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"Guidelines" AND (Treatment Or Prevention Or Diagnosis)

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February 7, 2019: Zhonghua Er Bi Yan Hou Tou Jing Wai Ke za Zhi, Chinese Journal of Otorhinolaryngology Head and Neck Surgery
Da Wei Thong, Jason Kim, Benjamin Dobson, Henry Cheung, Thomas Arthur
BACKGROUND: This study aims to establish compliance levels to prescription guidelines among Australian surgeons in the use of antibiotics in the surgical management of appendicitis. The secondary outcomes are predictors of post-operative infective complications; surgical site infection (SSI) and intra-abdominal abscess (IAA) at 30 days. METHODS: A multi-centre, prospective, observational study was conducted over a period of 2 months with a 30-day follow-up. Patients were eligible for recruitment if they underwent appendicectomy for suspected appendicitis...
February 18, 2019: ANZ Journal of Surgery
P Kardos, Q T Dinh, K-H Fuchs, A Gillissen, L Klimek, M Koehler, H Sitter, H Worth
The present 2019 S2k consensus guideline of the German Respiratory Society was written - in contrast to the predecessor more general S3 guidelines from 2004 and 2010 - for pneumologists, since 2014 the German College of General Practitioners and Family Physicians (DEGAM) published his own cough guidelines.The guideline contains 48 recommendations agreed by consensus and 16 statements, which are explained in the background text in the following nine chapters: epidemiology, physiology, classification, acute, subacute or chronic cough, diagnostics and therapy; an extra chapter was dedicated to chronic idiopathic cough...
February 18, 2019: Pneumologie
Minou van Seyen, Marga J A de Graaff Teulen, Nielka P van Erp, David M Burger
Direct-acting antivirals (DAA) have markedly improved the treatment of hepatitis C, with a series of DAA combinations available for treatment. A sensitive method by ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS) was developed for the simultaneous quantification of seven commonly used DAAs, daclatasvir (DAC), elbasvir (ELB), grazoprevir (GZR), ledipasvir (LDV), simeprevir (SIM), sofosbuvir (SOF), velpatasvir (VEL) and the primary analyte of interest of SOF (GS-331007) in EDTA plasma...
January 28, 2019: Journal of Chromatography. B, Analytical Technologies in the Biomedical and Life Sciences
Davide Marco Croci, Martina Dalolio, Raphael Guzman, Luigi Mariani, Stefan Schaeren, Maria Kamenova, Jehuda Soleman
OBJECT: Despite the increasing use of DOACs, guidelines for their perioperative use in spine surgery are still lacking. The main goal of our study was to analyze the occurrence of postoperative bleeding events and possible confounders in patients treated with DOACs who undergo spine surgery. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Out of 2777 patients undergoing spine surgery at our institution, 82 (2.9%) were treated with DOACs. The primary endpoint was postoperative bleeding events...
February 15, 2019: World Neurosurgery
Gloria J Dainty, David M Reith, Barry J Taylor
AIM: Childhood obesity continues to be a major health issue for children world-wide, with well-recognised major health effects. This study evaluated the prevalence of obesity in children presenting to secondary care in Southern New Zealand, as well as their clinical management. METHODS: Obesity prevalence was determined by a review of data contained in the electronic anthropometry database in the region for the period 19 July 2010-16 July 2015. All clinical records were further examined using a standard data extraction form for 333 obese children regarding their clinical management...
February 18, 2019: Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health
José Martínez-Raga, María López-Cerveró
Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a chronic, complex and multifactorial neurodevelopmental disorder associated with high rates of concurrent psychiatric disorders, along with problems and complications on different areas of individual functioning. ADHD is not exclusively a childhood disorder, 40-60% persisting into adulthood with an estimated prevalence of 2.5-5%. Adolescence is a stage where great and continuous changes occur, associated with a lower adherence to treatment, a greater vulnerability to the emergence of academic problems, more risk-behaviors, the onset of substance use and higher rates of other comorbid disorders...
