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Abdulrahman M AlTahan, Thomas Berger, Ibrahim A AlOrainy, Husam AlTahan
BACKGROUND Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML) is a serious opportunistic infectious disease with high morbidity and mortality. Its incidence in multiple sclerosis (MS) patients has risen since the introduction of disease modifying drugs. In the absence of a specific treatment, the outcome depends heavily on early diagnosis, which illustrates the importance of the role of characteristic brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). However, when relying mainly on MRI, the diagnosis of cases with atypical radiological changes may be missed or delayed...
January 24, 2019: American Journal of Case Reports
Roberta Agabio, Emanuela Trogu, Pier Paolo Pani
BACKGROUND: Alcohol dependence is a major public health problem characterized by recidivism, and medical and psychosocial complications. The co-occurrence of major depression in people entering treatment for alcohol dependence is common, and represents a risk factor for morbidity and mortality, which negatively influences treatment outcomes. OBJECTIVES: To assess the benefits and risks of antidepressants for the treatment of people with co-occurring depression and alcohol dependence...
April 24, 2018: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
Kehua Zhou, Peng Jia, Swati Bhargava, Yong Zhang, Taslima Reza, Yuan Bo Peng, Gary G Wang
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Opioid use disorder (OUD) refers to a maladaptive pattern of opioid use leading to clinically significant impairment or distress. OUD causes, and vice versa, misuses and abuse of opioid medications. Clinicians face daily challenges to treat patients with prescription opioid use disorder. An evidence-based management for people who are already addicted to opioids has been identified as the national priority in the US; however, options are limited in clinical practices...
October 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Pain
Claudia Stöllberger, Josef Finsterer
OBJECTIVES AND BACKGROUND: Rivaroxaban, an oral direct factor Xa-inhibitor was non-inferior to adjusted dose warfarin in the prevention of stroke and embolism among patients with atrial fibrillation (AF) in the ROCKET-AF trial and has been approved for stroke prevention in AF. CASE REPORT: A 88-years-old female (body-mass-index = 19.95) with AF, hypertension and diabetes mellitus, hospitalized because of heart failure and a non-convulsive epileptic state, was treated by valproate, mirtazepin, nebivolol, digitoxin, lisinopril, gliclazide and amlodipine...
May 2014: Heart & Lung: the Journal of Critical Care
Alaa M Ismail, Simon W Dubrey, Maneesh C Patel
A 48-year-old black male, of Nigerian heritage, presented with a 24-hour history of frontal headache of gradual onset. The headache characteristic was migranous, being described as throbbing in nature and located to the right frontal area with associated blurring of vision. Although similar to prior frequent headaches, there was now increasing unsteadiness on walking. Diagnosed 10 years earlier with Behçet's disease, the initial presentation was with oral and genital ulceration. Recurrent episodes of headache caused by neurological flare-ups resulted in a stroke at the age of 46 years...
October 2013: British Journal of Hospital Medicine
Klaus J Wirth, Klaus Steinmeyer, Hartmut Ruetten
STUDY OBJECTIVES: Drug treatment for obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is desirable because at least 30% of patients do not tolerate continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) treatment. The negative pressure reflex (NPR) involving superficially located mechanoreceptors in the upper airway (UA) is an important mechanism for UA patency inhibitable by topical UA anesthesia (lidocaine). The NPR may serve as a target for pharmacological intervention for a topical treatment of OSA. The objective was to determine the effect of pharmacological augmentation of the NPR on UA collapsibility...
May 2013: Sleep
Heather Counsell, Sophie Johnson
Following a minor road traffic accident (RTA) a 55-year-old woman developed a new onset of whole body tremor and abnormal gait. This was in the context of significant previous depressive episodes and a traumatic background relating to RTAs. After extensive investigation, no organic causes were identified. The patient was subsequently referred to psychiatry and diagnosed with conversion disorder. Subsequently, various treatments including mirtazepine, venlafaxine, clonazepam, diazepam and lithium have been tried...
