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Melanoma radiotherapy

Francesco Perri, Giuseppina Della Vittoria Scarpati, Franco Ionna, Francesco Longo, Massimo Montano, Paolo Muto, Vincenzo Ravo, Mario Giuliano, Francesco Caponigro
Undifferentiated sinonasal carcinoma (SNUC) is defined as a small round blue cell tumor that is immunohistochemically distinct from other sinonasal malignancies, such as lymphoma, mucosal melanoma, nasopharyngeal carcinoma, neuroendocrine carcinoma, and olfactory neuroblastoma. SNUCs are very aggressive malignancies, provoking quick destruction of the splanchnocranium structures. Being a very rare neoplasm, there are no prospective clinical trials assessing their treatment strategies, so lots of data are derived by small retrospective trials...
March 2019: Anti-cancer Drugs
Jakub Dalibor Rybka
Melanoma is responsible for the majority of deaths related to skin cancer. Worryingly, prognoses show an increasing number of melanoma cases each year worldwide. Radiotherapy, which is a cornerstone of cancer treatment, has proved to be useful but insufficient in melanoma management due to exceptionally high radioresistance of melanoma cells. This problem could be overcome by superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIONs) used as heat mediators in magnetic hyperthermia, which not only enhance radiosensitivity, but also enable precise targeting by exploitation of their magnetic properties...
March 2019: Reports of Practical Oncology and Radiotherapy
David Fernandez
An 87-year old male received surgical excision of scalp melanoma and subsequent radiotherapy due to metastasis to the skull. A radiation-induced wound developed with osteoradionecrosis that required necrotic bone excision resulting in a 7.5x8.5cm wound over the exposed dura, which remained non-healing despite many attempts by local wound care management. Due to the refractory nature of the wound, strips of cryopreserved umbilical cord (cUC) allograft were applied over the exposed dura resulting in significant vascular granulation tissue formation in the central wound bed within four weeks...
February 1, 2019: Journal of Wound Care
Ines Pires da Silva, Isabella C Glitza, Lauren E Haydu, Romany Johnpulle, Patricia D Banks, George D Grass, Simone Ma Goldinger, Jessica L Smith, Ashlyn S Everett, Peter Koelblinger, Rachel Roberts-Thomson, Michael Millward, Victoria G Atkinson, Alexander Guminski, Rony Kapoor, Robert M Conry, Matteo S Carlino, Wei Wang, Mark J Shackleton, Zeynep Eroglu, Serigne Lo, Angela M Hong, Georgina V Long, Douglas B Johnson, Alexander M Menzies
BACKGROUND: Brain radiotherapy is used in the management of melanoma brain metastases (MBM), and can result in radionecrosis. Anti-PD-1 is active in the brain and may increase the risk of radionecrosis when combined with radiotherapy. We studied the incidence, associated factors and management of radionecrosis in longer-term survivors with MBM treated with this combination. METHODS: Patients with MBM treated with radiotherapy and anti-PD-1 who survived greater than 1-year were identified to determine radionecrosis incidence (cohort A, n=135)...
February 15, 2019: Pigment Cell & Melanoma Research
Junji Kato, Tokimasa Hida, Masanori Someya, Sayuri Sato, Masahide Sawada, Kohei Horimoto, Mao Fujioka, Tomoyuki Minowa, Yoshiyuki Matsui, Takaaki Tsuchiya, Mio Kitagawa, Kensei Nakata, Koh-Ichi Sakata, Toshihiko Torigoe, Hisashi Uhara
Some studies showed that clinical response to immune check point inhibitors is lower in acral and mucosal melanoma than in cutaneous melanoma. Although the synergistic effect of radiotherapy (RT) and ipilimumab has been reported in patients with brain metastasis, the efficacy of combined RT and anti-programmed death 1 (PD-1) therapy for acral and mucosal melanoma is unclear. The present study aimed to evaluate the efficacy of combined RT and anti-PD-1 therapy for acral and mucosal melanoma. We retrospectively analyzed patients with acral or mucosal melanoma who were treated with anti-PD-1 and RT at Sapporo Medical University Hospital...
