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Rapid intubation and extubation

Muhammad Tariq Khan, Kamran Munawar, Syed Waqar Hussain, Aayesha Qadeer, Muhammad Luqman Saeed, Zahid Siddique Shad, Muhammad Shoaib Safdar Qureshi, Azmat Abdullah
Background A challenging task in the intensive care unit is weaning intubated patients from mechanical ventilation. The most commonly used weaning parameter, the rapid shallow breathing index (RSBI), gives thorough guidance on extubation timing with spontaneous breathing trials. Diaphragm plays vital role in tidal volume generation. The main objective of the study was to compare ultrasound-based diaphragmatic excursion (DE) with RSBI as weaning predictors. Methods We conducted an observational prospective cohort study on patients on mechanical ventilation...
December 10, 2018: Curēus
Carmen Rey-Santano, Victoria E Mielgo, Miguel A Gomez-Solaetxe, Fabrizio Salomone, Elena Gastiasoro, Begoña Loureiro
BACKGROUND: Nasal continuous-positive airway pressure (nCPAP) with the INSURE (INtubation-SURfactant-Extubation) or LISA (Less-Invasive Surfactant Administration) procedures are increasingly being chosen as the initial treatment for neonates with surfactant deficiency. Our objective was to compare the effects on cerebral oxygenation of different methods for surfactant administration: INSURE and LISA, using a nasogastric tube (NT) or a LISAcath® catheter, in spontaneously breathing SF-deficient newborn piglets...
February 18, 2019: Pediatric Pulmonology
Kimberly M Rathbun
Recombinant tissue plasminogen activator (rtPA), an enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of plasminogen to plasmin resulting in fibrinolysis, is used for the treatment of acute ischemic strokes. The use of this medication is not without complication. One complication of this therapy is angioedema. This complication can be life-threatening if not recognized quickly. However, the potential for the development of angioedema after rtPA administration is not widely known. This is a case of a 60-year-old man who suffered an acute ischemic stroke and was given rtPA...
January 2019: Oxford Medical Case Reports
Sidi Driss El Jaouhari, Nawfal Doghmi, Hamza Najout, Massine El Hamouni, El Hassane Kabiri, Hicham Bekkali, Jaafar Salim Lalaoui, Mustapha Bensghir
BACKGROUND: Pregnancy constitutes a significant factor in thyroid hypertrophy and can rarely progress to respiratory distress. We describe case of pregnant woman with acute respiratory distress following a tracheal compression due to goiter, quickly resulting in respiratory arrest, requiring emergency orotracheal intubation and thyroidectomy. CASE PRESENTATION: A pregnant woman with a growing goiter was referred to the hospital with a respiratory difficulty. During the examination, we found a large homogeneous goiter...
January 29, 2019: BMC Emergency Medicine
Wenxi Tang, Penghui Wei, Jiapeng Huang, Na Zhang, Haipeng Zhou, Jinfeng Zhou, Qiang Zheng, Jianjun Li, Zhigang Wang
BACKGROUND: The asleep-awake-asleep (AAA) technique and laryngeal mask airway (LMA) is a common general anesthesia technique for deep brain stimulation (DBS) surgery. However, the LMA is not always the ideal artificial airway. In this report, we presented our experiences with nasotracheal intubation-extubation-intubation (IEI) and AAA techniques in DBS surgery for Parkinson's disease (PD) patients to meet the needs of surgery and ensure patients' safety and comfort. CASE PRESENTATION: Three PD patients scheduled for DBS surgery had to receive general anesthesia for various reasons...
January 17, 2019: BMC Anesthesiology
Yu Cui, Yu Wang, Rong Cao, Kai Liu, Qing-Hua Huang, Bin Liu
Fast-track anesthesia (FTA) is difficult to achieve in neonates due to immature organ function and high rates of perioperative events. As a high-risk population, neonates require prolonged postoperative mechanical ventilation, which may lead to contradictions in cases where neonatal intensive care unit resources and ventilator facilities are limited. The choice of anesthesia strategy and anesthetic can help achieve rapid postoperative rehabilitation and save hospitalization costs. The authors describe their experience with maintaining spontaneous breathing in neonates undergoing anoplasty without opioids or muscle relaxants...
January 2019: Medicine (Baltimore)
Daniel C Sacher, Erika J Yoo
Acute pulmonary edema following significant injury to the central nervous system is known as neurogenic pulmonary edema (NPE). Commonly seen after significant neurological trauma, NPE has also been described after seizure. While many pathogenic theories have been proposed, the exact mechanism remains unclear. We present a 31-year-old man who developed recurrent acute NPE on two consecutive admissions after experiencing witnessed generalized tonic-clonic (GTC) seizures. Chest radiographs obtained after seizure during both admissions showed bilateral infiltrates which rapidly resolved within 24 hours...
