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Translational neuroimmunology reviews

J David Clark, Vivianne L Tawfik, Maral Tajerian, Wade S Kingery
Complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) is a highly enigmatic syndrome typically developing after injury or surgery to a limb. Severe pain and disability are common among those with chronic forms of this condition. Accumulating evidence suggests that CRPS may involve both autoinflammatory and autoimmune components. In this review article, evidence for dysfunction of both the innate and adaptive immune systems in CRPS is presented. Findings from human studies in which cytokines and other inflammatory mediators were measured in the skin of affected limbs are discussed...
January 2018: Molecular Pain
Margherita Nosadini, Stefano Sartori, Suvasini Sharma, Russell C Dale
Beyond the major advances produced by careful clinical-radiological phenotyping and biomarker development in autoimmune central nervous system disorders, a comprehensive knowledge of the range of available immune therapies and a deeper understanding of their action should benefit therapeutic decision-making. This review discusses the agents used in neuroimmunology and their mechanisms of action. First-line treatments typically include corticosteroids, intravenous immunoglobulin, and plasmapheresis, while for severe disease second-line "induction" agents such as rituximab or cyclophosphamide are used...
August 2017: Seminars in Pediatric Neurology
Afsaneh Shirani, Olaf Stüve
Advances in translational neuroimmunology over the last two decades have revolutionized the treatment of relapsing forms of multiple sclerosis. A pathological hallmark of multiple sclerosis is the presence of leukocytes in the areas of disease activity in the CNS. Natalizumab inhibits the trafficking of lymphocytes from the blood into the brain and spinal cord by blocking the adhesion molecule α4 -integrin. Representing the enormous success of a molecular targeted approach, natalizumab was the first mAb approved for the treatment of relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis...
February 15, 2017: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
Daniel Golan, Elsebeth Staun-Ram, Ariel Miller
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: In recent years we notice paradigm shifts in the understanding of multiple sclerosis (MS), leading to important transition in the patients' management. This review discusses some of the recent findings and developments underlying the conceptual changes being translated from 'treating the disease' to 'treating the patient' with MS (PwMS). RECENT FINDINGS: Applying advanced technologies combined with cross-disciplinary efforts in the fields of neuropathology, neuroimmunology, neurobiology, and neuroimaging, together with clinical neurology provided support for the notion that MS is not a single disease but rather a spectrum...
June 2016: Current Opinion in Neurology
Giovanna Vitaliti, Omidreza Tabatabaie, Nassim Matin, Caterina Ledda, Piero Pavone, Riccardo Lubrano, Agostino Serra, Paola Di Mauro, Salvatore Cocuzza, Raffaele Falsaperla
Immunotherapeutic strategies to treat neurodegenerative disorders have inspired the scientific community. The aim of our review is to address the translational aspects of neuroimmunology to describe the efficacy of immunotherapy in the treatment of pediatric neurodegenerative disorders. In the studies we analyzed IVIG were found to be efficient in the treatment of post-streptococcal neurodegenerative disorders, even if in PANDAS, plasma-exchange (PE) showed a higher efficiency. IVIG were also successfully used in ADEM and Guillan-Barré syndrome...
2015: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
Laura Silveira-Moriyama, Jean-Pierre Lin
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Recent advances in neurogenetics, neuroimmunology and nonpharmacological treatments have reshaped the field of paediatric movement disorders. In this review, we put recent findings into context providing a framework to enable navigation of the expanding literature in this field. RECENT FINDINGS: Anti-NMDA receptor encephalitis has proven to be a significant cause of treatable movement disorder in children and to present a multifaceted link with herpes simplex encephalitis...
August 2015: Current Opinion in Neurology
Nynke Oosterhof, Erik Boddeke, Tjakko J van Ham
A major question in research on immune responses in the brain is how the timing and nature of these responses influence physiology, pathogenesis or recovery from pathogenic processes. Proper understanding of the immune regulation of the human brain requires a detailed description of the function and activities of the immune cells in the brain. Zebrafish larvae allow long-term, noninvasive imaging inside the brain at high-spatiotemporal resolution using fluorescent transgenic reporters labeling specific cell populations...
