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Yanwen Yin, Kaichuang Shi, Wenchao Sun, Shenglan Mo
We report the complete genome sequence of an atypical porcine pestivirus (APPV) strain named GX01-2018 that was isolated in Guangxi Province, China, from a suckling piglet showing congenital tremor. The whole genome consisted of 11,565 bp and shared 83.4% to 98.2% nucleotide identities and 91.9% to 99.1% amino acid identities with other APPV strains from different countries.
February 2019: Microbiology resource announcements
João Queirós, Margarita Villar, Angélica Hernández-Jarguín, Vladimir López, Isabel Fernández de Mera, Joaquín Vicente, Paulo C Alves, Christian Gortazar, José de la Fuente
Constraints in the characterization of microbiota community that circulates in the host have limited the extent of co-infection studies in natural populations. In this study, we used a metaproteomics approach to characterize the mandibular lymph nodes microbiota of wild boar (Sus scrofa) naturally exposed to an increasing trend of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTC) infection. Our results showed a reduction in microbiota diversity and changes in the composition, structure and functionality of the microbiota community associated with an increase in tuberculosis prevalence, from 45% in 2002/06 to 83% in 2009/12...
January 2019: Tuberculosis
Anja Dalmann, Kerstin Wernike, Ilona Reimann, Deborah S Finlaison, Peter D Kirkland, Martin Beer
Bungowannah virus, which belongs to the genus Pestivirus within the family Flaviviridae, has been associated with myocarditis and a high incidence of stillbirths in pigs. In 2003, the virus was initially detected in a large pig farming complex on two separate sites in New South Wales, Australia. Until now, it has not been detected at other locations. Despite a program of depopulation and disinfection, the virus could be only eradicated from one of the affected farm complexes, the Bungowannah unit, but became endemic on the second complex, the Corowa unit...
January 31, 2019: Virus Genes
Francielle Liz Monteiro, Juliana F Cargnelutti, Bruno Martins, Jessica G Noll, Rudi Weiblen, Eduardo F Flores
The pestiviruses bovine viral diarrhea virus 1 and 2 (BVDV-1 and -2, respectively) and HoBi-like pestivirus (HoBiPeV) are important pathogens of cattle, and a number of reverse-transcription PCR (RT-PCR)-based assays have been developed for their detection in clinical specimens. We evaluated a newly designed set of pan-bovine pestivirus primers (BP189-389) in a gel-based RT-PCR screening test for pestiviruses in the sera of beef calves destined for export from southern Brazil. Serum samples positive for BVDV antigens by an antigen ELISA ( n = 135) were submitted to RT-PCR assays using different sets of primers, followed by nucleotide sequencing of the amplicons...
January 30, 2019: Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation
Tuba Çiğdem Oğuzoğlu, Bahattin Taylan Koç, Nüvit Coşkun, Fırat Doğan, Selda Duran-Yelken
As ubiquitous pathogens, bovine virus diarrhea viruses (BVDVs) in cattle have been reported several times in Turkey. Over time, the frequency and importance of this infection has increased for the livestock industries. A total of 1291 animals were sampled from a dairy herd in Turkey suspected of BVDV clinical signs, for instance, reproductive failures (abortion, congenital malformations in calves, repeat breeding, etc.) and interdigital phlegmon in adult animals. Reverse transcription polymerase chain reactions (RT-PCRs) were made by using targeted 5' untranslated region (UTR), Npro , E2, and NS2-3 pestiviral gene region primers for antigen ELISA-positive samples (n = 20)...
January 28, 2019: Tropical Animal Health and Production
E F Flores, J F Cargnelutti, F L Monteiro, F V Bauermann, J F Ridpath, R Weiblen
The pestiviruses bovine viral diarrhea virus 1 (BVDV-1), 2 (BVDV-2), and HoBi-like (HoBiPeV) are endemic among Brazilian cattle, the world's largest commercial bovine herd. In the last two decades (1998-2018) over 300 bovine pestiviruses have been partially or fully sequenced in Brazil, including viruses from different regions, different epidemiological backgrounds, and associated with diverse clinical presentations. Phylogenetic analysis of these viruses demonstrated a predominance of BVDV-1 (54.4%), with subgenotypes -1a (33...
December 2018: Animal Health Research Reviews
Gungor Cagdas Dincel, Oguz Kul
Border disease is caused by Pestivirus and is characterized by severe neuropathology, and histopathologically observed severe hypomyelination. We have previously shown that small ruminants infected with BDV play an important role for neuropathology and pathogenesis of severe oxidative damage in brain tissue, neural mtDNA; in the production of pathologic levels of nitric oxide; in glial cell activation and stimulation of intrinsic apoptosis pathway. This study aimed to investigate the relationship between glia maturation factor beta (GMF-β) and transforming growth factor alpha (TGF-α) expressions and the causes of BDV-induced neuropathology and to investigate their role in neuropathogenesis in a way that was not presented before...
