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Liliana C Baptista, Aristides M Machado-Rodrigues, Raul A Martins
To establish the effect of three types of treatment - multicomponent exercise (MEX); the oral hypoglycaemic drug metformin (MET); combined therapy comprising exercise plus metformin (MEXMET) - on cardiovascular risk in older adults with type 2 diabetes (T2D) and with comorbidities in an early stage of the disease (HbA1c < 7.5%). A sample of 284 participants was evaluated for multifactorial cardiovascular risk at baseline and at 24-month intervention according to anthropometric and hemodynamic components, lipid profile, glycaemia and cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF)...
December 2018: Biology of Sport
Alcides Rocha, Flavio F Arbex, Priscila A Sperandio, Frederico Mancuso, Mathieu Marillier, Anne-Catherine Bernard, Maria Clara N Alencar, Denis E O Donnell, J Alberto Neder
Impaired aerobic function is a potential mechanism of exercise intolerance in patients with combined cardiorespiratory disease. We investigated the pathophysiological and sensory consequences of a low Δ O2 uptake (V̇O2 )/Δ work rate (WR) relationship during incremental exercise in patients with coexisting chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and systolic heart failure (HF).After clinical stabilisation, 51 COPD-HF patients performed an incremental cardiopulmonary exercise test to symptom limitation...
February 14, 2019: European Respiratory Journal: Official Journal of the European Society for Clinical Respiratory Physiology
Lin Yang, King Pan Chan, Chit Ming Wong, Susan Shui Seng Chiu, Ricardo J Soares Magalhaes, Thuan Quoc Thach, Joseph Syrial Malik Peiris, Archie C A Clements, Wenbiao Hu
BACKGROUND: Influenza and pneumococcal vaccine uptake in the older population aged 65 years or over of Hong Kong dramatically increased since the 2003 SARS outbreak. This study is aimed to evaluate the impact of increased coverage of influenza and pneumococcal vaccines by comparing the change of disease burden in the older population of Hong Kong, with the burden in the older population of Brisbane with relatively high vaccine coverage in the past fifteen years. METHODS: Time series segmented regression models were applied to weekly numbers of cause-specific mortality or hospitalization of Hong Kong and Brisbane...
February 14, 2019: BMC Infectious Diseases
Anass Arrogi, Astrid Schotte, An Bogaerts, Filip Boen, Jan Seghers
BACKGROUND: This study evaluated the effects of a 3-month workplace physical activity (PA) intervention on employees' health-related fitness and well-being. Moreover, mediational pathways were examined. METHODS: A longitudinal, quasi-experimental trial was evaluated in Belgian employees. The intervention group (IG: n = 246) received 3-months individualized, tailored PA counseling, consisting of face-to-face counseling and follow-up e-mail and telephone contacts...
February 15, 2019: Journal of Physical Activity & Health
Stephen J Carter, Gary R Hunter, J Walker Blackston, Nianjun Liu, Elliot J Lefkowitz, William J Van Der Pol, Casey D Morrow, Jesseca A Paulsen, Laura Q Rogers
NEW FINDINGS: What is the central question of this study? Does the link between cardiorespiratory fitness and gut microbiota diversity persist after adjusting for the potential effects of %body fat and activity-related energy expenditure (AEE)? What is the main finding and its importance? This is the first study to examine the link between cardiorespiratory fitness and gut microbiota diversity while accounting for the underlying effects of %body fat and free-living AEE. Results from the present work suggest cardiorespiratory fitness, not physical activity, is a superior correlate of gut microbiota diversity among post-primary treatment, non-metastatic breast cancer survivors...
February 14, 2019: Experimental Physiology
Blaine Phillips, Justyna Szostak, Bjoern Titz, Walter K Schlage, Emmanuel Guedj, Patrice Leroy, Gregory Vuillaume, Florian Martin, Ansgar Buettner, Ashraf Elamin, Alain Sewer, Nicolas Sierro, Mohamed Amin Choukrallah, Thomas Schneider, Nikolai V Ivanov, Charles Teng, Ching Keong Tung, Wei Ting Lim, Ying Shan Yeo, Patrick Vanscheeuwijck, Manuel C Peitsch, Julia Hoeng
Smoking is one of the major modifiable risk factors in the development and progression of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and cardiovascular disease (CVD). Modified-risk tobacco products (MRTP) are being developed to provide substitute products for smokers who are unable or unwilling to quit, to lessen the smoking-related health risks. In this study, the ApoE-/- mouse model was used to investigate the impact of cigarette smoke (CS) from the reference cigarette 3R4F, or aerosol from two potential MRTPs based on the heat-not-burn principle, carbon-heated tobacco product 1...
