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antiviral method

Senthilraja Ramalingam, Sathiyamurthy Karupannan, Padmapriya Padmanaban, Senthilkumar Vijayan, Khallefathullah Sheriff, Gunasekaran Palani, K Kaveri Krishnasamy
Background: Dengue virus is a leading cause of illness and death in the tropics and subtropics. As many as 400 million people are infected yearly. Dengue is caused by any one of four related viruses transmitted by mosquitoes. Currently, there is no vaccine to prevent infection with dengue virus and the most effective protective measures are those that avoid mosquito bites. When infected, early recognition and prompt supportive treatment can substantially lower the risk of medical complications and death...
April 2018: Ayu
Yingzi Fan, Yandong Mu, Lian Lu, Yaomei Tian, Fengjiao Yuan, Bailing Zhou, Chaoheng Yu, Zhenling Wang, Xiaolu Li, Song Lei, Ying Xu, Dongming Wu, Li Yang
The problem of nosocomial infection is seriously escalating. Bacterial vaccines are indispensable for preventing infections caused by multi-drug resistant organisms. Some researchers have put forward the use of hydrogen peroxide (H2 O2 ) as a new technology platform for virus deactivation. This deactivated virus can induce the number of CD8+ T lymphocytes, which can enhance antiviral responses. Although, H2 O2 treatment has been rarely reported on the exploration of bacterial deactivation, H2 O2 deactivation of whole-cell bacteria could be a potential novel approach for bacterial vaccine development...
February 16, 2019: International Immunopharmacology
Laurissa Ouaguia, Vincent Leroy, Tania Dufeu-Duchesne, David Durantel, Thomas Decaens, Margaux Hubert, Jenny Valladeau-Guilemond, Nathalie Bendriss-Vermare, Laurence Chaperot, Caroline Aspord
Background and aims: Chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is a major health burden potentially evolving toward cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. HBV physiopathology is strongly related to the host immunity, yet the mechanisms of viral evasion from immune-surveillance are still misunderstood. The immune response elicited at early stages of viral infection is believed to be important for subsequent disease outcome. Dendritic cells (DCs) are crucial immune sentinels which orchestrate antiviral immunity, which offer opportunity to pathogens to subvert them to escape immunity...
2019: Frontiers in Immunology
Minou van Seyen, Marga J A de Graaff Teulen, Nielka P van Erp, David M Burger
Direct-acting antivirals (DAA) have markedly improved the treatment of hepatitis C, with a series of DAA combinations available for treatment. A sensitive method by ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS) was developed for the simultaneous quantification of seven commonly used DAAs, daclatasvir (DAC), elbasvir (ELB), grazoprevir (GZR), ledipasvir (LDV), simeprevir (SIM), sofosbuvir (SOF), velpatasvir (VEL) and the primary analyte of interest of SOF (GS-331007) in EDTA plasma...
January 28, 2019: Journal of Chromatography. B, Analytical Technologies in the Biomedical and Life Sciences
Beth Catlett, Alex Carrera, Mitchell Starr, Tanya L Applegate, Peter Lowe, H Philip Cunningham, Jason Grebely
BACKGROUND: The availability of effective direct-acting antiviral therapy for hepatitis C virus (HCV) has led to a need for simplified diagnostic pathways. Barriers to treatment uptake, specifically in people who inject drugs and in remote and resource limited settings, may be overcome by utilizing novel collection methods, such as dried blood spots (DBS). However, there are currently no registered assays for HCV RNA testing from DBS samples. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the sensitivity and specificity of the Aptima HCV Dx Quant assay for HCV RNA detection in DBS samples STUDY DESIGN: 107 paired venepuncture and DBS samples from HCV antibody positive individuals were analyzed for HCV RNA on the Aptima HCV Dx Quant and Roche CAP/CTM (gold standard) HCV assays...
January 25, 2019: Journal of Clinical Virology: the Official Publication of the Pan American Society for Clinical Virology
Darja Pollpeter, Andrew Sobala, Michael H Malim
Monitoring of nucleic acid intermediates during virus replication provides insights into the effects and mechanisms of action of antiviral compounds and host cell proteins on viral DNA synthesis. Here we address the lack of a cell-based, high-coverage, and high-resolution assay that is capable of defining retroviral reverse transcription intermediates within the physiological context of virus infection. The described method captures the 3'-termini of nascent complementary DNA (cDNA) molecules within HIV-1 infected cells at single nucleotide resolution...
January 30, 2019: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
Jared Pitts, Chih-Yun Hsia, Wenlong Lian, Jinhua Wang, Marc-Philipp Pfeil, Nicholas Kwiatkowski, Zhengnian Li, Jaebong Jang, Nathanael S Gray, Priscilla L Yang
The recent emergence of Zika virus, a mosquito-borne flavivirus, in the Americas has shed light on the severe neurological diseases associated with infection, notably congenital microcephaly in newborns and Guillain-Barré syndrome in adults. Despite the recent focus on Zika virus, there are currently no approved vaccines or antiviral therapies available to treat or prevent infection. In this study we established a competitive amplified luminescent proximity homogeneous assay (ALPHAscreen) to identify small molecule inhibitors targeting the envelope protein of Zika virus (Zika E)...
