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organophosphate flame retardants

Zhiguang Niu, Zhaozhao Zhang, Jiafu Li, Jiahui He, Ying Zhang
Organophosphate esters (OPEs) are a kind of emerging contaminants, but the information about their pollution profile and ecological risk are still scarce in China. In this study, 31 surface water samples of Haihe River (China) were collected in November 2017, and 11 OPEs were measured, and the ecological risk of OPEs was assessed by means of species sensitivity distribution (SSD) method and assessment factor method. Additionally, Pearson correlation analysis and an international comparison with other rivers in the world were conducted...
February 18, 2019: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Jiafu Li, Jiahui He, Yuna Li, Yunqing Liu, Wenjie Li, Nan Wu, Lifen Zhang, Ying Zhang, Zhiguang Niu
As one group of emerging pollutants, the threat of organophosphate esters (flame retardants and plasticizers, OPEs) to drinking water safety is not well recognized. Now, the oral reference dose (RfD) and oral cancer slope factor (SFO) of OPEs have been updated by USPEA, therefore the threat of OPEs to drinking water safety could be assessed. In this study, occurrence, health risk and key impact factor of OPEs in drinking water of China were analyzed covering 79 cities, whose population and gross domestic product (GDP) accounted for 28...
February 1, 2019: Water Research
Jinping Gu, Feng Su, PanPan Hong, Quan Zhang, Meirong Zhao
Organophosphate flame retardants (OPFRs) are frequently found in the environment and could be adversely affecting organisms. In fact, nine OPFRs have been shown to cause endocrine disruptions, but information on the metabolism-perturbing properties of these OPFRs remains unclear. In this study, the 1 H-nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) based metabolomic method was applied to evaluate the metabolic disturbances caused by these nine OPFRs. From the analysis of the metabolic phenotypes, we found that TDBPP, TMPP and TPHP could be clustered into one group; TBOEP, TCIPP, TCEP and TEHP could be clustered into another group; and the residual OPFRs could be clustered into another...
February 4, 2019: Science of the Total Environment
Lin Qiao, Xiaobo Zheng, Jing Zheng, She-Jun Chen, Changqin Zhong, Jinghua Chen, Zhong-Yi Yang, Bi-Xian Xian Mai
Legacy organic contaminants, such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), and several currently used organic contaminants, such as novel brominated retardants (NBFRs), organophosphate flame retardants (OPFRs), and Dechlorane Plus (DPs), were measured in the segmented hair and hand wipes of e-waste dismantling workers and in the dust from their working place in an e-waste recycling site in South China to assess the accumulation and sources of organic contaminants in the hair shaft...
February 14, 2019: Environmental Science & Technology
Un-Jung Kim, Yu Wang, Wenhui Li, Kurunthachalam Kannan
The occurrence and profiles of 15 organophosphate flame retardants/plasticizers (OPFRs) (3 chlorinated [Cl-], 2 aryl-, 5 non-Cl alkyl-, and 5 other types of OPFRs) were investigated in indoor air and dust collected from various microenvironments, including homes in the Albany area of New York State, United States. Concurrent indoor air and dust were collected from floors and window sills at homes and fire stations to investigate the partitioning of OPFRs between the vapor and particulate phases of air and dust...
February 7, 2019: Environment International
Xiali Zhong, Jiahuang Qiu, Jianmeng Kang, Xiumei Xing, Xiongjie Shi, Yanhong Wei
The growing production and extensive use of organophosphate flame retardants (OPFRs) have led to an increase in their environmental distribution and human exposure. Developmental toxicity is a major concern of OPFRs' adverse health effects. However, the impact of OPFRs exposure on vascular development and the toxicity pathway for developmental defects are poorly understood. In this study, we investigated the effects of exposure to tris(1,3-dichloro-2-propyl) phosphate (TDCPP), a frequently detected OPFR, on early vascular development, and the possible role of nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor (Nrf2)-dependent angiogenic pathway in TDCPP's vascular toxicity...
January 3, 2019: Environmental Pollution
Fang Tao, Ulla Sellström, Cynthia A de Wit
A wide range of organohalogenated flame retardants (HFRs) and organophosphate esters (OPEs) were measured in air and floor dust from 10 offices in Stockholm, Sweden. Concentrations of ∑18 emerging HFRs, ∑21 legacy HFRs and ∑11 OPEs from the offices were found to be 420, 510 and 1600000 ng/g, respectively, in floor dust and 400, 15 and 160000 pg/m3 respectively in active air samples. All targeted compounds were detected in dust except 2,3,5,6-tetrabromo-p-xylene (pTBX) indicating widespread application of a broad range of FRs in the Swedish offices while only 54% of targeted compounds were detected in indoor air...