February 11, 2019: Food and Chemical Toxicology
Hannah Thompson, Bhaani K Singh, Ana Ibarra-Castro, Gail Woodward-Lopez, Kristine A Madsen
Physical education (PE) can improve student health. Schools with credentialed PE teachers receive more PE. However, many schools have reduced PE funding, resulting in fewer teachers and potentially poorer student health. We examined if PE teachers are equally available across school districts, and if availability is associated with higher student cardiorespiratory fitness. We contacted California districts educating students in grades K-6 (n = 894) to determine the number of credentialed elementary PE teachers per district in 2016-17...
February 11, 2019: Preventive Medicine
Luke Haile, Fredric L Goss, Joseph L Andreacci, Elizabeth F Nagle, Robert J Robertson
Self-selected intensity exercise has resulted in greater affective responses (AR) compared to prescribed exercise of similar intensity and many individuals self-select intensity at a moderate level identified by metabolic analysis. As such, self-selected intensity may be an effective alternative for exercise prescription designed to promote adherence and result in health and fitness benefits. Self-selected intensity has not been well described for many subject populations and exercise modes. Therefore, the purpose of this investigation was to measure affective and metabolic responses during self-selected intensity cycle exercise in college-aged men...
February 11, 2019: Physiology & Behavior
Erhan Çapkın, Seyhan Bilge Keskin, Murat Karkucak, Ahmet Ayar
Background/aim: The purpose of this study was to investigate possible effects of anti-TNF alpha therapy on cardiorespiratory fitness and physical functional capacity of patients with ankylosing spondylitis (AS). Materials and methods: Twenty-eight AS patients meeting the modified New York criteria with active disease state and an equivalent number of healthy individuals as the control were prospectively enrolled. Physical working capacity and aerobic exercise capacity of the participants were determined by using cardiopulmonary exercise tests, performed before and 4 months after initiation of anti-TNF alpha therapy...
February 11, 2019: Turkish Journal of Medical Sciences
Vitor Marques, Victor Coswig, Ricardo Viana, Acácia Leal, Fagner Alves, Ana Alves, Gabriela Teles, Carlos Vieira, Maria Silva, Douglas Santos, Paulo Gentil
This study aimed to compare the anthropometric profile and physical fitness of young judo and wrestling athletes. Twenty-four young athletes (judo (n = 13) and wrestling (n = 11)) participated in this study. The first visit involved anthropometric and flexibility evaluation, abdominal endurance test, upper limbs resistance and cardiorespiratory test. After 48 h, horizontal jump test (HJT), vertical jump test (VJT), medicine ball throw test (MBT), chin-up test (CUT), chin-up isometric test (CUIT) and the anaerobic resistance test were performed...
February 12, 2019: Sports
Karlene T Barrett, Shabih U Hasan, Morris H Scantlebury, Richard J A Wilson
The stress peptide, PACAP, and its specific receptor, PAC1, have been implicated in Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (SIDS). PACAP is also critical to the neonatal cardiorespiratory response to homeostatic stressors identified in SIDS, including hypoxia. However, which of PACAP's three receptors, PAC1, VPAC1 and/or VPAC2, are involved is unknown. In this study, we hypothesized that PAC1, but not VPAC2, is involved in mediating the cardiorespiratory response to hypoxia during neonatal development. To test this hypothesis, head-out plethysmography and surface ECG electrodes were used to assess the cardiorespiratory variables of unanesthetized postnatal day 4 PAC1 and VPAC2 knockout (KO) and wild-type (WT) mice in response to a 10% hypoxic challenge...
February 13, 2019: American Journal of Physiology. Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology
Esben Lykke Skovgaard, Kirstine Obling, Helle Terkildsen Maindal, Cuno Rasmussen, Kristian Overgaard
Performing physical activity is considered health promoting but may induce a need for subsequent rest periods. This study aimed to determine the within-day interactions between vigorous physical activity (VPA) and sedentary behaviour (SB) in participants with low cardiorespiratory fitness. We tested the hypothesis that VPA is associated with a temporary subsequent increase in SB. One week of accelerometer data containing a minimum of one 10-min bout of VPA from 62 participants with low cardiorespiratory fitness (31-50 years old) were obtained from the MILE study...
February 13, 2019: European Journal of Sport Science
André O Werneck, Danilo R Silva, Adewale L Oyeyemi, Rômulo A Fernandes, Marcelo Romanzini, Edilson S Cyrino, Miguel de Arruda, Enio R V Ronque
OBJECTIVES: The aim of the present study was to examine the stability of physical fitness, and the interrelationships among intra-individual changes in fitness and fatness among elementary school children. METHODS: A longitudinal study was conducted among 372 adolescents (196 boys) and followed up over 3 years (from childhood to adolescence). Physical fitness was estimated using three indicators: cardiorespiratory fitness (through a 9-minute running test), flexibility (through a sit-and-reach test), and muscle resistance (through maximal abdominals in 1 minute)...
