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Theories AND teamwork

Judy L Van Raalte, Britton W Brewer
The special issue of the American Psychologist (May-June 2018) is devoted to the science of teamwork, with 20 articles addressing the history and foundation of teamwork research and highlighting the importance of teamwork in aviation, military, business, space exploration, academic, and health care settings. Articles that address factors influencing team performance and evaluation of interventions with teams are also included. The editors of the special issue direct attention to key areas in teamwork research that would benefit from further inquiry...
February 2019: American Psychologist
Thomas G H Kempen, Ulrika Gillespie, Maria Färdborg, Jennifer McIntosh, Alpana Mair, Derek Stewart
BACKGROUND: Medication reviews have been introduced as healthcare interventions to decrease inappropriate polypharmacy in older patients, but implementation in practice is challenging. OBJECTIVE: This case study aimed to explore the events, actions and other factors that were involved in the implementation and sustainability of medication reviews in older patients by clinical pharmacists in Region Uppsala, Sweden. METHODS: A case study design informed by change management principles (Kotter) and normalization process theory, consisting of a review of published and grey literature, key informant interviews and focus group triangulation...
December 19, 2018: Research in Social & Administrative Pharmacy: RSAP
Timothy C Clapper, Joanna Lee, Jeffrey Phillips, Kapil Rajwani, Neel Naik, Kevin Ching
Background: The Team Strategies and Tools to Enhance Performance and Patient Safety (TeamSTEPPS® ) program provides a situation-monitoring tool that allows health-care professionals to perform an environmental scan. This process includes scanning the status of the patient, team members, and the environment, to ensure that patient care is progressing toward the goal. It is assumed that health-care professionals will act in a certain way by providing feedback and support based on the scan...
May 2018: Education for Health: Change in Training & Practice
Norbou Buchler, Claire Genevieve La Fleur, Blaine Hoffman, Prashanth Rajivan, Laura Marusich, Lewis Lightner
A critical requirement for developing a cyber capable workforce is to understand how to challenge, assess, and rapidly develop human cyber skill-sets in realistic cyber operational environments. Fortunately, cyber team competitions make use of simulated operational environments with scoring criteria of task performance that objectively define overall team effectiveness, thus providing the means and context for observation and analysis of cyber teaming. Such competitions allow researchers to address the key determinants that make a cyber defense team more or less effective in responding to and mitigating cyber attacks...
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
Laura Nimmon, Gil Kimel, Lorelei Lingard, Joanna Bates
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: A holistic palliative approach for heart failure care emphasizes supporting nonprofessional informal caregivers. Informal caregivers play a vital role caring for heart failure patients. However, caregiving negatively affects informal caregivers' well being, and in turn heart failure patients' health outcomes. This opinion article proposes that complex adaptive systems (CAS) theory applied to heart failure models of care can support the resiliency of the heart failure patient - informal caregiver dyad...
November 30, 2018: Current Opinion in Supportive and Palliative Care
Christofer Rydenfält, Jonas Borell, Gudbjörg Erlingsdottir
The concept of teamwork has been associated with improved patient safety, more effective care and a better work environment. However, the academic literature on teamwork is pluralistic, and there are reports on discrepancies between theory and practice. Furthermore, healthcare professionals' direct conceptualizations of teamwork are sometimes missing in the research. In this study, we examine doctors' conceptualizations of teamwork. We also investigate what doctors think is important in order to achieve good teamwork, and how the empirical findings relate to theory...
October 26, 2018: Journal of Interprofessional Care
Kevin Real, Joshua Santiago, Lindsey Fay, Kathy Isaacs, Allison Carll-White
This pre-post multi-method study explored how nurses made sense of changes in nurse station design and how they characterized communication processes within a hospital unit before and after it moved from an existing hospital into a newly designed trauma-1 level hospital. Quantitative observations (116 h) of real-time communication were gathered in both hospitals. Additionally, 41 nursing staff (nurses, nursing care technicians, nurse managers) participated in a qualitative study. Three months before moving, four focus groups were conducted with 16 nursing professionals working in traditional centralized nurse station units...