2013: BMJ Case Reports
Amit Bhasin, Anil Gurtoo, Latika Gupta, Gunjan Aggarwal
A 28-year-old woman, a known case of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), was admitted with mucocutaneous ulceroerosive lesions with blisters and thrombocytopenia after taking antidepressant mirtazepine. Exacerbation of SLE and drug-induced eruption was diagnosed. Clinical and laboratory markers were suggestive of Stevens-Johnson syndrome. This is a rare adverse effect of the newer generation antidepressant mirtazepine.
September 2012: Indian Journal of Pharmacology
Itoro Udo, Amanda Gash
This is a complex case of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) with comorbid panic disorder occurring in a woman in her mid-60s, with a family history of neurotic illness. PTSD arose in the context of treatment for terminal lung cancer. This patient who had been close to her father watched him die of cancer, when he was about her age. Her diagnosis and treatment prompted traumatic recollections of her father's illness and death that resulted in her voluntary withdrawal from cancer treatment. The goals of treatment were to promptly reduce anxiety, minimise use of sedating pharmacotherapy, promote lucidity and prolong anxiety-free state thereby allowing time for important family interactions...
October 9, 2012: BMJ Case Reports
Ozlem Celik, Mutlu Niyazoglu, Hikmet Soylu, Pinar Kadioglu
Current guidelines recommend the use of inhaled corticosteroids (ICS) for suppression of airway inflammation in patients with asthma. Although it is well known that ICS cause dose-related adrenocortical suppression, it is less known that they can lead to iatrogenic Cushing's syndrome (CS). Fluticasone propionate (FP) is an ICS more potent than beclomethasone and budesonide. FP is metabolized as mediated by cytochrome P450 3A4 in the liver and the gut. Systemic bioactivity of FP can increase with the use of drugs that affect the cytochrome P450...
2012: Multidisciplinary Respiratory Medicine
Daniel Carlat
The efficacy of antidepressants has become a contentious topic over the last decade, and yet a review of the literature shows that they are consistently more effective than placebo. Although the average magnitude of this effect is unclear, many individual patients respond well to a course of antidepressants, and relapse when the medication is discontinued. Choosing the right antidepressant for a given patient remains more art than science, but the studies reviewed here provide some helpful guidance. Table 4 lists the second-generation antidepressants along with potential reasons for choosing one over the other (based on side effects, costs, or possible therapeutic advantages...
March 2012: Psychiatric Clinics of North America
Pranav Sikka, Sadhna Kaushik, Gyanendra Kumar, Seema Kapoor, V K Bindra, K K Saxena
OBJECTIVE: to study the probable site of antinociceptive action of SSRI (fluoxetine, escitalopram) and atypical antidepressants (mirtazapine, venlafaxine) and their interaction with morphine and naloxone. MATERIALS AND METHODS: the study was conducted on albino mice (25-35 grams) of either sex. Different doses of morphine (0.5 and 1 mg/kg), fluoxetine (2, 5 and 10 mg/kg), venlafaxine (30, 40 and 50 mg/kg), mirtazapine (3, 5 and 7 mg/kg) and escitalopram (2.5, 5 and 10 mg/kg) were administered subcutaneously to obtain their subanalgesic doses using tail flick analgesiometer...
July 2011: Journal of Pharmacy & Bioallied Sciences
Sophie Butler, Clare Holt, Mark Agius, Rashid Zaman
In recent years, there has been particular interest in the use of augmentation. Potential augmentation regimes include the addition of atypical antipsychotics (e.g. risperidone/olanzapine) or other antidepressants (e.g. mirtazepine). The purpose of this audit was to compare patient outcomes between groups receiving different augmentation strategies. Overall we found that augmentation with mirtazepine resulted in better outcomes in terms of both discharge rates and in terms of reduction in suicidality than augmentation with atypical antipsychotics...
