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Exosome and Mesenchymal Stem cell

Shipin Zhang, Kristeen Ye Wen Teo, Shang Jiunn Chuah, Ruenn Chai Lai, Sai Kiang Lim, Wei Seong Toh
The efficacy of mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) therapies is increasingly attributed to paracrine secretion, particularly exosomes. In this study, we investigated the role of MSC exosomes in the regulation of inflammatory response, nociceptive behaviour, and condylar cartilage and subchondral bone healing in an immunocompetent rat model of temporomandibular joint osteoarthritis (TMJ-OA). We observed that exosome-mediated repair of osteoarthritic TMJs was characterized by early suppression of pain and degeneration with reduced inflammation, followed by sustained proliferation and gradual improvements in matrix expression and subchondral bone architecture, leading to overall joint restoration and regeneration...
February 8, 2019: Biomaterials
Zhanjun Ma, Xue Cui, Li Lu, Guohu Chen, Yang Yang, Yan Hu, Yubao Lu, Zhangqi Cao, Yan Wang, Xuexi Wang
BACKGROUND: Exosomes are nanoscale membrane vesicles secreted by both normal and cancer cells, and cancer cell-derived exosomes play an important role in the cross-talk between cancer cells and other cellular components in the tumor microenvironment. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have tropism for tumors and have been used as tumor-tropic vectors for tumor therapy; however, the safety of such therapeutic use of MSCs is unknown. In this study, we investigated the role of glioma cell-derived exosomes in the tumor-like phenotype transformation of human bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (hBMSCs) and explored the underlying molecular mechanisms...
February 15, 2019: Stem Cell Research & Therapy
Fazileh Hosseini Shamili, Houshang Rafatpanah Bayegi, Zahra Salmasi, Kayvan Sadri, Mahmoud Mahmoudi, Mahmoudreza Kalantari, Mohammad Ramezani, Khalil Abnous
Exosomes are biological nano-sized vesicles (~30-200 nm in diameter) that are produced by a wide range of cells and play several roles in cell-cell communications. These vesicles contain membrane and cytoplasmic components of producing cells. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are the ideal producer of exosomes. The secreted vesicles from MSCs are promising biological vehicles for cell-free therapy in regenerative medicine, cancer therapy and targeted delivery of therapeutic agents to the tumor cells. Tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) is a promising member of the TNF family with selective effect on cancerous cells...
March 10, 2019: International Journal of Pharmaceutics
Nisim Perets, Oshra Betzer, Ronit Shapira, Shmuel Brenstein, Ariel Angel, Tamar Sadan, Uri Ashery, Rachela Popovtzer, Daniel Offen
Exosomes, nano-vesicles that are secreted by different cell types, enable intercellular communication at local or distant sites. Though they have been found to cross the blood brain barrier, their migration and homing abilities within the brain remain unstudied. We have recently developed a method for longitudinal and quantitative in vivo neuroimaging of exosomes, based on the superior visualization abilities of classical X-ray computed tomography (CT), combined with gold nanoparticles as labeling agents. Here, we used this technique to track the migration and homing patterns of intranasally administrated exosomes derived from bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (MSC-exo) in different brain pathologies, including stroke, autism, Parkinson's disease and Alzheimer's disease...
February 14, 2019: Nano Letters
R Domenis, A Cifù, M Fabris, F Curcio
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 2018: Journal of Biological Regulators and Homeostatic Agents
Zucheng Luo, Fangfang Wu, Enxing Xue, Linlin Huang, Ping Yan, Xiaoyun Pan, Yulong Zhou
Bone marrow derived stem cells (BMSCs) transplantation are viewed as a promising therapeutic candidate for spinal cord injury (SCI). However, the inflammatory microenvironment in the spinal cord following SCI limits the survival and efficacy of transplanted BMSCs. In this study, we investigate whether injured neuronal cells derived exosomes would influence the survival of transplanted BMSCs after SCI. In order to mimic the microenvironment in SCI that the neuronal cells or transplanted BMSCs suffer in vivo, PC12 cells conditioned medium and PC12 cell's exosomes collected from H2 O2 -treated PC12 cell's culture medium were cultured with BMSCs under oxidative stress in vitro...
February 12, 2019: Cell Death & Disease
Jinxuan Zhao, Xueling Li, Jiaxin Hu, Fu Chen, Shuaihua Qiao, Xuan Sun, Ling Gao, Jun Xie, Biao Xu
Aims: Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) gradually become attractive candidates for cardiac inflammation modulation, yet understanding of the mechanism remains elusive. Strikingly, recent studies indicated that exosomes secreted by MSCs might be a novel mechanism for the beneficial effect of MSCs transplantation after myocardial infarction. We therefore explored the role of MSC-derived exosomes (MSC-Exo) in the immunomodulation of macrophages after myocardial ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) and its implications in cardiac injury repair...