February 13, 2019: Journal of Dermatology
Ricarda Rauschenberg, Johannes Bruns, Julia Brütting, Dirk Daubner, Fabian Lohaus, Lisa Zimmer, Andrea Forschner, Daniel Zips, Jessica C Hassel, Carola Berking, Katharina C Kaehler, Jochen Utikal, Ralf Gutzmer, Patrik Terheyden, Frank Meiss, David Rafei-Shamsabadi, Felix Kiecker, Dirk Debus, Evelyn Dabrowski, Andreas Arnold, Marlene Garzarolli, Marvin Kuske, Stefan Beissert, Steffen Löck, Jennifer Linn, Esther G C Troost, Friedegund Meier
BACKGROUND: Combining stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) and active systemic therapies (STs) achieved favourable survival outcomes in patients with melanoma brain metastases (MBMs) in retrospective analyses. However, several aspects of this treatment strategy remain poorly understood. We report on the overall survival (OS) of patients with MBM treated with a combination of radiotherapy (RT) and ST as well as the impact of the v-Raf murine sarcoma viral oncogene homolog B (BRAF)-V600 mutation (BRAFmut) status, types of RT and ST and their sequence...
February 7, 2019: European Journal of Cancer
A Houette, A Depeyre, S Mansard, C Chevenet, I Barthelemy, N Pham Dang
Mucosal melanoma is a rare malignant disease developed from melanocyte. We report the case of a patient with nasal cavity mucosal melanoma with a primary clinical and histological diagnosis of malignant lentigo with mucosal spreading. The presence of a c-Kit mutation, in a second lecture and the evolving nature of the lesion, reorientated the diagnosis of malignant lentigo to mucosal melanoma with skin extension. Extensive surgical resection and foramen free flap with costal graft reconstruction may have a local control of the disease...
February 7, 2019: Annales de Chirurgie Plastique et Esthétique
Maryam Bakhshizadeh, Seyed Ahmad Mohajeri, Habibollah Esmaily, Seyed Amir Aledavood, Fatemeh Varshoei Tabrizi, Mahmoud Seifi, Farzin Hadizadeh, Ameneh Sazgarnia
BACKGROUND: Some materials such as TiO2 display a luminescence property when exposed to X-ray radiation. Therefore, a proper photosensitizer can induce photodynamic effects by absorbing the emitted photons from these materials during radiotherapy. In this way, the problem of limited photo- penetration depth in photodynamic therapy is resolved. In this paper, following the production of a nanopolymer containing TiO2 cores and imprinted for mitoxantron (MIP), the possibility of utilizing its optical and radio properties on two lines of cancer cells were studied...
February 6, 2019: Photodiagnosis and Photodynamic Therapy
Stefan Kristiansson, Johan Reizenstein, Mathias von Beckerath, Fredrik Landström
BACKGROUND: Electrochemotherapy (ECT) is a cancer treatment modality where the intracellular accumulation of chemotherapeutic agents is enhanced by an applied electrical field. AIMS/OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the long-term efficacy, safety and functional outcome after ECT treatment in high-risk non-melanoma skin cancer (NMSC) with curative intent. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Seven patients with SCC or BCC in the head and neck area were treated with ECT with intratumoral bleomycin administration...
