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blood brain barrier damage ischemic

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https://read.qxmd.com/read/30872008/neuroprotective-effects-of-targeting-bet-proteins-for-degradation-with-dbet1-in-aged-mice-subjected-to-ischemic-stroke
#1
Kelly M DeMars, Changjun Yang, Eduardo Candelario-Jalil
Neuroinflammation after stroke significantly contributes to neuronal cell death. Bromodomain and Extra Terminal Domain (BET) proteins are essential to inflammatory gene transcription. BET proteins (BRD2, BRD3, BRD4, and BRDT) have varied effects including chromatin remodeling, histone acetyltransferase activity, and as scaffolds to recruit transcription factors; they couple chromatin remodeling with transcription. BRD2/4 are of particularly interest to stroke-induced neuroinflammation that contributes to delayed cell death as they are required for NF-κB-dependent gene transcription...
March 11, 2019: Neurochemistry International
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30848677/role-of-age-related-alterations-of-the-cerebral-venous-circulation-in-the-pathogenesis-of-vascular-cognitive-impairment
#2
Gabor Fulop, Stefano Tarantini, Andriy Yabluchanskiy, Andrea Molnar, Calin Prodan, Tamas Kiss, Tamas Csipo, Agnes Lipecz, Priya Balasubramanian, Eszter Farkas, Peter Toth, Farzaneh Sorond, Anna Csiszar, Zoltan I Ungvari
There has been an increasing appreciation of role of vascular contributions to cognitive impairment and dementia (VCID) associated with old age. Strong preclinical and translational evidence links age-related dysfunction and structural alterations of the cerebral arteries, arterioles and capillaries to the pathogenesis of many types of dementia in the elderly, including Alzheimer's disease. The low pressure, low velocity and large volume venous circulation of the brain also plays critical roles in the maintenance of homeostasis in the central nervous system...
March 8, 2019: American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30839193/neuroprotective-effects-of-bhdpc-a-novel-neuroprotectant-on-experimental-stroke-by-modulating-microglia-polarization
#3
Chuwen Li, Yaqi Bian, Yu Feng, Fan Tang, Liang Wang, Maggie Pui Man Hoi, Dan Ma, Chao Zhao, Simon Ming-Yuen Lee
This study mainly aimed to investigate the therapeutic effects of BHDPC on ischemic stroke and its underlying mechanisms. In vivo, the transient middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) was used to induce ischemic model. In vitro, oxygen and glucose deprivation/reperfusion (OGD/R)-induced ischemic stroke in BV-2 microglia, primary neurons, and b.End3 mouse cerebral microvascular endothelial cells (ECs) were also performed. Firstly, we found that BHDPC exerts considerable neuroprotection against MCAO-induced ischemic injury mice, via alleviating neurological deficits and brain infarcts, inhibiting neuronal cells loss and apoptosis, and attenuating blood-brain barrier (BBB) disruption and tight junction proteins changes...
March 6, 2019: ACS Chemical Neuroscience
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30777135/mural-cell-derived-laminin-%C3%AE-5-plays-a-detrimental-role-in-ischemic-stroke
#4
Abhijit Nirwane, Jessica Johnson, Benjamin Nguyen, Jeffrey H Miner, Yao Yao
At the blood-brain barrier (BBB), laminin-α5 is predominantly synthesized by endothelial cells and mural cells. Endothelial laminin-α5 is dispensable for BBB maintenance under homeostatic conditions but inhibits inflammatory cell extravasation in pathological conditions. Whether mural cell-derived laminin-α5 is involved in vascular integrity regulation, however, remains unknown. To answer this question, we generated transgenic mice with laminin-α5 deficiency in mural cells (α5-PKO). Under homeostatic conditions, no defects in BBB integrity and cerebral blood flow (CBF) were observed in α5-PKO mice, suggesting that mural cell-derived laminin-α5 is dispensable for BBB maintenance and CBF regulation under homeostatic conditions...
February 18, 2019: Acta Neuropathologica Communications
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30744693/endothelial-edema-precedes-blood-brain-barrier-breakdown-in-early-time-points-after-experimental-focal-cerebral-ischemia
#5
Martin Krueger, Bianca Mages, Constance Hobusch, Dominik Michalski
In the setting of stroke, ischemia-related blood-brain barrier (BBB) dysfunction aggravates the cerebral edema, which critically impacts on the clinical outcome. Further, an impaired vascular integrity is associated with the risk of intracranial bleeding, especially after therapeutic recanalization. Therefore, the present study was aimed to investigate early vascular alterations from 30 min to 4 h after experimental middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) in mice. Here, an extravasation of the permeability marker FITC-albumin was detectable in animals 2 and 4 h after MCAO...