February 13, 2019: Antiviral Research
Pravin Shende, Rohan Khair, R S Gaud
Among lipid-based nanocarriers, multi-layered cochleates emerge as a novel delivery system because of prevention of oxidation of hydrophobic and hydrophilic drugs, enhancement in permeability and reduction in dose of drugs. It also improves oral bioavailability and increases the safety of a drug by targeting at a specific site with less side effects. Nanostructured cochleates are used as a carrier for the delivery of water-insoluble or hydrophobic drugs of anti-cancer, antiviral and anti-inflammatory action...
February 15, 2019: Drug Development and Industrial Pharmacy
Cláudia F Campos, Luís Leite, Paulo Pereira, Carlos Pinho Vaz, Rosa Branca, Fernando Campilho, Fátima Freitas, Dário Ligeiro, António Marques, Egídio Torrado, Ricardo Silvestre, João F Lacerda, António Campos, Cristina Cunha, Agostinho Carvalho
Background: Reactivation of latent human cytomegalovirus (CMV) in patients undergoing allogeneic stem-cell transplantation (HSCT) predisposes to several clinical complications and is therefore a major cause of morbidity and mortality. Although pentraxin-3 (PTX3) has been previously described to bind both human and murine CMV and mediate several host antiviral mechanisms, whether genetic variation in the PTX3 locus influences the risk of CMV infection is currently unknown. Methods: To dissect the contribution of genetic variation within PTX3 to the development of CMV infection, we analyzed described loss-of-function variants at the PTX3 locus in 394 recipients of HSCT and their corresponding donors and assessed the associated risk of CMV reactivation...
2019: Frontiers in Immunology
Jenna Weber, Malaya K Sahoo, Nathaniel Taylor, Run-Zhang Shi, Benjamin A Pinsky
HCV RNA quantitation is the primary method by which active HCV infections are identified and the response to direct acting antiviral therapy is monitored. This study describes evaluation of the Aptima HCV Quant Dx assay (Aptima HCV) performed on the Panther system. The clinical performance of Aptima HCV was compared to the COBAS AmpliPrep/COBAS TaqMan HCV Test v2.0 (CAP/CTM). Overall agreement was 84.9% (186/219) with a kappa statistic of 0.755 [Standard Error 0.037; 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.682 to 0...
February 13, 2019: Journal of Clinical Microbiology
Parveen Akhter, Uzma Ashiq, Rifat Ara Jamal, Zara Shaikh, Mohammad Mahroof-Tahir, Mehreen Lateef, Rooma Badar
BACKGROUND: Antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antiviral and antitumoral activities among others are essential characteristics in the development of novel therapeutic compounds. Acid hydrazides can form complexation with certain metal ions that positively enhances these biological characteristics. OBJECTIVE: Five new complexes of uranium with hydrazide ligands were synthesized at room temperature. METHOD: The characterization was done by spectroscopic methods (ESI-Mass, IR, 1H-NMR, 13C-NMR), CHN analysis and conductivity measurements...
February 12, 2019: Medicinal Chemistry
Haiyan Yan, Linlin Ma, Huiqiang Wang, Shuo Wu, Hua Huang, Zhengyi Gu, Jiandong Jiang, Yuhuan Li
Influenza is an acute transmissible respiratory infectious disease in humans and animals with high morbidity and mortality. It was reported that luteolin, extracted from Chinese herbs, could potently inhibit influenza virus replication in vitro. To assess the effect and explore the fundamental mechanism of luteolin, we infected several cell lines with two subtypes of influenza A virus (IAV), including A/Jiangxi/312/2006 (H3N2) and A/Fort Monmouth/1/1947 (H1N1) and demonstrated that luteolin suppressed the replication of IAV by cytopathic effect reduction method, qRT-PCR, immunofluorescence and Western blot assays...
February 13, 2019: Journal of Natural Medicines
Mrutyunjaya Parida, Kyle A Nilson, Ming Li, Christopher B Ball, Harrison A Fuchs, Christine K Lawson, Donal S Luse, Jeffery L Meier, David H Price
The large genome of human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) is transcribed by RNA polymerase II (Pol II). However, it is not known how closely this betaherpesvirus follows host transcriptional paradigms. We applied PRO-Seq and PRO-Cap methods to profile and quantify transcription initiation and productive elongation across the host and virus genomes in late infection. A major similarity between host transcription and viral transcription is that treatment of cells with the P-TEFb inhibitor flavopiridol preempts virtually all productive elongation, which otherwise covers most of the HCMV genome...
February 12, 2019: MBio
Sofia R Bartlett, Tanya L Applegate, Brendan P Jacka, Marianne Martinello, Francois Mj Lamoury, Mark Danta, Daniel Bradshaw, David Shaw, Andrew R Lloyd, Margaret Hellard, Gregory J Dore, Gail V Matthews, Jason Grebely
INTRODUCTION: Over the last two decades, the incidence of hepatitis C virus (HCV) co-infection among men who have sex with men (MSM) living with HIV began increasing in post-industrialized countries. Little is known about transmission of acute or recent HCV, in particular among MSM living with HIV co-infection, which creates uncertainty about potential for reinfection after HCV treatment. Using phylogenetic methods, clinical, epidemiological and molecular data can be combined to better understand transmission patterns...