2018: Case Reports in Pulmonology
Haotong Wang, Alicia Rodriguez-Pla, Anthony Campagna
A 70-year-old man with history of stage IV renal cell carcinoma, chronic atrial fibrillation on warfarin, coronary artery disease status post-percutaneous coronary intervention resulting in an ischaemic cardiomyopathy with left ventricular ejection fraction of 40%-45%, presented with shortness of breath 10 days after starting pazopanib. Within the first week of starting pazopanib, the patient developed fatigue and progressive dyspnoea on exertion. His symptoms quickly worsened and he had compromised mental status...
August 16, 2018: BMJ Case Reports
Filomena S Lombardi, Antonella Cotoia, Rocco Petta, Marcus Schultz, Gilda Cinnella, Janneke Horn
INTRODUCTION: Extubation failure (EF) refers to the inability to maintain spontaneous breathing after removal of endotracheal tube. The aim of this review is to identify the best parameter to predict EF in adult intensive care patients. EVIDENCE ACQUISITION: We searched for publications in PubMed (2000-2016). Studies of patients intubated and mechanically ventilated for more than 24 hours were included and divided in groups basing on the extubation method. 2x2 tables were performed to evaluate the sensitivity, specificity and the predictive values only for those parameters investigated in more than three studies...
March 2019: Minerva Anestesiologica
Kavi Haji, Darsim Haji, David J Canty, Alistair G Royse, Cameron Green, Colin F Royse
BACKGROUND: Failed extubation from mechanical ventilation in critically ill patients is multifactorial, complex and not well understood. We aimed to identify whether combined transthoracic echocardiography, lung and diaphragmatic ultrasound can predict extubation failure in critically ill patients. RESULTS: Fifty-three participants who were intubated > 48 h and deemed by the treating intensivist ready for extubation underwent a 60-min pre-extubation weaning trial (pressure support ≤ 10 cmH2 O and positive end expiratory pressure 5 cmH2 O)...
July 4, 2018: Critical Ultrasound Journal
Nicolò Columbano, Antonio Scanu, Lauren Duffee, Valentino Melosu, Giovanni Sotgiu, Bernd Driessen
OBJECTIVE: To determine sevoflurane's minimum alveolar concentration (MACSEVO ) and its cardiopulmonary effects in sheep. STUDY DESIGN: Prospective experimental study. ANIMALS: A group of 10 female nonpregnant Sardinian milk sheep. METHODS: Anesthesia was induced in each sheep twice with sevoflurane in oxygen. After a 30 minute equilibration at end-tidal sevoflurane concentration (Fe'Sevo) of 2.8%, an electrical stimulus (5 Hz/1 ms/50 mA) was applied to the right thoracic limb for 1 minute or until gross purposeful movement occurred...
July 2018: Veterinary Anaesthesia and Analgesia
Hadiyah Y Audil, Sara Tse, Chad Pezzano, Amy Mitchell-van Steele, Joaquim M B Pinheiro
Background : We previously reported a 67% extubation failure with INSURE (Intubation, Surfactant, Extubation) using morphine as analgosedative premedication. Remifentanil, a rapid- and short-acting narcotic, might be ideal for INSURE, but efficacy and safety data for this indication are limited. Objectives : To assess whether remifentanil premedication increases extubation success rates compared with morphine, and to evaluate remifentanil's safety and usability in a teaching hospital context. Methods : Retrospective review of remifentanil orders for premedication, at a large teaching hospital neonatal intensive care unit (NICU)...
May 22, 2018: Children
Casey G Sommerfeld, Daniel J Weiner, Andrew Nowalk, Allyson Larkin
Electronic cigarette (e-cigarette) use, or "vaping," is gaining widespread popularity as an alternative to conventional cigarettes among adolescents. Little is known of the health risks of e-cigarette use, especially in children and adolescents. We present a Case Report of a previously healthy 18-year-old woman who presented with dyspnea, cough, and pleuritic chest pain after e-cigarette use. She developed respiratory failure with hypoxia and was intubated, and ultimately met diagnostic criteria for acute respiratory distress syndrome...