February 11, 2019: Acta Neuropathologica Communications
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30742808/gastrodin-pretreatment-alleviates-rat-brain-injury-caused-by-cerebral-ischemic-reperfusion
#6
Shi-Peng Li, Li-Gong Bian, Xi-Yue Fu, Qing-Long Ai, Yue Sui, Ai-Dan Zhang, Hui-Qing Gao, Lian-Mei Zhong, Di Lu
Brain damage, including blood-brain barrier (BBB) dysfunction, neurological behavior deficit, cerebral infarction and inflammation, is commonly caused by ischemic-reperfusion (I/R) injury. Prevention of the above biological process defects is considered beneficial for patient recovery after I/R injury. This study was aimed to assess the neuroprotective effect of Gastrodin (GAS), an herbal agent, in experimentally induced cerebral ischemia. Sprague-Dawley adult rats were randomly divided into six groups: Sham-operated control group (Sham), middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) group, GAS (50, 100, and 200 mg/kg) pretreatment + MCAO groups (GAS) and Nimodipine (NIM) + MCAO, namely, the NIM group...
February 8, 2019: Brain Research
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30723388/visualizing-the-distribution-of-matrix-metalloproteinases-in-ischemic-brain-using-in-vivo-19-f-magnetic-resonance-spectroscopic-imaging
#7
Vincent J Huber, Hironaka Igarashi, Satoshi Ueki, Mika Terumitsu-Tsujita, Chikako Nito, Ken Ohno, Yuji Suzuki, Kosuke Itoh, Ingrid L Kwee, Tsutomu Nakada
Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) damage the neurovascular unit, promote the blood-brain barrier (BBB) disruption following ischemic stroke, and play essential roles in hemorrhagic transformation (HT), which is one of the most severe side effects of thrombolytic therapy. However, no biomarkers have presently been identified that can be used to track changes in the distribution of MMPs in the brain. Here, we developed a new 19 F-molecular ligand, TGF-019, for visualizing the distribution of MMPs in vivo using 19 F-magnetic resonance spectroscopic imaging (19 F-MRSI)...
2019: Contrast Media & Molecular Imaging
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30710886/puerariae-lobatae-radix-with-chuanxiong-rhizoma-for-treatment-of-cerebral-ischemic-stroke-by-remodeling-gut-microbiota-to-regulate-the-brain-gut-barriers-of-dietary-capsaicin-against-chronic-low-grade-inflammation
#8
Runzhi Chen, Peng Wu, Zheng Cai, Yingying Fang, Hao Zhou, Yi Lasanajak, Lan Tang, Ling Ye, Chuqi Hou, Jie Zhao
The combination of Puerariae Lobatae Radix (PLR) and Chuanxiong Rhizoma (CXR) is commonly used to treat cerebrovascular diseases. This work aimed to clarify the mechanisms of their action in treating cerebral ischemic stroke from the perspective of gut microecology. The PLR and CXR combination effectively improved the neurological function, reduced the cerebral infarction and relieved the complications of cerebral ischemic stroke, including dyslipidemia, increased blood viscosity and thrombotic risk. Cerebral ischemic stroke triggered gut microbial disturbances by enriching pathogens and opportunistic microorganisms, including Bacteroides, Escherichia_Shigella, Haemophilus, Eubacterium_nodatum_group, Collinsella, Enterococcus, Proteus, Alistipes, Klebsiella, Shuttleworthia and Faecalibacterium...
December 21, 2018: Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30707419/effect-of-intravenous-injection-of-antagomir-1-on-brain-ischemia
#9
Anis Talebi, Mehdi Rahnema, Mohammad Reza Bigdeli
Stroke is one of the leading causes of death in the world, but the underlying molecular mechanism of this disease remains elusive, thus it will be great challenges to finding appropriate protection. MicroRNAs are short, single-stranded, non-coding RNAs and recent studies have shown that they are aberrantly expressed in ischemic condition. Due to the fact that miR-1 has harmful effects on neural damages during brain ischemia, limited miR-1 has been proven to be protective in middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO)...
