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Jinpeng Li, Raja Settivari, Matthew J LeBaron, M Sue Marty
Developmental neurotoxicity (DNT) is an important endpoint for the safety assessment of chemicals. However, the current in vivo animal model for DNT assessment is resource-intensive and may not fully capture all mechanisms that may be relevant to DNT in humans. As a result, there is a growing need for more reliable, time- and cost-efficient approaches for DNT evaluation. Towards this end, many stem/progenitor cell-based in vitro models and alternative organism-based models are becoming available with the potential for high throughput screening of DNT...
February 17, 2019: Neurotoxicology
K Robin Yabroff, Ted Gansler, Richard C Wender, Kevin J Cullen, Otis W Brawley
Between 1991 and 2015, the cancer mortality rate declined dramatically in the United States, reflecting improvements in cancer prevention, screening, treatment, and survivorship care. However, cancer outcomes in the United States vary substantially between populations defined by race/ethnicity, socioeconomic status, health insurance coverage, and geographic area of residence. Many potentially preventable cancer deaths occur in individuals who did not receive effective cancer prevention, screening, treatment, or survivorship care...
February 20, 2019: CA: a Cancer Journal for Clinicians
Elyce Cardonick, Robert Broadrup, Peining Xu, Mary T Doan, Helen Jiang, Nathaniel W Snyder
OBJECTIVE: Cancer diagnosis during pregnancy occurs in 1 out of 1000 pregnancies with common malignancies including breast and hematological cancers. Fetal exposure to currently utilized agents is poorly described. We directly assessed fetal exposure by screening meconium from 23 newborns whose mothers had undergone treatment for cancer during pregnancy. STUDY DESIGN: Meconium was collected from newborns whose mothers were diagnosed with cancer during pregnancy and underwent chemotherapy in the second or third trimester as part of the Cancer and Pregnancy Registry...
2019: PloS One
Mahnaz Bahri Khomami, Anju E Joham, Jacqueline A Boyle, Terhi Piltonen, Chavy Arora, Michael Silagy, Marie L Misso, Helena J Teede, Lisa J Moran
Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is associated with worsened pregnancy and infant outcomes, higher body mass index (BMI), and longitudinal weight gain. Despite most of the clinical features of PCOS being risk factors for worsened infant outcomes in the general population, their impact on infant outcomes in PCOS is unknown. We aimed to investigate the association of PCOS with infant outcomes considering maternal adiposity, other known risk factors, and potential confounders. The meta-analyses included 42 studies in 7041 women with PCOS and 63 722 women without PCOS...
February 20, 2019: Obesity Reviews: An Official Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
Yasuyuki Honjo, Hajime Takechi
BACKGROUND: Early detection and diagnosis is critical in enhancing treatment outcomes for those with cognitive disease. However, most Japanese patients are averse to visiting mental health clinics or taking cognitive screening examinations. A new simple screening test is needed that is acceptable to patients and encourages them to visit a memory clinic if indicated. METHODS: We developed a brief screening examination, consisting of four common Japanese old stories, for detection of cognitive disease...
February 20, 2019: Psychogeriatrics: the Official Journal of the Japanese Psychogeriatric Society
James A Smith, Elisa Mele, Rowan P Rimington, Andrew J Capel, Mark P Lewis, Vadim V Silberschmidt, Simin Li
Functionally graded materials (FGMs), with varying spatial, chemical and mechanical gradients (continuous or stepwise), have the potential to mimic heterogenous properties found across biological tissues. They can prevent stress concentrations and retain healthy cellular functions. Here, we show for the first time the fabrication of polydimethylsiloxane and poly(ether) ether ketone (PDMS-PEEK) composites. These were successfully manufactured as a bulk material and functionally graded (stepwise) without the use of hazardous solvents or the need of additives...
February 12, 2019: Journal of the Mechanical Behavior of Biomedical Materials
Rita Morigi, Alessandra Locatelli, Alberto Leoni, Mirella Rambaldi, Roberta Bortolozzi, Elena Mattiuzzo, Roberto Ronca, Federica Maccarinelli, Ernest Hamel, Ruoli Bai, Andrea Brancale, Giampietro Viola
A small library of 3-(5-imidazo[2,1-b]thiazolylmethylene)-2-indolinones has been synthesized and screened according to protocols available at the National Cancer Institute (NCI). Some derivatives were potent antiproliferative agents, showing GI50 values in the nanomolar range. Remarkably, when most active compounds against leukemia cells were tested in human peripheral blood lymphocytes from healthy donors, were 100-200 times less cytotoxic. Some compounds, selected by the Biological Evaluation Committee of NCI, were examined to determine tubulin assembly inhibition...