February 12, 2019: American Journal of Human Biology: the Official Journal of the Human Biology Council
Chris Kite, Ian M Lahart, Islam Afzal, David R Broom, Harpal Randeva, Ioannis Kyrou, James E Brown
BACKGROUND: Typically, management of PCOS focuses on lifestyle changes (exercise and diet), aiming to alleviate symptoms, and lower the associated risk of type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Our objective was to analyse evidence on the effectiveness of exercise in the management of PCOS, when compared to (i) usual care, (ii) diet alone, and (iii) exercise combined with diet, and also exercise combined with diet, compared to (i) control or usual care and (ii) diet alone. METHODS: Relevant databases were searched (June 2017) with no time limit for trial inclusion...
February 12, 2019: Systematic Reviews
Andrea Petrella, Glen Belfry, Matthew Heath
Ten minutes of aerobic or resistance training can 'boost' executive function in older adults. Here, we examined whether the magnitude of the exercise benefit is influenced by exercise intensity. Older adults (N=17: mean age=73 years) completed a volitional test to exhaustion (VO2peak ) via treadmill to determine participant-specific moderate (80% of lactate threshold (LT)), heavy (15% of the difference between LT and VO2peak ) and very-heavy (50% of the difference between LT and VO2peak ) exercise intensities...
February 9, 2019: Brain Research
Natalie Castalanelli, Michael Weinborn, Gilles E Gignac, Shaun Markovic, Stephanie R Rainey-Smith, Hamid R Sohrabi, Ralph N Martins, Jeremiah J Peiffer, Belinda M Brown
OBJECTIVES.: To examine the associations between physical activity duration and intensity, cardiorespiratory fitness, and executive function in older adults. METHODS.: Data from ninety-nine cognitively normal adults (age = 69.10 ± 5.1 years n = 54 female) were used in the current study. Physical activity (intensity and duration) was measured with the International Physical Activity Questionnaire and fitness was measured by analysis of maximal aerobic capacity; VO2peak ...
February 12, 2019: Journal of Aging and Physical Activity
Verónica Tíscar-González, Joan Blanco-Blanco, Montserrat Gea-Sánchez, Ascensión Rodriguez Molinuevo, Teresa Moreno-Casbas
Background: Nurses are often the first to activate the chain of survival when a cardiorespiratory arrest happens. That is why it is crucial that they keep their knowledge and skills up-to-date and their attitudes to resuscitation are very important. The main aim of this study was to analyse whether the level of theoretical and practical understanding affected the attitudes of nursing staff. Methods: A questionnaire was designed using the Delphi technique (three rounds)...
2019: PeerJ
Silje Halvorsen Sveaas, Annelie Bilberg, Inger Jorid Berg, Sella Arrestad Provan, Silvia Rollefstad, Anne Grete Semb, Kåre Birger Hagen, Melissa Woll Johansen, Elisabeth Pedersen, Hanne Dagfinrud
BACKGROUND: Exercise is considered important in the management of patients with rheumatic diseases, but the effect of high intensity exercises on disease activity is unknown. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effectiveness of high intensity exercises on disease activity in patients with axial spondyloarthritis (axSpA). METHOD: Assessor blinded multicentre randomised controlled trial. 100 patients (aged from their 20s to their 60s) with axSpA were randomly assigned to an exercise group or to a no-intervention control group...
February 11, 2019: British Journal of Sports Medicine
Yinong Young-Xu, Julia Thornton Snider, Robertus van Aalst, Salaheddin M Mahmud, Edward W Thommes, Jason K H Lee, David P Greenberg, Ayman Chit
BACKGROUND: Observational studies of the relative effectiveness of influenza vaccines are essential for public health decision making. Their estimates, however, are subject to bias due to unmeasured confounders. Instrumental variable (IV) methods can control for observed and unobserved confounders. METHODS: We used linked electronic medical record databases in the Veterans Health Administration (VHA) as well as Medicare administrative files to examine the relative vaccine effectiveness (rVE) of high-dose influenza vaccine (HD) versus standard-dose influenza vaccines (SD) in preventing hospitalizations among VHA-enrolled Veterans ≥65 years of age during 5 influenza seasons (2010-2011 through 2014-2015)...
February 8, 2019: Vaccine
Nounagnon Frutueux Agbangla, Michel Audiffren, Jean Pylouster, Cédric T Albinet
The present study aimed to examine the effects of chronological age and cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) on cognitive performance and prefrontal cortex activity, and to test the compensation-related utilization of neural circuits hypothesis (CRUNCH). A total of 19 young adults (18⁻22 years) and 37 older ones (60⁻77 years) with a high or low CRF level were recruited to perform a working memory updating task under three different cognitive load conditions. Prefrontal cortex hemodynamic responses were continuously recorded using functional near-infrared spectroscopy, and behavioral performances and perceived difficulty were measured...
February 9, 2019: Brain Sciences
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