2019: Medicina
Sara Del Magno, Federico Fracassi, Guy C M Grinwis, Luciana Mandrioli, Gualtiero Gandini, Federica Rossi, Rubina Sirri, Luciano Pisoni, Marianna A Tryfonidou, Björn P Meij
No standardized treatment guidelines are reported in veterinary medicine for dogs with large pituitary corticotroph neoplasms causing neurological signs, and such dogs usually have a short overall survival. When these dogs undergo pituitary surgery and the tumor regrows there are few reports of subsequent treatments. A 7 yr old male Maltese diagnosed with pituitary-dependent hypercortisolism developed seizures in conjunction with a large pituitary corticotroph adenoma and underwent transsphenoidal hypophysectomy...
March 2019: Journal of the American Animal Hospital Association
Jan Bellows, Mary L Berg, Sonnya Dennis, Ralph Harvey, Heidi B Lobprise, Christopher J Snyder, Amy E S Stone, Andrea G Van de Wetering
The 2019 AAHA Dental Care Guidelines for Dogs and Cats outline a comprehensive approach to support companion animal practices in improving the oral health and often, the quality of life of their canine and feline patients. The guidelines are an update of the 2013 AAHA Dental Care Guidelines for Dogs and Cats. A photographically illustrated, 12-step protocol describes the essential steps in an oral health assessment, dental cleaning, and periodontal therapy. Recommendations are given for general anesthesia, pain management, facilities, and equipment necessary for safe and effective delivery of care...
March 2019: Journal of the American Animal Hospital Association
Sean R Regner, Nathan Lerfald
Thrombotic microangiopathies are rare diseases associated with significant morbidity and mortality. The treatment of thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura (TTP) and drug-induced thrombotic microangiopathy (DITMA) remains a diagnostic dilemma as they present similarly but respond differently to standard treatment with plasma exchange. TTP is a deficiency of a disintegrin and metalloprotease with thrombospondin type 1 motif 13 resulting in von Willebrand factor aggregates. DITMA is due to vascular and platelet toxicity...
February 18, 2019: Journal of Clinical Apheresis
Jonathan R Mallen, Daniel S Roberts
OBJECTIVES: Challenge current practices and misconceptions in treating recreational SCUBA (Self-contained underwater breathing apparatus) divers. Differentiate patients who are fit to dive and those with relative and absolute contraindications. Redefine the standard of care for fitness to dive parameters based on the most up-to-date evidence. METHODS: We conducted a review of the available medical and diving literature in English, German, Spanish, Italian, Turkish, and French to determine the degree of evidence or lack thereof behind recommendations for treating SCUBA divers...
February 18, 2019: Laryngoscope
Ashley M Reilly, Michelle X Ding, Joseph E Rower, Tyree H Kiser
Concern for bacterial resistance and treatment failure with vancomycin trough concentrations < 10 μg/mL have led guidelines to increase goal concentrations. There is a paucity of data evaluating vancomycin dosage necessary to achieve goals in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU). We aimed to evaluate the implementation of a new vancomycin dosing guideline in improving trough target attainment. This retrospective study evaluated neonates in the NICU treated with vancomycin between January 2009 and December 2015...
February 18, 2019: Journal of Clinical Pharmacology
Rihwa Choi, Youngju Oh, Sukjung Lee, Sang Gon Lee
BACKGROUND: Our aims in this study were to evaluate the performance of the Mac-2 binding protein glycosylation isomer (M2BPGi), a liver fibrosis marker, using Sysmex HISCL following user verification guidelines before clinical use. We also evaluated the correlation between M2BPGi and hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) because HbA1c is known as another biomarker associated with glycosylation. METHODS: The analytical performance of M2BPGi was verified following user verification guidelines by the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute...
January 1, 2019: Clinical Laboratory
Shanlee M Davis, Mitchell E Geffner
Individuals with Turner syndrome (TS) have a higher morbidity and mortality compared to the general population. Diabetes and cardiovascular disease are the major contributors to this burden. Precursors to diabetes and cardiovascular disease make up what is known as metabolic syndrome, including abdominal obesity, hypertension, dyslipidemia, and elevated fasting glucose. These features of poor cardiometabolic health are also prevalent among women with TS. Youth with TS also exhibit many of these features, indicating that the pathogenesis of these cardiometabolic conditions may begin early in life...