January 25, 2019: Environmental Science & Technology
Xiaolong Yu, Hua Yin, Hui Peng, Guining Lu, Zehua Liu, Zhi Dang
Organophosphate flame retardants (OPFRs) and brominated flame retardants (BFRs) are frequently detected in indoor environment at high levels, posing health risks to humans. However, the potential cytotoxicity mediated by OPFRs and BFRs in relevant human cell models is limited. In current study, non-small cell lung cancer A549 cell was employed to investigate toxicity mechanisms of typical OPFRs (i.e., tris (2-chloroethyl) phosphate (TCEP), tris-(2-chloropropyl) phosphate (TCPP), tricresy phosphate (TCP), triphenyl phosphate (TPHP) and BFRs (i...
January 16, 2019: Chemosphere
Amandeep Saini, Jenna Clarke, Narumol Jariyasopit, Cassandra Rauert, Jasmin K Schuster, Sabina Halappanavar, Greg J Evans, Yushan Su, Tom Harner
Based on distinct land-use categories, a sampling campaign was carried out at eight locations across Toronto and the Greater Toronto Area in 2016-2017. Source sectors' dependent patterns of atmospheric concentrations of 9 organophosphate esters (OPEs), 9 polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and 5 novel flame retardants (NFRs) showed dominance of OPEs and PBDEs at highly commercialised urban and traffic sites, while NFRs, were dominant at residential sites. Overall, average concentrations of Σ9 OPEs (1790 pg/m3 ) were two orders of magnitude higher than Σ9 PBDEs (9...
January 11, 2019: Environmental Pollution
Young Ran Kim, Rosana E Pacella, Fiona A Harden, Nicole White, Leisa-Maree L Toms
BACKGROUND: Emerging scientific evidence suggests that exposure to environmental pollutants is associated with negative effects on fecundity as measured by time to pregnancy (TTP). OBJECTIVES: To conduct a systematic review of the literature on the association between selected endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs), and fecundity as measured by TTP in humans. Compounds included in this review are: brominated flame retardants (BFRs) such as hexabromocyclododecane, tetrabromobiphenol A and polybrominated diphenyl ethers; organophosphates flame retardants (OPFRs); and phthalates...
December 28, 2018: Environmental Research
Fanrong Zhao, Qiyue Kang, Xiaohua Zhang, Jiaying Liu, Jianying Hu
While monomeric aryl organophosphate flame retardants (m-aryl-OPFRs) are used worldwide in a variety of consumer products, specific biomarkers for epidemiologic studies are lacking. To explore the potential of urinary hydroxylated metabolites of m-aryl-OPFRs as the biomarkers, we detected triphenyl phosphate (TPHP), 2-ethylhexyl diphenyl phosphate (EHDPP), and tricresyl phosphate (TCrP) in 259 whole blood samples and their 5 hydroxylated and 2 diester metabolites in the paired urine samples from the general population...
January 16, 2019: Environment International
Maria Vila-Costa, Marta Sebastián, Mariana Pizarro, Elena Cerro-Gálvez, Daniel Lundin, Josep M Gasol, Jordi Dachs
The anthropogenic perturbation of the phosphorus (P) marine biogeochemical cycle due to synthetic organophosphorus compounds remains unexplored. The objective of this work was to investigate the microbial degradation of organophosphate triesters (OPEs), widely used as plasticizers and flame retardants, in seawater and their effects on the physiology and composition of microbial communities. Experiments were performed in July 2014 using surface seawater from the Blanes Bay Microbial Observatory (NW Mediterranean) to which OPEs were added at environmentally relevant concentrations...
January 18, 2019: Scientific Reports
Junqi Li, Zheng Dong, Ying Wang, Junsong Bao, Yijun Yan, Jun Jin
Organophosphate flame retardants (OPFRs) have been found in human samples and associated with adverse health effects. Here, OPFR and dialkyl and diaryl phosphate (DAP) concentrations in human urine were determined and differences in the concentrations in urine from males and females were investigated. Urine samples from 22 male and 26 female university students, paired dust samples from the dormitories (13 each for males and females), and 10 dust samples from university teaching buildings were analyzed. The tri-o-cresylphosphate (TOCP), tri-p-cresylphosphate (TPCP), and tris(2-chloroisopropyl)phosphate (TCIPP) concentrations were significantly higher (p = 0...
January 18, 2019: Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry
Carrie A McDonough, Diana G Franks, Mark E Hahn, Rainer Lohmann
The gaseous fraction of hydrophobic organic contaminants (HOCs) in ambient air appears to be responsible for a significant portion of aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR)-mediated activity, but the majority of compounds contributing to this activity remain unidentified. This study investigated the use of polyethylene passive samplers (PEs) to isolate gaseous HOCs from ambient air for use in in vitro bioassays and to improve our understanding of the toxicological relevance of the gaseous fraction of ambient air in urban and residential environments...
