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https://read.qxmd.com/read/30771721/economic-sanctions-threaten-population-health-the-case-of-iran
#1
M Aloosh, A Salavati, A Aloosh
OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study is to review evidence of the negative consequences of international economic sanctions on population health in Iran and pathways via which the sanctions affect health. STUDY DESIGN: This is a narrative review. METHODS: Data from the World Bank and the Central Bank of Iran were gathered to clarify economic consequences of sanctions. Moreover, the literature was reviewed for published data on health consequences of economic sanctions in Iran and economic crisis in other parts of the world...
February 13, 2019: Public Health
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30771608/migrant-polish-women-overcoming-communication-challenges-in-scottish-maternity-services-a-qualitative-descriptive-study
#2
Susan Crowther, Annie Lau
BACKGROUND: Migrant women are more likely to experience sub-optimal maternity outcomes and are often described in a problematised way. Communication is crucial in maternity and can be compromised if the language of that service is delivered in a language incomprehensible to migrant women. METHODS: Qualitative descriptive study using 9 in-depth individual interviews with Polish women who recently had experience of local maternity services. Recorded interviews were transcribed and thematically analysed...
February 7, 2019: Midwifery
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30771134/mozambique-s-community-antiretroviral-therapy-support-group-program-the-role-of-social-relationships-in-facilitating-hiv-aids-treatment-retention
#3
Karen E Kun, Aleny Couto, Kebba Jobarteh, Rose Zulliger, Elpidia Pedro, Inacio Malimane, Andrew Auld, Marisa Meldonian
The Community Antiretroviral (ARV) Therapy Support Group (CASG) program aims to address low retention rates in Mozambique's HIV treatment program and the absorptive capacity of the country's health facilities. CASG provides patients with the opportunity to form groups, whose members provide peer support and collect ARV medications on a rotating basis for one another. Based on the promising results in one province, a multi-site level evaluation followed. We report on qualitative findings from this evaluation from the patient perspective on the role of social relationships (as facilitated through CASG) in conferring time, financial, educational and psychosocial benefits that contribute to improved patient retention...
February 15, 2019: AIDS and Behavior
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30771021/validation-of-a-health-screening-questionnaire-for-primary-care-using-rasch-models
#4
Jonathan David Comins, Kirsten Schierup Freund, Karl Bang Christensen, Jørgen Lous, John Brodersen
BACKGROUND: Health inequality is on the rise due to various social and individual factors. While preventive health checks (PHC) aim to counteract health inequality, there is robust evidence against the use of PHC in general practice. It is unknown which factors can identify persons who will benefit from preventive interventions that are more beneficial than harmful. Hence, valid screening instruments are needed. METHODS: The aim of this study was to assess the psychometric properties of a screening questionnaire (SQ-33), which targets vulnerable persons in primary care practice who can benefit from preventive consultations...
February 15, 2019: Journal of patient-reported outcomes
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30770756/a-systematic-review-of-multi-level-stigma-interventions-state-of-the-science-and-future-directions
#5
Deepa Rao, Ahmed Elshafei, Minh Nguyen, Mark L Hatzenbuehler, Sarah Frey, Vivian F Go
BACKGROUND: Researchers have long recognized that stigma is a global, multi-level phenomenon requiring intervention approaches that target multiple levels including individual, interpersonal, community, and structural levels. While existing interventions have produced modest reductions in stigma, their full reach and impact remain limited by a nearly exclusive focus targeting only one level of analysis. METHODS: We conducted the first systematic review of original research on multi-level stigma-reduction interventions...
February 15, 2019: BMC Medicine
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30770609/the-burden-of-proof-the-process-of-involving-young-people-in-research
#6
Gail Dovey-Pearce, Sophie Walker, Sophie Fairgrieve, Monica Parker, Tim Rapley
Patient and public involvement in research includes non-academics working with researchers, on activities from consultative tasks, to joint working, and on user-led initiatives. Health and social care funding bodies require involvement in research projects. A current debate focuses on a perceived lack of empirical "proof" to demonstrate the impact of involvement upon the quality of research. It is also argued that the working relationships between researchers and those becoming involved need to be understood more fully...
February 15, 2019: Health Expectations: An International Journal of Public Participation in Health Care and Health Policy
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30770324/neuropsychiatric-symptoms-in-tanzanian-hiv-infected-children-receiving-long-term-efavirenz-treatment-a-multicentre-cross-sectional-observational-study
#7
Lisa Van de Wijer, Deborah N Mchaile, Quirijn de Mast, Blandina T Mmbaga, Nanda N J Rommelse, Ashanti Duinmaijer, André J A M van der Ven, Arnt F A Schellekens, Grace D Kinabo
BACKGROUND: Efavirenz is commonly prescribed for children with HIV infection, yet little is known about risks of neuropsychiatric side-effects. We aimed to compare competence (social involvement, activities, and school performance) and psychopathology (internalising and externalising problems), cognitive performance (intelligence and working memory), and adherence in Tanzanian children on an efavirenz-based versus a non-efavirenz-based regimen. METHODS: In this multicentre, cross-sectional, observational study, we included consecutive children (aged 6-12 years) with HIV infection, on combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) for at least 6 months, and with viral loads of less than 1000 copies per mL from HIV care clinics of three primary health facilities and three referral hospitals in Moshi, Kilimanjaro, Tanzania...