February 18, 2019: American Journal of Medical Genetics. Part C, Seminars in Medical Genetics
Chinenye Jane Ugwah-Oguejiofor, Charles Ogbonna Okoli, Michael Oguejiofor Ugwah, Millicent Ladi Umaru, Chiedozie Smart Ogbulie, Halilu Emmanuel Mshelia, Mohammed Umar, Anoka Ayembe Njan
Caralluma dalzielii N. E. Brown (Asclepiadaceae) is a cactus-like shaped shrub widely used in traditional medicine for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis, diabetes, infertility and impotence. The present study evaluated the potential toxicity of aqueous extract of aerial parts of Caralluma dalzielii (AECD) through acute and sub-acute oral administration in mice and rats. During acute toxicity study, female mice and rats were orally administered with AECD at single doses of 175, 500 and 2000 mg/kg according to OECD Guidelines 425...
January 2019: Heliyon
Nicole M Robertson, Emily M Nagourney, Suzanne L Pollard, Trishul Siddharthan, Robert Kalyesubula, Pamela J Surkan, John R Hurst, William Checkley, Bruce J Kirenga
Introduction: Almost 90% of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) deaths occur in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs), where there are large rural populations and access to health care for COPD is poor. The purpose of this study was to compare urban-rural provider experiences regarding systemic facilitators and barriers to COPD management and treatment access. Methods: We conducted a qualitative study using direct observations and in-depth semi-structured interviews with 16 and 10 health care providers in urban Kampala and rural Nakaseke, Uganda, respectively...
January 4, 2019: Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Diseases: Journal of the COPD Foundation
M H Phyu, K W Y Kyaw, Z Myint, A Thida, S Satyanarayana, S T Aung
Setting: Myanmar's National Tuberculosis Programme (NTP) uses the Xpert® MTB/RIF assay to diagnose rifampicin (RMP) resistance in sputum smear-positive (Sm+) pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) patients. The Xpert test may occasionally yield negative results (Xpert-) for Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex, indicating a false-positive sputum smear result, false-negative Xpert result or infection with non-tuberculous mycobacteria (NTM). Patients with NTM may respond poorly to first-line anti-tuberculosis treatment. Objective: To assess the burden of Sm+, Xpert- results at the national level and treatment outcomes of Sm+, Xpert- patients in Yangon Region...
December 21, 2018: Public Health Action
Eric H Bernicker, Timothy Craig Allen, Phillip T Cagle
There has been considerable progress made in identifying oncogenic driver mutations in advanced lung cancer. The recognition that lung cancer is actually an umbrella classification that is comprised of multiple molecular subgroups has had a profound impact on how medical oncologists make treatment decisions. These mutations are clinically important as available targeted therapies can achieve significant responses and prolonged disease control. This review will summarize the current guidelines for biomarker testing and available therapeutic agents...
January 2019: Journal of Thoracic Disease
Nguyen Xuan Thanh, Philip Jacobs, Jason Suggett, Andrew McIvor, Alan Kaplan
Background: The Aerobika® oscillating positive expiratory pressure (OPEP) device is a hand-held, drug-free medical device that has been shown to improve lung function and improve health-related quality of life in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). We estimated the cost-effectiveness of this device among postexacerbation COPD patients in the Canadian healthcare system. Methods: We performed a cost-utility analysis using a Markov model to compare both costs and outcome of patients with COPD who had recently experienced an exacerbation between 2 treatment arms: patients who used the Aerobika® device and patients who did not use the Aerobika® device...
2019: Canadian Respiratory Journal: Journal of the Canadian Thoracic Society
Owain Leng, Salman Razvi
Background: Both overt hypothyroidism as well as minor elevations of serum thyrotropin (TSH) levels associated with thyroid hormones within their respective reference ranges (termed subclinical hypothyroidism) are relatively common in older individuals. There is growing evidence that treatment of subclinical hypothyroidism may not be beneficial, particularly in an older person. These findings are relevant at a time when treatment with thyroid hormones is increasing and more than 10-15% of people aged over 80 years are prescribed levothyroxine replacement therapy...
2019: Thyroid Research
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