February 8, 2019: Acta Oto-laryngologica
B Shannan, J Matschke, H Chauvistré, F Vogel, D Klein, F Meier, D Westphal, J Bruns, R Rauschenberg, J Utikal, A Forschner, C Berking, P Terheyden, E Dabrowski, R Gutzmer, D Rafei-Shamsabadi, F Meiss, L Heinzerling, L Zimmer, Elisabeth Livingstone, Renáta Váraljai, A Hoewner, S Horn, J Klode, M Stuschke, B Scheffler, A Marchetto, G Sannino, T G P Grünewald, D Schadendorf, V Jendrossek, A Roesch
INTRODUCTION: Treatment of patients with metastatic melanoma is hampered by drug-resistance and often requires combination with radiotherapy as last-resort option. However, also after radiotherapy, clinical relapses are common. METHODS & RESULTS: Our preclinical models indicated a higher rate of tumour relapse when melanoma cells were first treated with BRAFV600E inhibition (BRAFi) followed by radiotherapy as compared to the reverse sequence. Accordingly, retrospective follow-up data from 65 stage-IV melanoma patients with irradiated melanoma brain metastases confirmed a shortened duration of local response of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK)-inhibitor-pretreated compared with MAPK-inhibitor-naïve intracranial metastases...
February 2, 2019: European Journal of Cancer
Zahra Payandeh, Maral Yarahmadi, Ziba Nariman-Saleh-Fam, Vahideh Tarhriz, Maryam Islami, Abdolreza Mehdinavaz Aghdam, Shirin Eyvazi
Melanoma is the most serious type of skin cancer which develops from the occurrence of genetic mutations in the melanocytes. Based on the features of melanoma tumors such as location, genetic profile and stage, there are several therapeutic strategies including surgery, chemotherapy, and radiotherapy. However, because of the appearance resistance mechanisms, the efficiency of these treatments strategies may be reduced. It has been demonstrated that therapeutic monoclonal antibodies can improve the efficiency of melanoma therapies...
January 31, 2019: Journal of Cellular Physiology
Synne-Kristin H Bøhn, Lene Thorsen, Cecilie E Kiserud, Sophie D Fosså, Hanne C Lie, Jon H Loge, Torbjørn Wisløff, Hege S Haugnes, Kristin V Reinertsen
BACKGROUND: Chronic fatigue (CF) is scarcely explored among young adult cancer survivors (YACSs), and more knowledge is needed to develop targeted interventions for YACSs with CF. The present study aimed to investigate the prevalence of CF and associated factors in YACSs. Also, the change of fatigue with time was explored. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The present cross-sectional study is part of a nation-wide population based survey of Norwegian survivors of cancer in childhood, adolescence, and young adulthood (The NOR-CAYACS study)...
January 30, 2019: Acta Oncologica
Min Zhang, Jingwen Yang, Wenjing Hua, Zhong Li, Zenghui Xu, Qijun Qian
Immunotherapy has become the fourth cancer therapy after surgery, chemotherapy, and radiotherapy. In particular, immune checkpoint inhibitors are proved to be unprecedentedly in increasing the overall survival rates of patients with refractory cancers, such as advanced melanoma, non-small cell lung cancer, and renal cell carcinoma. However, inhibitor therapies are only effective in a small proportion of patients with problems, such as side effects and high costs. Therefore, doctors urgently need reliable predictive biomarkers for checkpoint inhibitor therapies to choose the optimal therapies...
January 24, 2019: Frontiers of Medicine
Hiroaki Ikawa, Masashi Koto, Kazuhiko Hayashi, Morio Tonogi, Ryo Takagi, Takeshi Nomura, Hiroshi Tsuji, Tadashi Kamada
BACKGROUND: This study evaluated carbon-ion radiotherapy (C-ion RT) for oral non-squamous cell carcinomas (non-SCC). METHODS: We retrospectively obtained data from 74 patients who underwent C-ion RT for oral malignancies between April 1997 and March 2016. The C-ion RT was administered in 16 fractions at a total dose of 57.6 or 64.0 Gy (relative biological effectiveness). RESULTS: Forty-three patients had salivary gland carcinomas, 29 patients had mucosal melanoma, and 2 patients had other types of pathologies...
January 24, 2019: Head & Neck
R Hu, B-B Yang
OBJECTIVE: Sinonasal malignant melanoma is a relatively rare malignancy with poor prognosis, and effective treatments remain elusive. This analysis aimed to explore whether post-operative radiotherapy conferred any survival advantages in patients with this disease when compared with surgery alone. METHODS: Published studies were identified by searching four electronic databases. The endpoints evaluated were: rates of overall survival, disease-free survival and local control...
