perre
Breastfeeding is a crucial child survival intervention. However, the potential for transmission of viral infections from mother to child presents the dilemma of how best to interpret the benefits and risks of breastfeeding in different settings. In this Review, we compare the transmission dynamics, risk factors, and outcomes of infection with three chronic viruses transmitted through breastmilk: cytomegalovirus, human T-cell lymphotropic virus type 1, and HIV. We provide an overview of intervention approaches and discuss scientific, policy, and programming gaps in the understanding of these major global infections...
April 2019: Lancet Child & Adolescent Health
Joseph D Tucker, Juliet Iwelunmor, Oliver C Ezechi
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 2019: Lancet Child & Adolescent Health
Geoffrey Fatti, Ashraf Grimwood, Jean B Nachega, Jenna A Nelson, Kelsea LaSorda, Gert van Zyl, Nelis Grobbelaar, Helen Ayles, Richard Hayes, Nulda Beyers, Sarah Fidler, Peter Bock
BACKGROUND: There have been concerns about reduced adherence and HIV virological suppression (VS) amongst clinically well people living with HIV initiating antiretroviral treatment (ART) with high pre-ART CD4 cell counts. We compared virological outcomes by pre-ART CD4 count, where universal ART initiation was provided in the HPTN 071 (PopART) trial in South Africa prior to routine national and international implementation. METHODS: This prospective cohort study included adults initiating ART at facilities providing ART irrespective of CD4 count since January 2014...
March 16, 2019: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
Landon Myer, Andrew D Redd, Elton Mukonda, Briana A Lynch, Tamsin K Phillips, Anna Eisenberg, Nei-Yuan Hsiao, Adam Capoferri, Alison Zerbe, William Clarke, Maia Lesosky, Autumn Breaud, James McIntyre, Daniel Bruno, Craig Martens, Elaine J Abrams, Steven J Reynolds
BACKGROUND: Elevated viral load (VL) early after antiretroviral therapy (ART) initiation appears frequently in pregnant and postpartum women living with HIV, however the relative contributions of pre-ART drug-resistant mutations (DRM) versus non-adherence in the aetiology of elevated VL are unknown. METHODS: Within a cohort of women initiating ART during pregnancy in Cape Town, South Africa, we compared women with elevated VL after initial suppression (cases, n=80) incidence-density matched to women who maintained suppression over time (controls, n=87)...
March 16, 2019: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
Natabhona M Mabachi, Melinda Brown, Matthew Sandbulte, Catherine Wexler, Kathy Goggin, May Maloba, Sarah Finocchario-Kessler
Greater male partner involvement in Prevention of Mother to Child Transmission (PMTCT) and Early Infant Diagnosis (EID) is associated with improved outcomes. Perceived low social support for the mother can negatively impact the uptake of PMTCT/EID services. Most research relies on women's reports of the types and quality of male partner support received versus what is desired. This qualitative study examines Kenyan male partners' reported social support provision pre- and post-partum from their own perspective...
March 15, 2019: AIDS and Behavior
José A Bauermeister, Jesse M Golinkoff, Alex Carballo-Diéguez, Rebecca Giguere, Daniela López, Craig J Hoesley, Beatrice A Chen, Peter Anderson, Charlene S Dezzutti, Julie Strizki, Carol Sprinkle, Faye Heard, Wayne Hall, Cindy Jacobson, Jennifer Berthiaume, Ashley Mayo, Barbra A Richardson, Jeanna Piper
Intravaginal rings (IVR) containing antiretroviral drugs are a promising method for HIV prevention. We triangulated quantitative and qualitative assessments to evaluate the acceptability of four IVRs used continuously for 28 days as part of a Phase I trial (N = 48 HIV-negative women; ages 18-45). Adherence was high throughout the trial, yet 30% of participants reported involuntary IVR expulsions followed by re-insertion. Most participants (93.6%) felt comfortable with the IVR being inside their body. Participants reported liking the IVR more (36...
March 15, 2019: AIDS and Behavior
Itziar Familiar, Alla Sikorskii, Sarah Murray, Horacio Ruisenor-Escudero, Noeline Nakasujja, Clinton Korneffel, Michael Boivin, Judith Bass
The aim was to identify latent class trajectories of depression symptoms among HIV+ women in Uganda. Depression was assessed at four time points using the Hopkins Symptom Checklist among 288 women caring for a child 2-5 years old. Mixture modeling was used to estimate the number and nature of classes defined by trajectories of depressive symptoms over time. Maternal and child characteristics were explored as predictors of class. Three trajectories of symptoms of depression were identified; (1) stable-low, (2) moderate-subclinical, and (3) chronic-high...
March 15, 2019: AIDS and Behavior
Jinqing Li, Zichao Yang, Han Liu, Mengjie Qiu, Tingting Zhang, Wenjuan Li, Zhaofeng Li, Tao Qi, Yurong Qiu, Lin Li, Xuefeng Zhou, Shuwen Liu, Suiyi Tan
Semen-derived amyloid fibrils, composing SEVI (semen-derived enhancer of viral infection) fibrils and SEM1 fibrils, could remarkably enhance HIV-1 sexual transmission and thus, are potential targets for the development of an effective microbicide. Previously, we found that ADS-J1, apart from being an HIV-1 entry inhibitor, could also potently inhibit seminal amyloid fibrillization and block fibril-mediated enhancement of viral infection. However, the remodeling effects of ADS-J1 on mature seminal fibrils were unexplored...