February 8, 2019: Cardiovascular Research
Jiangbing Li, Hao Xue, Tingting Li, Xili Chu, Danqing Xin, Ye Xiong, Wei Qiu, Xiao Gao, Mingyu Qian, Jiangye Xu, Zhen Wang, Gang Li
Atherosclerosis is a chronic inflammatory disease of the vasculature. Exosomes derived from mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) exert immunomodulatory and immunosuppressive effects; however, the MSCs-exosomes administration on atherosclerosis was unknown. Here, our ApoE-/- mice were fed a high-fat diet and received intravenous injections of exosomes from MSCs for 12 weeks. After tail-vein injection, MSCs-exosomes were capable of migrating to atherosclerotic plaque and selectively taking up residence near macrophages...
February 7, 2019: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
Li-Yan Guo, Pei-Long Lai, Su-Xia Geng, Xiao-Mei Chen, Yu-Lian Wang, Tian Huang, Xin DU, Jian-Yu Weng
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effects of exosomes from human umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cells on the development of Treg and TH17 cells. METHODS: Exosomes from the serum-free-culture supernatants of hUC-MSC were harvested by ultracentrifugation. The electron microscopy, nanoparticle tracking analysis and western blot were used to identify the hUC-MSC-exosomes, such as the morphology, the paticle chameter, and the protein content. The PBMC stimulated with anti-CD3/CD28 were incubated with the exosomes for five days, and then the percentage changes of Treg and TH17 cells were analyzed by using flow cytometry...
February 2019: Zhongguo Shi Yan Xue Ye Xue za Zhi
Haoqi Ni, Su Yang, Felix Siaw-Debrah, Jiangnan Hu, Ke Wu, Zibin He, Jianjing Yang, Sishi Pan, Xiao Lin, Haotuo Ye, Zhu Xu, Fan Wang, Kunlin Jin, Qichuan Zhuge, Lijie Huang
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a leading cause of mortality and disability worldwide. Although treatment guidelines have been developed, no best treatment option or medicine for this condition exists. Recently, mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs)-derived exosomes have shown lots of promise for the treatment of brain disorders, with some results highlighting the neuroprotective effects through neurogenesis and angiogenesis after TBI. However, studies focusing on the role of exosomes in the early stages of neuroinflammation post-TBI are not sufficient...
2019: Frontiers in Neuroscience
Connie S Chamberlain, Anna B Clements, John A Kink, Ugeun Choi, Geoffrey S Baer, Matthew A Halanski, Peiman Hematti, Ray Vanderby
Tendon healing follows a complex series of coordinated events that ultimately produces a mechanically inferior tissue more scar-like than native tendon. More regenerative healing occurs when anti-inflammatory M2 macrophages play a more dominant role. Mesenchymal stromal/stem cells (MSCs) are able to polarize macrophages to an M2 immunophenotype via paracrine mechanisms. We previously reported that co-culture of CD14+ macrophages (MQs) with MSCs resulted in a unique M2-like macrophage. More recently, we generated M2-like macrophages using only extracellular vesicles (EVs) isolated from MSCs creating "EV-educated macrophages" (also called exosome-educated macrophages, EEMs), thereby foregoing direct use of MSCs...
February 5, 2019: Stem Cells
Xu-He Gong, Hui Liu, Si-Jia Wang, Si-Wen Liang, Guo-Gan Wang
Exosomes extracted from mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) was reported to reduce myocardial ischemia/reperfusion damage. Besides, stromal-derived factor 1 (SDF1a) functions as cardiac repair after myocardial infarction (MI). Therefore, the present study aims to identify whether exosomes (Exo) released from SDF1-overexpressing MSCs display a beneficial effect on ischemic myocardial infarction. Initially, a gain-of-function study was performed to investigate the function of SDF1 in ischemic myocardial cells and cardiac endothelial cells...
February 5, 2019: Journal of Cellular Physiology
Yamei Shen, Chunling Xue, Xuechun Li, Li Ba, Junjie Gu, Zhao Sun, Qin Han, Robert Chunhua Zhao
Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are an important component of the tumor microenvironment, which play an important role in tumor development. Exosomes derived from tumor cells can affect the biological characteristics of MSCs. Our study examined the effects of exosomes derived from gastric cancer cells on MSC immunomodulatory functions. Exosomes were extracted from gastric cancer cell line AGS (AGS-Exos) and cultured with MSCs. MSCs were then co-cultured with both human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) and macrophages...