January 26, 2019: European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
Yuqiang Bi, Paul Westerhoff
The rapid development of photocatalysts for water decontamination benefits from availability of sensitive platforms for screening photocatalytic reactivity. The standard approach typically involves quantifying the degradation of a single dye compound in a slurry system in individual beakers, which requires tedious photocatalyst separation and long operation time. We present a simple and efficient method for assessing the photocatalytic activity of different photocatalyst nanomaterials that eliminates the solid separation process...
February 8, 2019: Chemosphere
Marcus Dörr, Vivien Nohturfft, Noé Brasier, Emil Bosshard, Aleksandar Djurdjevic, Stefan Gross, Christina J Raichle, Mattias Rhinisperger, Raphael Stöckli, Jens Eckstein
OBJECTIVES: The WATCH AF (SmartWATCHes for Detection of Atrial Fibrillation) trial compared the diagnostic accuracy to detect atrial fibrillation (AF) by a smartwatch-based algorithm using photoplethysmographic (PPG) signals with cardiologists' diagnosis by electrocardiography (ECG). BACKGROUND: Timely detection of AF is crucial for stroke prevention. METHODS: In this prospective, 2-center, case-control trial, a PPG pulse wave recording using a commercially available smartwatch was obtained along with Internet-enabled mobile ECG in 672 hospitalized subjects...
February 2019: JACC. Clinical Electrophysiology
Ashley Palmer, Mustafa Karakus, Tami Mark
OBJECTIVE: This study identifies key barriers faced by primary care providers (PCP) in implementation of screening, brief intervention, and referral to treatment (SBIRT) services for substance use disorders among adolescents. METHODS: The authors used mixed methods, including 12 key informant interviews and a survey with 75 PCPs, to identify key barriers to PCP implementation of SBIRT services. RESULTS: Time constraints, challenges related to parental involvement, a perceived lack of effectiveness of brief intervention services, and lack of training in providing brief intervention were barriers to screening and brief intervention...
February 20, 2019: Psychiatric Services: a Journal of the American Psychiatric Association
Julia Guzmán-Puche, Irene Gracia-Ahufinger, Manuel Causse, Rocío Tejero-García, Fernando Carlos Rodríguez-López, Manuel Casal-Román
This study proposes an algorithm for microbiological diagnosis of urinary tract infections based on screening by luminometry and Gram-stain, followed by identification by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS). Positive urine samples detected with the luminometry screening Coral UTI ScreenTM system underwent Gram staining and identification of the causative organism was performed by MALDI-TOF Microflex LT mass spectrometer (Bruker Daltonics, Germany). Subsequently, the results were compared with those of conventional culture identification using WIDER MIC/id system (Francisco Soria Melguizo SA, Spain)...
February 20, 2019: Journal of Chemotherapy
Claudio De Liberato, Federica Berrilli, Teresa Bossù, Adele Magliano, Margherita Montalbano Di Filippo, David Di Cave, Mariano Sigismondi, Annunziata Cannavacciuolo, Paola Scaramozzino
Swimmer's itch is caused by the penetration of free-swimming larvae of trematodes of the family Schistosomatidae in human skin. It is usually reported in people engaged in recreational water activities in freshwater bodies and in most of cases, it is provoked by bird schistosomes of the genus Trichobilharzia. In the summer 2017, many cases of dermatitis were recorded in people bathing in the waters of the Albano Lake (Rome, Italy) and a parasitological investigation was carried out in order to ascertain the causative agent of these cases...
February 19, 2019: Zoonoses and Public Health
Qiang Tian, Fang Liu, Zhou Xu, Huan Liu, Hao Yin, Zhaolin Sun, Mingcang Chen, Zhixiong Li, Lin Ma, Chenggang Huang
In this study, Yin-Chen-Hao-Tang prepared by two decoction methods, namely, combined decoction (modern decoction method) and separated decoction (traditional decoction method), was analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry. The acquired datasets containing sample codes, tR -m/z pairs and ion intensities were processed with multivariate statistical analyses, such as principal component analysis and an orthogonal partial least squared discriminant analysis model, to globally compare the chemical differences between the different decoction samples...