February 12, 2019: Lancet HIV
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30770152/-profiles-of-loneliness-and-social-isolation-in-urban-population
#8
Joan Gené-Badia, Pierre Comice, Adriyanov Belchín, María Ángeles Erdozain, Leticia Cáliz, Susana Torres, Rocío Rodríguez
OBJECTIVE: To assess the prevalence of loneliness and social isolation in a population over 65 cared by a urban primary health team and to identify its main characteristics. DESIGN: Cross-sectional descriptive study by a telephone survey. SETTING: Basic health area of Barcelona. PARTICIPANTS: Random sample of assigned population of 65 or more years old. MAIN MEASUREMENTS: UCLA Loneliness Scale and Lubben Social Network Scale...
February 12, 2019: Atencion Primaria
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30769192/access-to-hematopoietic-stem-cell-transplantation-among-pediatric-patients-with-acute-lymphoblastic-leukemia-a-population-based-analysis
#9
Tony H Truong, Jason D Pole, Henrique Bittencourt, Tal Schechter, Geoff D E Cuvelier, Kristjan Paulson, Meera Rayar, David Mitchell, Kirk R Schultz, Debbie O'Shea, Randy Barber, Donna Wall, Lillian Sung
INTRODUCTION: Access to hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) in pediatric acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) is primarily dependent on disease-related factors but may be influenced by social and economic determinants. METHODS: We included all children < 15 years old with newly diagnosed ALL in Canada between 2001 and 2018 using the Cancer in Young People in Canada (CYP-C) national registry. We examined factors potentially associated with the likelihood of receiving HSCT using univariate and multivariable logistic regression models...
February 12, 2019: Biology of Blood and Marrow Transplantation
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30768840/family-and-transplant-professionals-views-of-organ-recovery-before-circulatory-death-for-imminently-dying-patients-a-qualitative-study-using-semi-structured-interviews-and-focus-groups
#10
Christopher J Zimmermann, Nathan D Baggett, Lauren J Taylor, Anne Buffington, Joseph Scalea, Norman Fost, Kenneth D Croes, Joshua D Mezrich, Margaret L Schwarze
Donation before circulatory death for imminently dying patients has been proposed to address organ scarcity and harms of non-donation. To characterize stakeholder attitudes about organ recovery before circulatory death we conducted semi-structured interviews with family members (N=15) who had experienced a loved one's unsuccessful donation after circulatory death and focus groups with professional stakeholders (surgeons, anesthesiologists, critical care specialists, palliative care specialists, organ procurement personnel, and policymakers, N=46)...
February 15, 2019: American Journal of Transplantation
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30768779/the-impact-of-psychosocial-stress-and-stress-management-on-immune-responses-in-patients-with-cancer
#11
REVIEW
Michael H Antoni, Firdaus S Dhabhar
The range of psychosocial stress factors/processes (eg, chronic stress, distress states, coping, social adversity) were reviewed as they relate to immune variables in cancer along with studies of psychosocial interventions on these stress processes and immune measures in cancer populations. The review includes molecular, cellular, and clinical research specifically examining the effects of stress processes and stress-management interventions on immune variables (eg, cellular immune function, inflammation), which may or may not be changing directly in response to the cancer or its treatment...
February 15, 2019: Cancer
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30768768/patient-perspectives-on-smoking-cessation-and-interventions-in-rheumatology-clinics
#12
Aimée Wattiaux, Brittany Bettendorf, Laura Block, Andrea Gilmore-Bykovskyi, Edmond Ramly, Megan E Piper, Ann Rosenthal, Jane Sadusky, Elizabeth Cox, Betty Chewning, Christie M Bartels
OBJECTIVE: Although smoking is a risk factor for cardiovascular and rheumatic disease severity, only 10% of rheumatology visits document cessation counseling. After implementing a rheumatology clinic protocol that increased tobacco quitline referrals 20-fold, current objectives were to 1) examine patients' barriers and facilitators to smoking cessation based on prior rheumatology experiences, 2) solicit reactions to the new cessation protocol, and 3) identify patient-centered outcomes or "signs of cessation progress" following improved care...
February 15, 2019: Arthritis Care & Research
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30768642/hiv-disclosure-hiv-positive-status-disclosure-to-sexual-partners-among-individuals-receiving-hiv-care-in-addis-ababa-ethiopia
#13
Noah G Dessalegn, Rahel G Hailemichael, Aster Shewa-Amare, Shailendra Sawleshwarkar, Bereket Lodebo, Alemayehu Amberbir, Richard J Hillman
INTRODUCTION: Disclosure of HIV status to sexual partners can help HIV prevention efforts and enable HIV positive people to receive social support, as well as increasing access and adherence to treatment. This study was conducted to determine the rate, processes, outcomes, and correlates of HIV status disclosure to sexual partners among HIV positive individuals. METHOD: A cross-sectional study was conducted between September and November 2015 at two HIV outpatient clinics in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia...