October 25, 2018: Health Communication
Sastrawan Sastrawan, Jennifer Margaret Newton, Gulzar Malik
INTRODUCTION: Integrity is one of the core values in nursing that needs to be maintained by nurses in practice. However, the complexity in the nursing milieu can pose threats to integrity. An understanding of the common threats and coping strategies might assist nurses in preserving integrity in everyday practice. AIM: To review and synthesis the concept of integrity in nursing and identify common threats and coping strategies. METHODS: Whittemore and Knafl's integrative review method was implemented...
October 24, 2018: Journal of Clinical Nursing
Radia El Khamali, Atika Mouaci, Sabine Valera, Marion Cano-Chervel, Camille Pinglis, Céline Sanz, Amel Allal, Valérie Attard, Julie Malardier, Magali Delfino, Fifina D'Anna, Pierre Rostini, Stéphan Aguilard, Karine Berthias, Béatrice Cresta, Frédéric Iride, Valérie Reynaud, Jérémie Suard, Wlady Syja, Cécile Vankiersbilck, Nicole Chevalier, Karen Inthavong, Jean-Marie Forel, Karine Baumstarck, Laurent Papazian
Importance: Nurses working in an intensive care unit (ICU) are exposed to occupational stressors that can increase the risk of stress reactions, long-term absenteeism, and turnover. Objective: To evaluate the effects of a program including simulation in reducing work-related stress and work-related outcomes among ICU nurses. Design, Setting, and Participants: Multicenter randomized clinical trial performed at 8 adult ICUs in France from February 8, 2016, through April 29, 2017...
November 20, 2018: JAMA: the Journal of the American Medical Association
Heather E Hoops, Michael R Burt, Karen Deveney, Karen J Brasel
OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to explore the views and expectations that practicing general surgeons have of their junior colleagues who have recently finished training. DESIGN: This is a qualitative study performed using focus group data consisting of open-ended questions concentrating on essential qualities and attributes of surgeons, behaviors observed in newly-graduated surgeons, and appropriate oversight of junior partners. Qualitative analysis was performed using grounded theory methodology with transcripts coded by 3 independent reviewers...
October 11, 2018: Journal of Surgical Education
Aaron S Dietz, Eduardo Salas, Peter J Pronovost, Florian Jentsch, Rhonda Wyskiel, Pedro Alejandro Mendez-Tellez, Cynthia Dwyer, Michael A Rosen
OBJECTIVE: Measuring teamwork is essential in critical care, but limited observational measurement systems exist for this environment. The objective of this study was to evaluate the reliability and validity of a behavioral marker system for measuring teamwork in ICUs. DESIGN: Instances of teamwork were observed by two raters for three tasks: multidisciplinary rounds, nurse-to-nurse handoffs, and retrospective videos of medical students and instructors performing simulated codes...
December 2018: Critical Care Medicine
Huiqing Qiu, Youlan Zhang, Gonglin Hou, Zhongming Wang
As an important way to understand leadership based on voluntary contribution mechanisms, the importance of leading by example to teamwork is becoming more and more evident in recent years. However, existing theories based on signaling and reciprocity perspectives, respectively, provide incomplete theoretical explaining. This study adds clarity by conducting a cross-level study that indicates a possible integrative framework of both signaling and reciprocity perspective on leading by example. Results were using data gathered from 130 Chinese college students, which were allocated into one baseline group and three experimental groups...
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
Sharon Mickan, Jessica Dawber, Julie Hulcombe
Objective Allied health structures and leadership positions vary throughout Australia and New Zealand in their design and implementation. It is not clear which organisational factors support allied health leaders and professionals to enhance clinical outcomes. The aim of this project was to identify key organisational contexts and corresponding mechanisms that influenced effective outcomes for allied health professionals. Methods A qualitative realist evaluation was chosen to describe key aspects of allied health organisational structures, identify positive outcomes and describe how context and processes are operationalised to influence outcomes for the allied health workforce and the populations they serve...
