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AAI Down Syndrome and sport

Christopher Tomlinson, Alastair Campbell, Alison Hurley, Eoin Fenton, Neil Heron
Down syndrome (DS) is a clinical syndrome comprising typical facial features and various physical and intellectual disabilities due to extra genetic material on chromosome 21, with one in every 1000 babies born in the United Kingdom affected. Patients with Down syndrome are at risk of atlantoaxial instability (AAI). Although AAI can occur in other conditions, such as rheumatoid arthritis, this position statement deals specifically with patients with DS and asymptomatic AAI. Atlantoaxial instability, also referred to as atlantoaxial subluxation, is defined as increased movement between the first (atlas) and second (axial) cervical vertebra joint articulation, the atlantoaxial joint...
August 15, 2018: Clinical Journal of Sport Medicine: Official Journal of the Canadian Academy of Sport Medicine
Andrzej Myśliwiec, Adam Posłuszny, Edward Saulicz, Iwona Doroniewicz, Paweł Linek, Tomasz Wolny, Andrzej Knapik, Jerzy Rottermund, Piotr Żmijewski, Paweł Cieszczyk
Atlanto-axial instability (AAI) is a developmental anomaly often occurring in persons with Down's syndrome (DS). According to various reports, AAI affects from 6.8 to 27% of the population with DS. The aim of this review was to illustrate the issue of AAI with regard to the progressively changing state of scientific knowledge. The extended distance between the rear surface of the frontal arcus of the C1 cervical vertebra and the anterior surface of C2 cervical vertebra dens (anterior atlanto-odontoid distance, AAOD) indicates the occurrence of AAI and is detectable through X-ray examination...
November 22, 2015: Journal of Human Kinetics
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