February 2019: Journal of the International AIDS Society
L Q Xu, Z G Han, Y L Zhang, H Wu, K Gao, Q M Li, H F Xu, Y S Cai, Y Xia
Objective: To understand the prevalence of drug resistance in treatment-naive injecting drug users (IDUs) infected with HIV-1 in Guangzhou. Methods: HIV-1 RNA were extracted from the serum specimens of the newly confirmed HIV-1 positive IDUs living in Guangzhou, being infected through injecting drug use and receiving no antiretroviral therapy at the time of confirmation during 2008-2015. Full sequence of pol protease (PR) gene and partial sequence of reverse transcriptase (RT) gene were amplified by nested reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (nested-PCR) and sequenced...
February 10, 2019: Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue za Zhi, Zhonghua Liuxingbingxue Zazhi
Thomas M Bocan, Falguni Basuli, Robert G Stafford, Jennifer L Brown, Xiang Zhang, Allen J Duplantier, Rolf E Swenson
Favipiravir (T705; 6-fluoro-3-hydroxypyrazine-2-carboxamide) is a pyrazine analog that has demonstrated potent antiviral activity against a broad spectrum of viruses in multiple in vivo disease models. To better understand the compounds anti-viral activity, assessment of the drug's biodistribution and kinetics in vivo may lend insight into how best to evaluate the compound efficacy preclinically and to contribute to the design of clinical studies to take into account the compound's pharmacokinetic distribution and kinetics...
February 11, 2019: Scientific Reports
Daniel Cunningham-Bryant, Emily M Dieter, Glenna W Foight, John C Rose, Dana E Loutey, Dustin J Maly
Chemical methods that allow the spatial proximity of proteins to be temporally modulated are powerful tools for studying biology and engineering synthetic cellular behaviors. Here, we describe a new chemically-controlled method for rapidly disrupt-ing the interaction between two basally colocalized protein binding partners. Our chemically-disrupted proximity (CDP) system is based on the interaction between the hepatitis C virus protease (HCVp) NS3a and a genetically-encoded peptide inhibitor. Using clinically-approved antiviral inhibitors as chemical disrupters of the NS3a/peptide interaction, we demonstrate that our CDP system can be used to confer temporal control over diverse intracellular processes...
February 8, 2019: Journal of the American Chemical Society
Abd El-Moneim M R Afify, Gamal S El Baroty, Farouk K El Baz, Hanaa H Abd El Baky, Soha A Murad
Purpose: To obtain protein hydrolysates from fresh water green algae Scenedesmus obliquus by three different enzymes and evaluate its antioxidant and antiviral activity. Methods: Enzymatic hydrolysates of green algae Scenedesmus obliquus protein were prepared by treatment with: 1.2% solution of pepsin, trypsin or papain. Protein was extracted from S. obliquus by three different extraction methods. Protein extracts and hydrolysates were assessed from stained gels following SDS-PAGE of samples...
December 2018: Journal, Genetic Engineering & Biotechnology
Yiling Hou, Meng Wang, Daqun Zhao, Lu Liu, Xiang Ding, Wanru Hou
The fundamental mechanisms underlying the preventional and therapeutic effects of polysaccharides from fungi, including the immunostimulatory, antiviral and antitumor effects, are considered to occur through the modulation and stimulation of the macrophage and complement system. LDG-A, a novel polysaccharide from Lactarius deliciosus (L. ex Fr.) Gray exhibits marked antitumor activities in vivo . However, the underlying molecular mechanism of the antitumor activities of LDG-A remains unclear. In the present study, cell cycle analysis was performed in macrophages and B cells, and the transcriptomes of macrophages in the control group and LDG-A group were sequenced using Illumina sequencing technology to analyze the differentially expressed genes (DEGs), and elucidate the molecular mechanisms underlying the immunomodulatory and antitumor activities of LDG-A...
February 2019: Oncology Letters
Alberto Falco, Regla María Medina-Gali, José Antonio Poveda, Melissa Bello-Perez, Beatriz Novoa, José Antonio Encinar
Global health is under attack by increasingly-frequent pandemics of viral origin. Antimicrobial peptides are a valuable tool to combat pathogenic microorganisms. Previous studies from our group have shown that the membrane-lytic region of turbot ( Scophthalmus maximus ) NK-lysine short peptide (Nkl71⁻100 ) exerts an anti-protozoal activity, probably due to membrane rupture. In addition, NK-lysine protein is highly expressed in zebrafish in response to viral infections. In this work several biophysical methods, such as vesicle aggregation, leakage and fluorescence anisotropy, are employed to investigate the interaction of Nkl71⁻100 with different glycerophospholipid vesicles...
February 1, 2019: Marine Drugs
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