January 14, 2019: Microbial Pathogenesis
Kristin J Bondo, Bryan Macbeth, Helen Schwantje, Karin Orsel, Diane Culling, Brad Culling, Morten Tryland, Ingebjørg H Nymo, Susan Kutz
Boreal woodland caribou ( Rangifer tarandus caribou) are listed as threatened across Canada, and a basic understanding of their health status is lacking. From December 2012 to April 2013, we investigated multiple health indices for adult female boreal caribou ( n=163) captured from seven herds in NE British Columbia, Canada. Health indices included physical characteristics, physiologic and trace mineral status, exposure to or infection with selected pathogens, and measures of chronic stress and inflammation, including serum amyloid A, haptoglobin, and hair cortisol concentration...
January 3, 2019: Journal of Wildlife Diseases
Cormac M Kinsella, Martin Deijs, Lia van der Hoek
VIDISCA is a next-generation sequencing (NGS) library preparation method designed to enrich viral nucleic acids from samples before highly-multiplexed low depth sequencing. Reliable detection of known viruses and discovery of novel divergent viruses from NGS data require dedicated analysis tools that are both sensitive and accurate. Existing software was utilised to design a new bioinformatic workflow for high-throughput detection and discovery of viruses from VIDISCA data. The workflow leverages the VIDISCA library preparation molecular biology, specifically the use of Mse1 restriction enzyme which produces biological replicate library inserts from identical genomes...
December 19, 2018: Virus Research
Xin Zhang, Rui Dai, Qunhui Li, Qingfeng Zhou, Yangyang Luo, Limiao Lin, Yingzuo Bi, Feng Chen
Atypical porcine pestivirus (APPV) have been discovered in swine herds from three provinces in China, suggesting a wide distribution in China. This study reports the occurrence of three novel APPV strains in China. They were detected from newborn piglets with clinical signs of congenital tremors (CT) in Guangdong Province, China. The complete genomic sequences of three novel APPV strains exhibited only 80.5%-84.1% nucleotide sequences homology with other APPV reference sequences available in GenBank. Phylogenetic analysis showed that these novel APPV strains formed independent branch from the American, German, Netherlandish, Australian and other Chinese strains...
December 6, 2018: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
Kelei Zhou, Hua Yue, Cheng Tang, Wenqiang Ruan, Qun Zhou, Bin Zhang
Atypical porcine pestivirus (APPV) causes congenital tremor (CT) in piglets and has a wide geographical distribution. In this study, we evaluated APPV prevalence using 165 piglet sera from southwest China. Viral RNA was detectable by qRT-PCR in 43.6 % (17/39, 95 % CI 27.8-60.4 %) of piglets with CT, while viral RNA was not detected in the sera of any healthy piglets. The seven complete APPV genomes were obtained from distinct farms and were 11 269-11 459 nucleotides in length. The genomes of the seven strains shared 82...
December 5, 2018: Journal of General Virology
Eliana F Castro, Juan J Casal, María J España de Marco, Leandro Battini, Matías Fabiani, Gabriela A Fernández, Ana M Bruno, Lucía V Cavallaro, Mariela Bollini
Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) is a pestivirus whose infection in cattle is globally distributed. The use of antivirals could complement vaccination as a tool of control and reduce economic losses. The RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) of the virus is essential for its genome replication and constitutes an attractive target for the identification of antivirals. With the aim of obtaining selective BVDV inhibitors, the crystal structure of BVDV RdRp was used to perform a virtual screening. Approximately 15,000 small molecules from commercial and in-house databases were evaluated and several structurally different compounds were tested in vitro for antiviral activity...
November 23, 2018: Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry Letters
Huawei Zhang, Wei Wen, Genxi Hao, Huanchun Chen, Ping Qian, Xiangmin Li
An atypical porcine pestivirus (APPV) causing congenital tremor type A-II in piglets was identified in China in 2016. An increased number of cases of APPV have been reported in various countries all over the world since 2015. This study aimed to develop an effective subunit vaccine against APPV based on the E2 protein, which is the main immunogenicity protein of APPV. In this study, E2 protein was successfully expressed by the baculovirus expression system. E2 protein was confirmed by Western blot assay, which showed that E2 protein possesses N-linked glycosylation sites...