March 15, 2019: Biochemical Journal
Mathabo Ruth Lutu, Sanelisiwe Nzuza, Pascale Edith Mofo Mato, Khmera Govender, Londiwe Mphumelelo Gumede, Sinenhlanhla Innocentia Kumalo, Nontokozo Nomfundo Mlambo, Ranjendraparsad Hurchund, Peter Mark Oroma Owira
Nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs) form the backbone in combination antiretroviral therapy (cARVs). They halt chain elongation of the viral cDNA by acting as false substrates in counterfeit incorporation mechanism to viral RNA-dependent DNA polymerase. In the process genomic DNA polymerase as well as mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) polymerase-γ (which has a much higher affinity for these drugs at therapeutic doses) are also impaired. This leads to mitochondrial toxicity that manifests clinically as mitochondrial myopathy, peripheral neuropathy, hyperlactatemia or lactic acidosis and lipoatrophy...
March 12, 2019: European Journal of Pharmacology
Burcin Yavuz, Jessica L Morgan, Carolina Herrera, Kristin Harrington, Bernardo Perez-Ramirez, Patricia J LiWang, David L Kaplan
With almost 2 million new HIV infections worldwide each year, the prevention of HIV infection is critical for stopping the pandemic. The only approved form of pre-exposure prophylaxis is a costly daily pill, and it is recognized that several options will be needed to provide protection to the various affected communities around the world. In particular, many at-risk people would benefit from a prevention method that is simple to use and does not require medical intervention or a strict daily regimen. We show that silk fibroin protein can be formulated into insertable discs that encapsulate either an antibody (IgG) or the potent HIV inhibitor 5P12-RANTES...
March 12, 2019: Journal of Controlled Release: Official Journal of the Controlled Release Society
Romain Retureau, Christophe Oguey, Olivier Mauffret, Brigitte Hartmann
A comprehensive view of all the structural aspects related to NCp7 is essential to understand how this protein, crucial in many steps of the HIV-1 cycle, binds and anneals nucleic acids (NA) mainly thanks to two zinc fingers, ZF1 and ZF2. Here, we inspected the structural properties of the available experimental models of NCp7 bound to either DNA or RNA molecules, or free of ligand. Our analyses included the characterization of the relative positioning of ZF1 and ZF2, accessibility measurements and the exhaustive, quantitative mapping of the contacts between amino acids and nucleotides by a recent tessellation method, VLDM...
March 12, 2019: Journal of Molecular Biology
Shelly J Krebs, Young D Kwon, Chaim A Schramm, William H Law, Gina Donofrio, Kenneth H Zhou, Syna Gift, Vincent Dussupt, Ivelin S Georgiev, Sebastian Schätzle, Jonathan R McDaniel, Yen-Ting Lai, Mallika Sastry, Baoshan Zhang, Marissa C Jarosinski, Amy Ransier, Agnes L Chenine, Mangaiarkarasi Asokan, Robert T Bailer, Meera Bose, Alberto Cagigi, Evan M Cale, Gwo-Yu Chuang, Samuel Darko, Jefferson I Driscoll, Aliaksandr Druz, Jason Gorman, Farida Laboune, Mark K Louder, Krisha McKee, Letzibeth Mendez, M Anthony Moody, Anne Marie O'Sullivan, Christopher Owen, Dongjun Peng, Reda Rawi, Eric Sanders-Buell, Chen-Hsiang Shen, Andrea R Shiakolas, Tyler Stephens, Yaroslav Tsybovsky, Courtney Tucker, Raffaello Verardi, Keyun Wang, Jing Zhou, Tongqing Zhou, George Georgiou, S Munir Alam, Barton F Haynes, Morgane Rolland, Gary R Matyas, Victoria R Polonis, Adrian B McDermott, Daniel C Douek, Lawrence Shapiro, Sodsai Tovanabutra, Nelson L Michael, John R Mascola, Merlin L Robb, Peter D Kwong, Nicole A Doria-Rose
Lineage-based vaccine design is an attractive approach for eliciting broadly neutralizing antibodies (bNAbs) against HIV-1. However, most bNAb lineages studied to date have features indicative of unusual recombination and/or development. From an individual in the prospective RV217 cohort, we identified three lineages of bNAbs targeting the membrane-proximal external region (MPER) of the HIV-1 envelope. Antibodies RV217-VRC42.01, -VRC43.01, and -VRC46.01 used distinct modes of recognition and neutralized 96%, 62%, and 30%, respectively, of a 208-strain virus panel...
March 12, 2019: Immunity
John L Spouge
If viruses or other pathogens infect a single host, the outcome of infection often hinges on the fate of the initial invaders. The initial basic reproduction number R0 , the expected number of cells infected by a single infected cell, helps determine whether the initial viruses can establish a successful beachhead. To determine R0 , the Kingman coalescent or continuous-time birth-and-death process can be used to infer the rate of exponential growth in an historical population. Given M sequences sampled in the present, the two models can make the inference from the site frequency spectrum (SFS), the count of mutations that appear in exactly k sequences (k=1,2,…,M)...
March 12, 2019: Theoretical Population Biology
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