August 30, 2018: Australian Health Review: a Publication of the Australian Hospital Association
Peter F Halpin, Yoav Bergner
The social combination theory of group problem solving is used to extend existing psychometric models to collaborative settings. A model for pairwise group work is proposed, the implications of the model for assessment design are considered, and its estimation is addressed. The results are illustrated with an empirical example in which dyads work together on a twelfth-grade level mathematics assessment. In conclusion, attention is given to avenues of research that seem most fruitful for advancing current initiatives concerning the assessment of collaboration, teamwork, and related constructs...
December 2018: Psychometrika
Susan S Tavernier, Jia-Wen Guo, Jacqueline Eaton, Jeannine M Brant, Patricia Berry, Susan L Beck
BACKGROUND: Pain continues to be a problem in hospitalized patients. Contextual factors contribute to the success of pain quality improvement efforts. AIMS: This paper describes nurse team leaders' perceptions of organizational context and factors perceived to help and hinder the process of leading a unit-based improvement effort focused on pain. DESIGN: Qualitative descriptive design. SETTING: Interviews took place over the telephone...
August 3, 2018: Pain Management Nursing: Official Journal of the American Society of Pain Management Nurses
Petru Lucian Curşeu, Remus Ilies, Delia Vîrgă, Laurenţiu Maricuţoiu, Florin A Sava
This study investigates the relationships between personality traits and contributions to teamwork that are often assumed to be linear. We use a theory-driven approach to propose that extraversion, agreeableness and conscientiousness have inverted U-shaped relationships with contributions to teamwork. In a sample of 220 participants asked to perform a creative task in teams, we found that extraversion, agreeableness and conscientiousness were curvilinearly associated with peer-rated contributions to teamwork in such a way that the associations were positive, with a decreasing slope, up to a peak, and then they became negative as personality scores further increased...
July 16, 2018: International Journal of Psychology: Journal International de Psychologie
Sara Jansen Perry, Jason P Richter, Brad Beauvais
OBJECTIVE: To explore antecedents and outcomes of nurse self-reported job satisfaction and dissatisfaction-based turnover cognitions, theorizing (using Self-Determination Theory) that leaders can foster work conditions that help fulfill innate needs, thereby fostering satisfaction of nurses and patients, and reducing adverse events. DATA SOURCES/STUDY SETTING: Primary and secondary data were collected within a 4-month period in 2015, from 2,596 nurses in 110 Army treatment facilities (hospitals and clinics) across 35 health care systems...
December 2018: Health Services Research
Judith Belle Brown, Bridget L Ryan
OBJECTIVE: To identify the processes that influence the evolution of family health teams (FHTs). DESIGN: Qualitative study using grounded theory methodology. SETTING: Family health teams in Ontario. PARTICIPANTS: A total of 110 team members from 20 FHT sites in Ontario. METHODS: Individual semistructured interviews were conducted and data were analyzed using initial coding, focused coding, and a constant comparison analysis...
June 2018: Canadian Family Physician Médecin de Famille Canadien
Judy Currey, Debbie Massey, Josh Allen, Daryl Jones
INTRODUCTION: Critical care nurses have been involved in Rapid Response Teams since their inception, particularly in medically led RRTs, known as Medical Emergency Teams. It is assumed that critical care skills are required to escalate care for the deteriorating ward patient. However, evidence to support critical care nurses' involvement in METs is anecdotal. Currently, little is known about the educational requirements for nurses involved in RRT or METs. OBJECTIVES: We aimed to identify and describe what nurses involved in a MET consider the most vital areas of knowledge and skill when delivering care to the deteriorating ward patient...
August 2018: Nurse Education Today
Eduardo Salas, Denise L Reyes, Susan H McDaniel
We need teams in nearly every aspect of our lives (e.g., hospitals, schools, flight decks, nuclear power plants, oil rigs, the military, and corporate offices). Nearly a century of psychological science has uncovered extensive knowledge about team-related processes and outcomes. In this article, we draw from the reviews and articles of this special issue to identify 10 key reflections that have arisen in the team literature, briefly summarized here. Team researchers have developed many theories surrounding the multilayered aspects of teams, such that now we have a solid theoretical basis for teams...
May 2018: American Psychologist
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