December 2018: Journal of Laryngology and Otology
Frederik Kinnen, Steffen K Fleck, Jörg Baldauf, Volkmar Hans, Georg Daeschlein, Eiko Rathmann, Henry W S Schroeder, Sascha Marx
Primary leptomeningeal melanocytic tumors of the central nervous system are rare and especially in the spine less frequent compared to other entities. There is no consensus regarding the best care of these tumors. We report two cases of primary leptomeningeal melanocytic tumors, one PLM (Primary Leptomeningeal Melanoma) and one PLMC (Primary Leptomeningeal Melanocytoma) of the upper cervical spine and emphasize different surgical findings and clinical courses of these patients. A review of the literature according to primary leptomeningeal melanocytic tumors of the spine was done, especially to compare different treatment modalities in the younger history...
January 17, 2019: World Neurosurgery
E Borcoman, Y Kanjanapan, S Champiat, S Kato, V Servois, R Kurzrock, S Goel, P Bedard, C Le Tourneau
Novel patterns of response and progression to immunotherapy have been reported that are not observed with conventional cytotoxic or targeted anti-cancer treatments. A major breakthrough with immunotherapy is potential to achieve durable responses in a subset of patients with advanced cancer that can be maintained several years even after stopping treatment. No standardized definition of durable response exists in the literature, and the optimal duration of treatment in case of durable response is not clearly established...
January 18, 2019: Annals of Oncology: Official Journal of the European Society for Medical Oncology
Achal Singh Achrol, Robert C Rennert, Carey Anders, Riccardo Soffietti, Manmeet S Ahluwalia, Lakshmi Nayak, Solange Peters, Nils D Arvold, Griffith R Harsh, Patricia S Steeg, Steven D Chang
An estimated 20% of all patients with cancer will develop brain metastases, with the majority of brain metastases occurring in those with lung, breast and colorectal cancers, melanoma or renal cell carcinoma. Brain metastases are thought to occur via seeding of circulating tumour cells into the brain microvasculature; within this unique microenvironment, tumour growth is promoted and the penetration of systemic medical therapies is limited. Development of brain metastases remains a substantial contributor to overall cancer mortality in patients with advanced-stage cancer because prognosis remains poor despite multimodal treatments and advances in systemic therapies, which include a combination of surgery, radiotherapy, chemotherapy, immunotherapy and targeted therapies...
January 17, 2019: Nature Reviews. Disease Primers
Lukas Käsmann, Chukwuka Eze, Maurice Dantes, Olarn Roengvoraphoj, Maximilian Niyazi, Claus Belka, Farkhad Manapov
Combinations of immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) with radiotherapy and/or chemoradiotherapy are currently under investigation in many cancer types and clinical settings. In this survey, we solicited members of the German Radiation Oncology Society and young DEGRO (working group of DEGRO e.V.) to review the current status of research in this field and underline critical issues such as oncological benefit, treatment toxicity and obstacles in clinical research. The responses represent 14 different departments of radiation oncology at German university hospitals...
January 12, 2019: European Journal of Cancer
Mohammad Hossein Pourhanifeh, Mostafa Mahdavinia, Russel J Reiter, Zatollah Asemi
Skin cancer, particularly melanoma, is a leading cause of death worldwide. The therapeutic methods for this malignancy are not effective, and due to the side effects of these treatments, applying an appropriate alternative or complementary treatment is important. According to available data, melatonin as the main product of the pineal gland has oncostatic and antitumoral properties. Also, melatonin acts as an anti-inflammatory and reactive oxygen species inducer agent which suppresses the growth of tumors. It also has apoptosis induction characteristics through regulating signaling pathways, including heat shock protein 70, nuclear factor-erythroid 2 p45-related factor 2 and others...
January 7, 2019: Journal of Cellular Physiology
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