February 1, 2019: Molecular Biology Reports
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30705764/increased-inflammatory-response-in-old-mice-is-associated-with-more-severe-neuronal-injury-at-the-acute-stage-of-ischemic-stroke
#10
Fanxia Shen, Lidan Jiang, Frank Han, Vincent Degos, Shengdi Chen, Hua Su
Stroke occurs mostly in patients with advanced age. Elderly patients have a less favorable prognosis compared with young adult patients. To understand the underlying mechanisms, we tested our hypothesis that an increased inflammatory response to acute ischemic injury in old stroke mice leads to more severe brain damage and behavioral dysfunction. An ischemic stroke model was created in 2- and 12-month-old C57BL/6 mice through permanent occlusion of the left distal middle cerebral artery (dMCAO). Infarct/atrophy volumes were quantified by staining the brain sections with Cresyl Violet...
February 2019: Aging and Disease
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30694693/neutralization-of-interleukin-9-ameliorates-experimental-stroke-by-repairing-the-blood-brain-barrier-via-down-regulation-of-astrocyte-derived-vascular-endothelial-growth-factor-a
#11
Sha Tan, Yilong Shan, Yinyao Lin, Siyuan Liao, Bingjun Zhang, Qin Zeng, Yuge Wang, Zhezhi Deng, Chen Chen, Xueqiang Hu, Lisheng Peng, Wei Qiu, Zhengqi Lu
Astrocytes mediate the destruction of the blood-brain barrier (BBB) during ischemic stroke (IS). IL-9 is a pleiotropic cytokine that we previously found to be highly expressed in peripheral blood mononuclear cells from patients with IS, and the presence of IL-9 receptors on astrocytes has been reported in the literature. Here, we detected the effect of IL-9 on astrocytes using an anti-IL-9-neutralizing antibody to treat rats with experimental stroke. Supernatants from astrocytes treated with or without oxygen-glucose deprivation and/or IL-9 were incubated with bEnd...
January 29, 2019: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30693340/current-progress-in-searching-for-clinically-useful-biomarkers-of-blood-brain-barrier-damage-following-cerebral-ischemia
#12
REVIEW
Weili Li, Rong Pan, Zhifeng Qi, Ke Jian Liu
Ischemic stroke is a leading cause of death and disability. Fear of intracranial hemorrhage (ICH) has been the primary reason for withholding tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) and thrombectomy, the only two widely accepted treatments for ischemic stroke. Thrombolysis treatment is only allowed in a very narrow time window (within 4.5-6 h). However, so far, other than the time window guideline, there is no reliable indicator available in the clinic to predict ICH before thrombolysis treatment. Recently, extensive research efforts have been devoted to the development of reliable indicators to predict ICH and safely guide the thrombolysis treatment...
October 2018: Brain Circulation
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30619687/brain-consequences-of-acute-kidney-injury-focusing-on-the-hippocampus
#13
REVIEW
Maryam Malek
The high mortality rates associated with acute kidney injury are mainly due to extra-renal complications that occur following distant-organ involvement. Damage to these organs, which is commonly referred to as multiple organ dysfunction syndrome, has more severe and persistent effects. The brain and its sub-structures, such as the hippocampus, are vulnerable organs that can be adversely affected. Acute kidney injury may be associated with numerous brain and hippocampal complications, as it may alter the permeability of the blood-brain barrier...
December 2018: Kidney Research and Clinical Practice
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30618231/nano-curcumin-simultaneously-protects-the-blood-brain-barrier-and-reduces-m1-microglial-activation-during-cerebral-ischemia-reperfusion-injury
#14
Ye Wang, Jun Luo, Shi-Yong Li
Oxidative stress and inflammation are two important pathophysiological mechanisms that arouse neuronal apoptosis and cerebral damage after ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury. Here, we hypothesized that curcumin-encapsulated nanoparticles (NPcurcumin) could reduce oxidative stress and inflammation in the ischemic penumbra via protecting the blood-brain barrier and inhibiting M1-microglial activation. Under oxidative stress conditions in vitro, we found that NPcurcumin protected microvascular endothelial cells against oxidative stress and reduced BBB permeability...
January 8, 2019: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30594689/the-interaction-of-zinc-and-the-blood-brain-barrier-under-physiological-and-ischemic-conditions
#15
REVIEW
Zhifeng Qi, Ke Jian Liu
Zinc is the second most abundant metal in human and serves as an essential trace element in the body. During the past decades, zinc has been found to play important roles in central nervous system, such as the development of neurons and synaptic activities. An imbalance of zinc is associated with brain diseases. The blood-brain barrier (BBB) maintains the homeostasis of the microenvironment, regulating the balance of zinc in the brain. A compromised BBB is the main cause of severe complications in cerebral ischemic patients, such as hemorrhage transformation, inflammation and edema...