January 16, 2019: Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry
Kevin A Romanak, Shaorui Wang, William A Stubbings, Michael Hendryx, Marta Venier, Amina Salamova
For the first time, we present an analytical method to simultaneously extract, fractionate, and quantify four groups of semi-volatile organic compounds (SVOCs) in silicone wristbands, including 35 polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), 10 novel flame retardants (NFRs), 19 organophosphate esters (OPEs), and 13 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Wristbands were extracted using ultrasonication, and cleaned and fractionated on two multi-layer columns: one consisting of neutral alumina, neutral silica and Florisil, and the other consisting of neutral alumina, neutral silica, and acidic silica...
December 21, 2018: Journal of Chromatography. A
Ruiwen Li, Hengqi Wang, Chuang Mi, Chenglian Feng, Ling Zhang, Lihua Yang, Bingsheng Zhou
Tris (1-chloro-2-propyl) phosphate (TCIPP) and tris (2-chloroethyl)phosphate (TCEP) are two widely used chlorinated organophosphate flame retardants (ClOPFRs), and have been frequently detected in various environmental media. Concern is now growing whether TCIPP and TCEP can cause neurotoxicity since they have similar chemical structure with organophosphorus pesticide. Therefore, in this study, zebrafish embryos (2-120 h post-fertilization [hpf]) were exposed to TCIPP or TCEP (0, 100, 500 or 2500 μg/L) or a model neurotoxicant, chlorpyrifos (CPF, 100 μg/L) to investigate the adverse effects and possible mechanisms of TCIPP and TCEP on neurodevelopment...
January 3, 2019: Chemosphere
Mohammed A Khairy, Rainer Lohmann
Little is known about the presence of organophosphate flame retardants (OPFRs) as a substitute for polybrominated diphenyl ethers in developing countries. This study investigated - for the first time - concentrations, sources and exposure levels of OPFRs in the indoor and outdoor environments of Alexandria, Egypt, in dust and gas-phase samples. Passive samplers were deployed (n = 78) to determine gaseous concentrations, and various dust samples were collected from apartments (n = 25), working places (n = 14), cars (n = 18), and outdoors (OD, n = 30)...
December 23, 2018: Chemosphere
Han Yan, Barbara F Hales
Phasing out the usage of polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) flame retardants (FRs) in consumer products led to their widespread replacement with organophosphate ester (OPE) FRs, despite scarce safety data. PBDE exposures were associated with the suppression of endochondral ossification but little is known about the effects of OPEs on bones. Here, we used a novel ex vivo murine limb bud culture system to compare the effects of 2,2',4,4'-tetrabromodiphenyl ether (BDE-47) with those of several OPEs. Gestation day 13 embryos were collected from transgenic CD1 mice expressing fluorescent markers for the major stages of endochondral ossification: COL2A1-ECFP (chondrogenesis), COL10A1-mCherry (early osteogenesis), and COL1A1-YFP (late osteogenesis)...
December 18, 2018: Toxicological Sciences: An Official Journal of the Society of Toxicology
Elizabeth A Gibson, Heather M Stapleton, Lehyla Calero, Darrell Holmes, Kimberly Burke, Rodney Martinez, Boris Cortes, Amy Nematollahi, David Evans, Kim A Anderson, Julie B Herbstman
BACKGROUND: Humans are ubiquitously exposed to flame retardants, including organophosphate esters (OPEs), through direct contact with consumer products or exposure through household dust. Children are at increased risk because of their proximity to dust, hand-to-mouth activity, and the importance of childhood as a critical period in neurodevelopment. OBJECTIVES: To quantify differences in exposure levels between mothers and children (three to six years of age), we analyzed urinary metabolites of OPEs...
December 4, 2018: Chemosphere
Georgia Dolios, Dhavalkumar Patel, Manish Arora, Syam S Andra
RATIONALE: Organophosphate flame retardants (OPFRs) are a class of flame retardants widely found in environmental and biological matrices that have been extensively studied due to their adverse health effects in humans. OPFRs are loosely bound chemicals that can detach from treated products and be released into indoor and outdoor environments, where they have the potential to further undergo transformation and degradation processes, in particular the chlorinated OPFRs (Cl-PFRs). Their detection remains a moving target for analysts, and traditional targeted mass spectrometry methods are suitable only for those compounds with authentic standards...
December 11, 2018: Rapid Communications in Mass Spectrometry: RCM
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