February 4, 2019: Stem Cells and Development
Helena Vilaça-Faria, António J Salgado, Fábio G Teixeira
Parkinson's disease (PD) is the second most prevalent neurodegenerative disorder worldwide. Clinically, it is characterized by severe motor complications caused by a progressive degeneration of dopaminergic neurons (DAn) and dopamine loss. Current treatment is focused on mitigating the symptoms through administration of levodopa, rather than on preventing DAn damage. Therefore, the use and development of neuroprotective/disease-modifying strategies is an absolute need, which can lead to promising gains on PD translational research...
February 2, 2019: Cells
Tian Su, Yuzhong Xiao, Ye Xiao, Qi Guo, Changjun Li, Yan Huang, Qiufang Deng, Jingxiang Wen, Fangliang Zhou, Xiang-Hang Luo
Insulin resistance is the major pathological characteristic of type 2 diabetes and the elderly often develop insulin resistance. However, the deep-seated mechanisms for aging-related insulin resistance remain unclear. Here, we showed that nano-sized exosomes released by bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BM-MSCs) of aged mice could be taken up by adipocytes, myocytes, and hepatocytes, resulting in insulin resistance both in vivo and in vitro. Using microRNA (miRNA) array assays, we found that the amount of miR-29b-3p was dramatically increased in exosomes released by BM-MSCs of aged mice...
February 4, 2019: ACS Nano
A J Villatoro, C Alcoholado, M C Martín-Astorga, V Fernández, M Cifuentes, J Becerra
The two main sources of mesenchymal stem cell (MSCs) in the canine species are bone marrow (cBM-MSCs) and adipose tissue (cAd-MSCs). The secretion of multitude bioactive molecules, included under the concept of secretome and found in the cultured medium, play a predominant role in the mechanism of action of these cells on tissue regeneration. Although certain features of its characterization are well documented, their secretory profiles remain unknown. We described and compared, for the first time, the secretory profile and exosomes characterization in standard monolayer culture of MSCs from both sources of the same donor as well as its immunomodulatory potential...
February 2019: Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology
Yudi Han, Jing Ren, Yun Bai, Xuetao Pei, Yan Han
BACKGROUND: We previously reported that co-transplantation of exosomes from hypoxia-preconditioned adipose mesenchymal stem cells (ADSCs) improves the neoangiogenesis and survival of the grafted tissue. This study aimed to investigate the molecular mechanism of this protective effect. METHODS: Exosomes were collected from normoxia-treated (nADSC-Exo) or hypoxia--treated (hypADSC-Exo) human ADSCs, and their pro-angiogenic capacity was evaluated in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) and a nude mouse model of subcutaneous fat grafting...
January 30, 2019: International Journal of Biochemistry & Cell Biology
Michele Christian Klymiuk, Natalie Balz, Mohamed I Elashry, Manuela Heimann, Sabine Wenisch, Stefan Arnhold
BACKGROUND: Mesenchymal stem cells are used for different therapeutic approaches, e.g. for osteoarthritis, lesions of the tendon as well as for bone defects. Current research on the mechanism of stem cells on the repair of damaged tissue suggest an important role of a cell-to-cell communication through secreted extracellular vesicles, mainly represented by exosomes. To enhance the scarce knowledge on the functional role of exosomes we compared as a first step different techniques to isolate and identify exosomes from the supernatant of equine adipose derived mesenchymal stem cells for further characterization and usage in functional assays...
January 28, 2019: BMC Veterinary Research
Nykia D Walker, Michael Elias, Khadidiatou Guiro, Ranvir Bhatia, Steven J Greco, Margarette Bryan, Marina Gergues, Oleta A Sandiford, Nicholas M Ponzio, Samuel J Leibovich, Pranela Rameshwar
Breast cancer (BC) cells (BCCs) can retain cellular quiescence for decades, a phenomenon referred to as dormancy. BCCs show preference for the bone marrow (BM) where they can remain dormant for decades. Targeting BCCs within the BM is a challenge since the dormant BCCs reside within BM stroma, also residence for hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs). Dormant BCCs could behave as cancer stem cells (CSCs). The CSCs and HSCs are similar by function and also, by commonly expressed genes. The method by which dormant BCCs transition into clinically metastatic cells remains unclear...
January 25, 2019: Cell Death & Disease
María Sancho-Albero, Nuria Navascués, Gracia Mendoza, Víctor Sebastián, Manuel Arruebo, Pilar Martín-Duque, Jesús Santamaría
BACKGROUND: Exosomes are considered key elements for communication between cells, but very little is known about the mechanisms and selectivity of the transference processes involving exosomes released from different cells. RESULTS: In this study we have investigated the transfer of hollow gold nanoparticles (HGNs) between different cells when these HGNs were loaded within exosomes secreted by human placental mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). These HGNs were successfully incorporated in the MSCs exosome biogenesis pathway and released as HGNs-loaded exosomes...
January 25, 2019: Journal of Nanobiotechnology
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