September 2011: Psychiatria Danubina
Clare Holt, Sophie Butler, Mark Agius, Rashid Zaman
In recent years, there has been particular interest in the use of augmentation as a strategy for the treatment of refractory depression. The purpose of this audit was to define patient factors among people receiving augmentation therapy with either mirtazepine or atypical antipsychotics. We searched an anonymised database of patients and identified those with receiving augmentation with mirtazepine (group A), atypical antipsychotics (group B) or both (group C). The audit reveals some interesting differences in patient factors between the three groups...
September 2011: Psychiatria Danubina
Breffni Hannon, Peter Fitzgerald, Marie Murphy
We present a case report of a severe treatment resistant major depressive episode in a patient with advanced cancer and limited life expectancy which resolved completely within 10 days of commencing combination therapy involving mirtazepine and paroxetine. Aggressive treatment of clinical depression even in the context of short life expectancy (that is, a short number of weeks) can dramatically reduce patient and family distress and improve quality of life.
2008: BMJ Case Reports
Gregory M Solis, Michael Petrascheck
Lifespan is a biological process regulated by several genetic pathways. One strategy to investigate the biology of aging is to study animals that harbor mutations in components of age-regulatory pathways. If these mutations perturb the function of the age-regulatory pathway and therefore alter the lifespan of the entire organism, they provide important mechanistic insights. Another strategy to investigate the regulation of lifespan is to use small molecules to perturb age-regulatory pathways. To date, a number of molecules are known to extend lifespan in various model organisms and are used as tools to study the biology of aging...
2011: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
Andis Graudins, Hanh Ngoc Pham, Chris Salonikas, Daya Naidoo, Betty Chan
BACKGROUND: Panadol Osteo (GlaxoSmithKline) is a modified-release paracetamol formulation marketed in Australia and New Zealand, comprising 33% immediate and 66% sustained-release fractions. In overdose, absorption may be delayed and the paracetamol treatment nomogram can miss potentially toxic paracetamol concentrations if only one serum estimate is taken. We report a massive ingestion of Panadol Osteo with biphasic, prolonged absorption requiring extended treatment with N-acetylcysteine...
August 7, 2009: New Zealand Medical Journal
Isaac Schweitzer, Kay Maguire, Chee Ng
The aim of the present study was to review the sexual side-effects of contemporary antidepressants in Australia, comparing the selective serotonin re-uptake inhibitors (SSRIs) with venlafaxine, reboxetine, mirtazepine, duloxetine, bupropion, desvenlafaxine and agomelatine. Double-blind, randomized comparative studies of these antidepressants that included assessment of sexual dysfunction with validated rating scales in patients with major depressive disorder were identified from the literature using MEDLINE, EMBASE and PsychINFO databases...
September 2009: Australian and New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry
Jonathan I Bisson
INTRODUCTION: Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) may affect 10% of women and 5% of men at some stage, and symptoms may persist for several years. Risk factors include major trauma, lack of social support, peritraumatic dissociation, and psychiatric or personality factors. METHODS AND OUTCOMES: We conducted a systematic review and aimed to answer the following clinical questions: What are the effects of interventions to prevent; and to treat PTSD? We searched: Medline, Embase, The Cochrane Library and other important databases up to December 2006 (Clinical Evidence reviews are updated periodically, please check our website for the most up-to-date version of this review)...
August 1, 2007: Clinical Evidence
Joaquim Jos Ferreira, Cristina Sampaio
INTRODUCTION: Essential tremor is one of the most common movement disorders throughout the world, with prevalence in the general population of 0.4-3.9%. Although most people with essential tremor are only mildly affected, those who seek medical care are disabled to some extent, and most are socially handicapped by the tremor. METHODS AND OUTCOMES: We conducted a systematic review and aimed to answer the following clinical question: What are the effects of drug treatments in people with essential tremor of the hand? We searched: Medline, Embase, The Cochrane Library and other important databases up to December 2006 (Clinical Evidence reviews are updated periodically, please check our website for the most up-to-date version of this review)...
May 1, 2007: Clinical Evidence
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