November 28, 2018: Viruses
Shaoxiong Yu, Caixia Yin, Kun Song, Su Li, Guang-Lai Zheng, Lian-Feng Li, Jinghan Wang, Yongfeng Li, Yuzi Luo, Yuan Sun, Hua-Ji Qiu
Classical swine fever virus (CSFV), the etiological agent of classical swine fever in pigs, is a member of the Pestivirus genus within the Flaviviridae family. It has been proposed that CSFV infection is significantly inhibited by methyl-β-cyclodextrin (MβCD) treatment. However, the exact engagement of cellular cholesterol in the life cycle of CSFV remains unclear. Here, we demonstrated that pretreatment of PK-15 cells with MβCD significantly decreased the cellular cholesterol level and resulted in the inhibition of CSFV infection, while replenishment of exogenous cholesterol in MβCD-treated cells recovered the cellular cholesterol level and restored the viral infection...
November 28, 2018: Journal of General Virology
Flávia Possatti, Thalita Evani Silva de Oliveira, Raquel Arruda Leme, Everson Zotti, Alais Maria Dall Agnol, Alice Fernandes Alfieri, Selwyn Arlington Headley, Amauri Alcindo Alfieri
Atypical porcine pestivirus (APPV) has been associated with congenital tremor (CT) type A-II in newborn piglets. Although the number of APPV-based studies is increasing, the associated pathologic findings in infected piglets are underreported. This study describes the histopathologic features of spontaneous APPV infection in CT-affected piglets and complements a previous report by our group. Four two-day-old piglets with CT were evaluated by histopathology, immunohistochemistry (IHC), and molecular assay. The main histopathologic findings at the brain and spinal cord included neuronal necrosis, gliosis, neuronophagia, satellitosis, demyelination, Wallerian degeneration, and Purkinje cell necrosis...
December 2018: Veterinary Microbiology
Peili Hou, Guimin Zhao, Hongmei Wang, Hongbin He
Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) is a worldwide spreading pestivirus affecting cattle and other ruminants; however, there have been few reports on epidemiologic investigation of BVDV in eastern China. In this study, bulk tank milk from 36 herds of dairy cattle in eastern China was submitted to serological investigations, 77.8% of herds was BVDV antibody positive. Individual animal status in two herds was further investigated collecting blood samples, the positive ratio was 49.74% and 24.64%, and the average positive ratio of calves, heifers, and lactating cows was 15...
November 19, 2018: Tropical Animal Health and Production
Sébastien Lambert, Pauline Ezanno, Mathieu Garel, Emmanuelle Gilot-Fromont
Infectious diseases raise many concerns for wildlife and new insights must be gained to manage infected populations. Wild ungulates provide opportunities to gain such insights as they host many pathogens. Using modelling and data collected from an intensively monitored population of Pyrenean chamois, we investigated the role of stochastic processes in governing epidemiological patterns of pestivirus spread in both protected and hunted populations. We showed that demographic stochasticity led to three epidemiological outcomes: early infection fade-out, epidemic outbreaks with population collapse, either followed by virus extinction or by endemic situations...
November 15, 2018: Scientific Reports
Shuonan Pan, Chunxiao Mou, Zhenhai Chen
Emerging porcine pestivirus diseases frequently challenge prevention and control strategies in the swine industry. Over the past decade, a few novel pestiviruses have been identified in pigs. This article focuses on the recently emerging atypical porcine pestivirus (APPV) that potentially threatens global swine herd health security. The virus was first identified in 2016, in the United States and thereafter, accumulated evidence shows that it is currently distributed in three continents. The clinical presentation of APPV-infected pigs is characterized by congenital tremor (CT) type A-II in piglets, while adult pigs may become persistent carriers and shedders...
November 9, 2018: Reviews in Medical Virology
Zhiqiang Wu, Bo Liu, Jiang Du, Junpeng Zhang, Liang Lu, Guangjian Zhu, Yelin Han, Haoxiang Su, Li Yang, Shuyi Zhang, Qiyong Liu, Qi Jin
Bats and rodents are widely distributed worldwide and can be native or intermediate reservoirs of many important zoonotic viruses. Pestiviruses are a group of virus species of the genus Pestivirus under the family Flaviviridae that can infect a wide variety of artiodactylous hosts, including swine and ruminants. Two classic types of pestiviruses, bovine viral diarrhea virus and classical swine fever virus, are important causative agents of mild-to-severe disease in bovine and swine hosts, respectively, and cause tremendous economic losses in these industries...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
Erin Harvey, Karrie Rose, John-Sebastian Eden, Nathan Lo, Thilanka Abeyasuriya, Mang Shi, Stephen L Doggett, Edward C Holmes
Understanding the microbiome of ticks in Australia is of considerable interest given the ongoing debate over whether Lyme disease, and its causative agent the bacterium Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato, are present in Australia. The diversity of bacteria infecting Australian ticks has been studied using both culture and metagenomics based techniques. However, little is known about the virome of Australian ticks, including whether this includes viruses with the potential to infect mammals. We used a meta-transcriptomics approach to reveal the diversity and evolution of viruses from Australian ticks collected from two locations on the central-east coast of Australia, including metropolitan Sydney...
November 7, 2018: Journal of Virology
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