June 2018: Pediatrics
Scott A Helgeson, Alexander J Heckman, Dana M Harris
Acute immune-mediated polyneuropathies are a group of illnesses that cause paralysis following an infection. We describe a case of one of these illnesses being caused by the respiratory syncytial virus (RSV). An 81-year-old female was admitted for an RSV infection. She went into respiratory failure requiring intubation and mechanical ventilation and treatment with ribavirin. When she was extubated, she had bilateral lower extremity weakness and absent reflexes. Her disease progressed rapidly to involve her diaphragm, and eventually, the family agreed to let the natural death process occur...
April 2018: Indian Journal of Critical Care Medicine
Achyut Sharma, Prajjwal Bhattarai, Apurb Sharma
A 29-year-old patient with normal preanesthetic evaluation was planned for percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PCNL) for right nephrolithiasis with right pyelolithiasis. Surgery was performed under general anesthesia with endotracheal intubation with muscle relaxation. At the conclusion of surgery, when the patient was turned over to supine position, tense abdomen was noted. Immediately extended focused assessment with sonography in trauma (eFAST) was done in which both right and left quadrants of abdomen including pericardial and suprapubic region, right and left thoracic, and both lung basis were examined...
April 3, 2018: Critical Ultrasound Journal
Clark Funnell, Manraj K S Heran, Philip Teal, Thalia Field
A 79-year-old woman was brought to the hospital with an acute-onset left haemiparesis. On initial examination, she had a pure sensorimotor syndrome with left-sided weakness and sensory disturbance. Her mental status was normal. She had normal visual fields to confrontation and no neglect. Her initial CT and CT angiogram revealed cerebral venous thrombosis with associated haemorrhage. A 'spot sign' was visible on CT angiogram. Immediately following the CT scan, the patient had a rapidly progressive decline in level of consciousness, requiring endotracheal intubation...
March 23, 2018: BMJ Case Reports
Arnaud W Thille, Faustine Reynaud, Damien Marie, Stéphanie Barrau, Ludivine Rousseau, Christophe Rault, Véronique Diaz, Jean-Claude Meurice, Rémi Coudroy, Jean-Pierre Frat, René Robert, Xavier Drouot
Sleep is markedly altered in intensive care unit (ICU) patients and may alter respiratory performance. Our objective was to assess the impact of sleep alterations on weaning duration.We conducted a prospective physiological study at a French teaching hospital. ICU patients intubated for at least 24 h and difficult to wean were included. Complete polysomnography (PSG) was performed after the first spontaneous breathing trial failure. Presence of atypical sleep, duration of sleep stages, particularly rapid eye movement (REM) sleep, and electroencephalogram (EEG) reactivity at eyes opening were assessed by a neurologist...
April 2018: European Respiratory Journal: Official Journal of the European Society for Clinical Respiratory Physiology
Silvia L Nunes, Sune Forsberg, Hans Blomqvist, Lars Berggren, Mikael Sörberg, Toni Sarapohja, Carl-Johan Wickerts
BACKGROUND: Intensive care unit patients undergoing mechanical ventilation have traditionally been sedated to make them comfortable and to avoid pain and anxiety. However, this may lead to prolonged mechanical ventilation and a longer length of stay. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this retrospective study was to explore whether different sedation regimens influence the course and duration of the weaning process. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Intubated adult patients (n = 152) from 15 general intensive care units in Sweden were mechanically ventilated for ≥ 24 h...
June 2018: Clinical Drug Investigation
Yahiya Y Syed
Intravenous landiolol [Rapibloc® (EU)], an ultra short-acting highly cardioselective β1 -blocker, is approved in the EU for the rapid short-term control of tachyarrhythmias in the perioperative and intensive care settings. It has long been used in Japan to treat perioperative tachyarrhythmias. The efficacy of landiolol has been demonstrated in a large number of randomized controlled clinical trials. Landiolol significantly reduced heart rate in patients with postoperative or intraoperative supraventricular tachycardia relative to placebo and in those with atrial fibrillation/flutter and left ventricular dysfunction relative to digoxin...
March 2018: Drugs
Siddharth Mehrotra, Naimish Mehta, Prashantha S Rao, Shailendra Lalwani, Vivek Mangla, Samiran Nundy
INTRODUCTION: Acute liver failure (ALF) is an indication for emergency liver transplantation (LT). Although centers performing only deceased donor liver transplants (DDLT) have shown improved outcomes in this situation, they still have relatively long waiting lists. An alternative would be living donor liver transplantation (LDLT), which has shown equivalent outcomes in the elective situation but there is limited evidence of its results in ALF. AIM: The purpose of this study was to assess the outcomes in patients with ALF undergoing emergency LDLT in our center in Delhi, India...
January 2018: Indian Journal of Gastroenterology: Official Journal of the Indian Society of Gastroenterology
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