May 2015: Glia
Ruihua Hou, Zhen Tang, David S Baldwin
In the translation of psychoneuroimmunology research into clinical practice, one critical step is to identify biomarkers for improved diagnosis and targeting of interventions. Inflammatory markers deserve special attention due to their crucial role linking various health conditions and disorders. In this chapter, we discuss the pivotal roles of cytokines in signalling to the brain and leading to behavioural changes. This is followed by a review of recent research findings into neuroimmunology of depression, and immunomodulating effects of antidepressants...
2013: Modern Trends in Pharmacopsychiatry
Vanesa Sanchez-Guajardo, Christopher J Barnum, Malú G Tansey, Marina Romero-Ramos
The role of neuroinflammation and the adaptive immune system in PD (Parkinson's disease) has been the subject of intense investigation in recent years, both in animal models of parkinsonism and in post-mortem PD brains. However, how these processes relate to and modulate α-syn (α-synuclein) pathology and microglia activation is still poorly understood. Specifically, how the peripheral immune system interacts, regulates and/or is induced by neuroinflammatory processes taking place during PD is still undetermined...
April 30, 2013: ASN Neuro
Dongsheng Cai, Tiewen Liu
Metabolic syndrome, a network of medical disorders that greatly increase the risk for developing metabolic and cardiovascular diseases, has reached epidemic levels in many areas of today's world. Despite this alarming medicare situation, scientific understandings on the root mechanisms of metabolic syndrome are still limited, and such insufficient knowledge contributes to the relative lack of effective treatments or preventions for related diseases. Recent interdisciplinary studies from neuroendocrinology and neuroimmunology fields have revealed that overnutrition can trigger intracellular stresses to cause inflammatory changes mediated by molecules that control innate immunity...
February 2012: Aging
Ekaterini Tiligada, Konstantinos Kyriakidis, Paul L Chazot, M Beatrice Passani
During the last decade, the identification of a number of novel drug targets led to the development of promising new compounds which are currently under evaluation for their therapeutic prospective in CNS related disorders. Besides the established pleiotropic regulatory functions in the periphery, the interest in the potential homeostatic role of histamine in the brain was revived following the identification of H(3) and H(4) receptors some years ago. Complementing classical CNS pharmacology, the development of selective histamine receptor agonists, antagonists, and inverse agonists provides the lead for the potential exploitation of the histaminergic system in the treatment of brain pathologies...
December 2011: CNS Neuroscience & Therapeutics
Johannes Boltze, Alexander Kranz, Daniel-Christoph Wagner, Klaus Reymann, Georg Reiser, David C Hess
Since 1998, the biannual International Symposium on Neuroprotection and Neurorepair, also known as the Magdeburg Meeting series, has provided a platform for the discussion of recent advances in basic and translational stroke research. The 2010 meeting reviewed highly relevant topics, including astrogliosis and microgliosis, neuroimmunological processes, cell-based therapies, novel imaging approaches, mechanisms of poststroke regeneration and metabolic phenomena in neuroprotection. It further focused on common pitfalls and opportunities in the translational process, from preclinical research to clinical application...
February 2011: Expert Review of Neurotherapeutics
Ariel Miller, Miriam C Souroujon, Francesca Aloisi
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 30, 2009: Journal of Neuroimmunology
Jane Pickett, Eric London
Presented is a review of recent progress in the understanding of autism based on investigations of donated human brain tissue. Autism is a pervasive developmental disorder by the American Psychiatric Association's Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV) criteria, manifesting by age 3 and characterized by impairments in social interaction and communication, as well as restricted, repetitive, stereotyped patterns of behavior. Based on reported neuropathologic findings, these characteristic behaviors are clinical manifestations of both pre- and postnatal alterations...
November 2005: Journal of Neuropathology and Experimental Neurology
Bang-Ning Lee, Robert Dantzer, Keith E Langley, Gary J Bennett, Patrick M Dougherty, Adrian J Dunn, Christina A Meyers, Andrew H Miller, Richard Payne, James M Reuben, Xin Shelley Wang, Charles S Cleeland
While many of the multiple symptoms that cancer patients have are due to the disease, it is increasingly recognized that pain, fatigue, sleep disturbance, cognitive dysfunction and affective symptoms are treatment related, and may lead to treatment delays or premature treatment termination. This symptom burden, a subjective counterpart of tumor burden, causes significant distress. Progress in understanding the mechanisms that underlie these symptoms may lead to new therapies for symptom control. Recently, some of these symptoms have been related to the actions of certain cytokines that produce a constellation of symptoms and behavioral signs when given exogenously to both humans and animals...
2004: Neuroimmunomodulation
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