February 19, 2019: Journal of Separation Science
Y Yi, H Denic-Roberts, D Rubinstein, T J Orchard, T Costacou
AIM: To test the hypothesis that delayed menarche is associated with an increased microvascular complication risk. METHODS: We studied the female participants of an ongoing prospective study of childhood-onset Type 1 diabetes diagnosed during the period 1950-1980. Of 325 women, we included data from 315 who had reached menarche by the study baseline (1986-1988) and who self-reported their age at menarche. Both cross-sectional and prospective analyses over the 25-year follow-up were used to assess the relationship of age at menarche with the prevalence, incidence and cumulative incidence of microvascular complications, comprising overt nephropathy, proliferative retinopathy and confirmed distal symmetric polyneuropathy...
February 19, 2019: Diabetic Medicine: a Journal of the British Diabetic Association
Ehsan Shahverdi, Mostafa Moghaddam, Hassan Abolghasemi
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: In transfusion medicine, it may be a challenge to acquire compatible blood for patients who have clinically important alloantibodies to high-prevalence antigens. The aim of this study was to study prevalence of rare D-- phenotype in samples from patients and their relatives referred to the Immunohematology reference laboratory of the Iranian Blood Transfusion Organization and the detection and identification of the phenotype and associated antibodies, particularly in an antenatal setting...
February 19, 2019: Vox Sanguinis
Tânia C Gonçalves, Evelyne Benoit, Michael Kurz, Laetitia Lucarain, Sophie Fouconnier, Stéphanie Combemale, Lucie Jaquillard, Brigitte Schombert, Jean-Marie Chambard, Rachid Boukaiba, Gerhard Hessler, Andrees Bohme, Laurent Bialy, Stéphane Hourcade, Rémy Béroud, Michel De Waard, Denis Servent, Michel Partiseti
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: NaV 1.7 channel subtype is highly expressed in dorsal root ganglia of the sensory nervous system and plays a central role in the pain signaling process. We investigated a library prepared from original venoms of 117 different animals to identify new selective inhibitors of this target. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH: We used high-throughput screening of a large venom collection using automated patch-clamp experiments on human voltage-gated sodium channel subtypes, and then in vitro and in vivo electrophysiological experiments to characterize the active peptides that have been purified, sequenced and chemically synthesized...
February 19, 2019: British Journal of Pharmacology
Barbara Bortone, Camilla Totaro, Pasqua Putignano, Sara Sollai, Luisa Galli, Maurizio de Martino, Elena Chiappini
BACKGROUND: Internationally adopted children (IAC) can present growth impairment at arrival, which usually recovers over time. Moreover, a major prevalence of precocious puberty has been reported in this group. METHODS: All IAC referred to a tertiary level hospital in Italy from January 2016 to June 2017, underwent a standardized screening protocol and were prospectively enrolled in the study. The analyses of possible risk factors for growth impairment and precocious puberty were performed...
February 19, 2019: World Journal of Pediatrics: WJP
Jason L Hicks, Samantha N Spitler, Megan H Papesh
Prospective memory (PM) is typically measured using keypresses in laboratory paradigms, which therefore assess only discrete, stage-like processes. In the present study we manipulated focal and nonfocal PM cue conditions, as well as participants' focus on different aspects of the PM/ongoing task set, using the methodology to capture dynamic computer mouse movements. The software captured mouse trajectories during lexical decisions and PM responses. We replicated many findings typical in the PM literature, including the accuracy advantage for focal over nonfocal conditions and longer ongoing-task response times for nonfocal conditions...
February 19, 2019: Memory & Cognition
Bryan S Benn, Mihir Parikh, Pei H Tsau, Eric Seeley, Ganesh Krishna
PURPOSE: While there is significant mortality and morbidity with lung cancer, early stage diagnoses carry a better prognosis. As lung cancer screening programs increase with more pulmonary nodules detected, expediting definitive treatment initiation for newly diagnosed patients is imperative. The objective of our analysis was to determine if the use of a dedicated interventional pulmonology practice decreases time delay from new diagnosis of lung cancer or metastatic disease to the chest to treatment initiation...
February 19, 2019: Lung
Harshini Manohar, Preeti Kandasamy, Venkatesh Chandrasekaran, Ravi Philip Rajkumar
Background: Early interventions in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) reduce progressive symptom development. Delay in diagnosis and initiation of ASD-specific interventions is observed across settings. This study aimed to assess the trends in time to diagnosis and treatment initiation in a tertiary care pediatric setting. Methodology: Families of children with ASD ( n = 50) were assessed, and details regarding age at first symptom recognition, medical consultation, receiving the diagnosis, and initiation of treatment were collected, in addition to detailed clinical assessment...
January 2019: Indian Journal of Psychological Medicine
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