2019: PloS One
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30768640/behavioural-and-psychiatric-phenotypes-in-female-carriers-of-genetic-mutations-associated-with-x-linked-ichthyosis
#14
Alice Cavenagh, Sohini Chatterjee, William Davies
X-linked ichthyosis (XLI) is a rare X-linked dermatological condition arising from deficiency for the enzyme steroid sulfatase (STS). STS is normally expressed in the brain, and males with XLI exhibit personality differences from males in the general population, and are at increased risk of developmental and mood disorders. As the STS gene escapes X-inactivation, female carriers of XLI-associated genetic mutations have reduced STS expression/activity relative to non-carrier females, and could manifest similar behavioural phenotypes to males with XLI...
2019: PloS One
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30768415/ethnic-differences-in-referral-routes-to-youth-mental-health-services
#15
Julian Edbrooke-Childs, Praveetha Patalay
OBJECTIVE: To examine whether there are ethnic differences in referral route to youth mental health services. METHOD: This was an analysis of national routinely collected data from N = 14,588 young people (mean [SD] age = 12.28(3.75) years, 54% female; 64% White British) accessing mental health services in the UK. Ethnicity was self-reported by young people and carers and referral route was recorded by services. RESULTS: After accounting for service-level variation and controlling for age, gender, problem type, and contextual factors, ethnicity was significantly associated with referral route...
January 4, 2019: Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30767965/barriers-to-lung-cancer-screening-with-low-dose-computed-tomography
#16
Fang Lei, Eunice Lee
PROBLEM IDENTIFICATION: Despite lung cancer screening guidelines and insurance coverage changes, rates of lung cancer screening with low-dose computed tomography remain suboptimal among the eligible population in the United States. LITERATURE SEARCH: Electronic literature databases, including PubMed, CINAHL®, PsycINFO, and Google Scholar, were searched. DATA EVALUATION: After applying filter information and inclusion and exclusion criteria, 10 articles were reviewed...
March 1, 2019: Oncology Nursing Forum
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30767955/patient-experience-factors-and-health-related-quality-of-life-in-hospitalized-individuals
#17
Fawwaz Alaloul, John Myers, Katlin M Masterson, Joey DiCicco, Michelle Perry Collins, Felicia Hogan, Luke Roesler, M Cynthia Logsdon
PURPOSE: To identify a relationship between patient satisfaction with the hospital experience and health-related quality of life (HRQOL), as well as determine predictors of each variable. PARTICIPANTS &AMP; SETTING: 50 patients with cancer in two adult oncology units in an academic health sciences center. METHODOLOGIC APPROACH: A descriptive, cross-sectional design was used. Patient satisfaction was measured by the Hospital Consumer Assessment of Healthcare Providers and Systems (HCAHPS) and HRQOL was assessed using the Quality of Life Patient/Cancer Survivor (QOL-CS) version...
March 1, 2019: Oncology Nursing Forum
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30767654/health-savings-account-ownership-and-financial-barriers-to-health-care-what-social-workers-should-know
#18
Sally Anne Hageman, Diane Marie M St George
Over a decade ago, Health Savings Accounts (HSAs) were deemed contrary to social work values, leading to greater inequality in access to health care. Using data from the 2015 National Health Interview Survey (NHIS) (n = 12,265), we examine whether HSA ownership is associated with unmet need for health care due to cost (financial barrier). HSA ownership was significantly associated with reduced financial barriers to health care (p < .001) in the regression model. Owning an HSA may be related to reducing financial barriers to health care access, which could inform improvements in HSA policy provisions for social work practice...
February 15, 2019: Social Work in Public Health
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30767614/the-impact-of-the-physical-environment-on-intrapartum-maternity-care-identification-of-eight-crucial-building-spaces
#19
Nicoletta Setola, Eletta Naldi, Grazia Giulia Cocina, Liv Bodil Eide, Laura Iannuzzi, Deirdre Daly
OBJECTIVES, PURPOSE, OR AIM: This article investigates whether the physical environment in which childbirth occurs impacts the intrapartum intervention rates and how this might happen. The study explores the spatial physical characteristics that can support the design of spaces to promote the health and well-being of women, their supporters, and maternity care professionals. BACKGROUND: Medical interventions during childbirth have consequences for the health of women and babies in the immediate and long term...
February 15, 2019: HERD
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30767604/decoding-nonadherence-to-hypertensive-medication-in-new-york-city-a-population-segmentation-approach
#20
Yan Li, Foram Jasani, Dejun Su, Donglan Zhang, Lizheng Shi, Stella S Yi, José A Pagán
OBJECTIVE: Nearly one-third of adults in New York City (NYC) have high blood pressure and many social, economic, and behavioral factors may influence nonadherence to antihypertensive medication. The objective of this study is to identify profiles of adults who are not taking antihypertensive medications despite being advised to do so. METHODS: We used a machine learning-based population segmentation approach to identify population profiles related to nonadherence to antihypertensive medication...
January 2019: Journal of Primary Care & Community Health
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