December 27, 2018: Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30584925/inflammatory-cytokines-are-involved-in-dihydrocapsaicin-dhc-and-regional-cooling-infusion-rci-induced-neuroprotection-in-ischemic-rat
#16
Di Wu, Xinglong Zhi, Yunxia Duan, Mo Zhang, Hong An, Wenjing Wei, Kai Dong, Ying Zhang, Jingfei Shi, Xiaoduo He, Jun Zhang, Chuanjie Wu, Ran Meng, Yuchuan Ding, Xunming Ji
OBJECTIVE: The combination of pharmacological hypothermia - dihydrocapsaicin (DHC) and intra-arterial regional cooling infusions (RCI) was found to enhance the efficiency of hypothermia and efficacy of hypothermia-induced neuroprotection in acute ischemic stroke. The aim of this study was to explore whether the combination could induce a long-term neuroprotective effects, as well as the underlying mechanism. METHODS: Sprague-Dawley rats were subjected to middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) for 2 h using intraluminal hollow filament...
December 22, 2018: Brain Research
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30580383/microglial-cell-loss-after-ischemic-stroke-favors-brain-neutrophil-accumulation
#17
Amaia Otxoa-de-Amezaga, Francesc Miró-Mur, Jordi Pedragosa, Mattia Gallizioli, Carles Justicia, Núria Gaja-Capdevila, Francisca Ruíz-Jaen, Angélica Salas-Perdomo, Anna Bosch, Maria Calvo, Leonardo Márquez-Kisinousky, Adam Denes, Matthias Gunzer, Anna M Planas
Stroke attracts neutrophils to the injured brain tissue where they can damage the integrity of the blood-brain barrier and exacerbate the lesion. However, the mechanisms involved in neutrophil transmigration, location and accumulation in the ischemic brain are not fully elucidated. Neutrophils can reach the perivascular spaces of brain vessels after crossing the endothelial cell layer and endothelial basal lamina of post-capillary venules, or migrating from the leptomeninges following pial vessel extravasation and/or a suggested translocation from the skull bone marrow...
December 22, 2018: Acta Neuropathologica
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30579831/ky-226-protects-blood-brain-barrier-function-through-the-akt-foxo1-signaling-pathway-in-brain-ischemia
#18
Meiling Sun, Yasuharu Shinoda, Kohji Fukunaga
KY-226 is a protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B (PTP1B) inhibitor that protects neurons from cerebral ischemic injury. KY-226 restores Akt (protein kinase B) phosphorylation and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) reduction in transient middle cerebral artery occlusion (tMCAO) damage. However, the mechanisms underlying the neuroprotective effects of KY-226 are unclear. To address this, the effects of KY-226 on blood-brain barrier (BBB) dysfunction were examined in tMCAO mice. KY-226 (10 mg/kg, i.p.) was administered to ICR mice 30 min after 2 h of tMCAO...
December 20, 2018: Neuroscience
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30572925/a-review-of-the-role-of-cav-1-in-neuropathology-and-neural-recovery-after-ischemic-stroke
#19
REVIEW
Qianyi Huang, Wei Zhong, Zhiping Hu, Xiangqi Tang
Ischemic stroke starts a series of pathophysiological processes that cause brain injury. Caveolin-1 (cav-1) is an integrated protein and locates at the caveolar membrane. It has been demonstrated that cav-1 can protect blood-brain barrier (BBB) integrity by inhibiting matrix metalloproteases (MMPs) which degrade tight junction proteins. This article reviews recent developments in understanding the mechanisms underlying BBB dysfunction, neuroinflammation, and oxidative stress after ischemic stroke, and focuses on how cav-1 modulates a series of activities after ischemic stroke...
December 20, 2018: Journal of Neuroinflammation
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30569751/therapeutic-target-and-cell-signal-communication-of-chlorpromazine-and-promethazine-in-attenuating-blood-brain-barrier-disruption-after-ischemic-stroke
#20
Fengwu Li, Xiaokun Geng, James Yip, Yuchuan Ding
Ischemic stroke destroys blood-brain barrier (BBB) integrity. There are currently no effective treatments available in the clinical setting. Post-ischemia treatment with phenothiazine drugs [combined chlorpromazine and promethazine (C+P)] has been shown to be neuroprotective in stroke. The present study determined the effect of C+P in BBB integrity. Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into the following groups ( n=8 each): (1) stroke, (2) stroke treated by C+P with temperature control, and (3) stroke treated by C+P without temperature control...
December 20, 2018: Cell Transplantation
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