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Yoshiki Hase, Ren Ding, Gina Harrison, Emily Hawthorne, Amilia King, Sean Gettings, Charlotte Platten, William Stevenson, Lucinda J L Craggs, Raj N Kalaria
Previous studies suggest white matter (WM) integrity is vulnerable to chronic hypoperfusion during brain ageing. We assessed ~ 0.7 million capillary profiles in the frontal lobe WM across several dementias comprising Alzheimer's disease, dementia with Lewy bodies, Parkinson's disease with dementia, vascular dementia, mixed dementias, post-stroke dementia as well as post-stroke no dementia and similar age ageing and young controls without significant brain pathology. Standard histopathological methods were used to determine microvascular pathology and capillary width and densities in 153 subjects using markers of the basement membrane (collagen IV; COL4) and endothelium (glucose transporter-1; GLUT-1)...
February 7, 2019: Acta Neuropathologica Communications
V V Klimontov, A I Korbut
Urinary albumin excretion (UAE) is widely used in clinical practice as indicator of diabetic kidney disease. According to the classical concept of the natural course of diabetic nephropathy, an increase in UAE usually precedes a decline in renal function. Meanwhile, a growing body of evidences indicates a high prevalence of normoalbuminuric chronic kidney disease (NA-CKD) in diabetic subjects, especially among patients with type 2 diabetes. An increase in NA-CKD prevalence can be results of improved glucose, blood pressure, and lipid control, widespread use of renin-angiotensin system blockers, and smoking cessation...
November 22, 2018: Terapevticheskiĭ Arkhiv
Yusuke Kajimoto, Yoko Endo, Mika Terasaki, Shinobu Kunugi, Toru Igarashi, Akiko Mii, Yasuhiro Terasaki, Akira Shimizu
BACKGROUND: Thin basement membrane nephropathy (TBMN) is diagnosed by diffuse thinning of the glomerular basement membrane (GBM) without any clinical and pathologic findings of Alport syndrome and the other renal diseases. TBMN is characterized clinically by benign familial hematuria but rarely develops into end-stage renal disease. METHODS: In 27 cases of biopsy-proven TBMN, we evaluated the pathologic characteristics of TBMN, and examined the correlation between these pathologic characterizations and renal dysfunction...
January 28, 2019: Clinical and Experimental Nephrology
Toshihiro Sugiura, Fuyuko Akagaki, Yoshito Yamaguchi, Aya Nakamori
Background Renal arteriolosclerosis is a risk factor for acute reductions in the glomerular filtration rate (GFR) when renin-angiotensin system (RAS) inhibitors are administered. Renal arteriolosclerosis can be detected by an increase in the resistive index (RI) on Doppler ultrasonography. The purpose of the present study is to determine whether or not the RI can predict acute GFR reductions following RAS blockade in chronic kidney disease (CKD). Methods We surveyed all CKD patients who were hospitalized in Otemae Hospital from January 2008 to December 2017...
January 10, 2019: Internal Medicine
Marco Pasi, Andreas Charidimou, Gregoire Boulouis, Panagiotis Fotiadis, Andrea Morotti, Li Xiong, Sandro Marini, Alison Ayres, Matthew P Frosch, Joshua N Goldstein, Jonathan Rosand, M Edip Gurol, Steven M Greenberg, Anand Viswanathan
BACKGROUND: Spontaneous cerebellar-intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) can be associated with both cerebral amyloid angiopathy (CAA) and hypertensive small vessel disease (HTN-SVD, i.e. arteriolosclerosis). To better understand the underlying microangiopathy of cerebellar-ICH, we aimed to evaluate the spatial distribution of supratentorial cerebral microbleeds (CMBs) and neuropathologic profiles in these patients. METHODS: We enrolled consecutive cerebellar-ICH patients...
January 8, 2019: Journal of Neurology
Yuriko Katsumata, David W Fardo, Walter A Kukull, Peter T Nelson
TAR-DNA binding protein 43 (TDP-43) proteinopathy is a common brain pathology in elderly persons, but much remains to be learned about this high-morbidity condition. Published stage-based systems for operationalizing disease severity rely on the involvement (presence/absence) of pathology in specific anatomic regions. To examine the comorbidities associated with TDP-43 pathology in aged individuals, we studied data from the National Alzheimer's Coordinating Center (NACC) Neuropathology Data Set. Data were analyzed from 929 included subjects with available TDP-43 pathology information, sourced from 27 different American Alzheimer's Disease Centers (ADCs)...
December 19, 2018: Acta Neuropathologica Communications
Kirsty E McAleese, Sophie Graham, Madhurima Dey, Lauren Walker, Daniel Erskine, Mary Johnson, Eleanor Johnston, Alan J Thomas, Ian G McKeith, Charles DeCarli, Johannes Attems
The blood-brain barrier (BBB) regulates cerebrovascular permeability and leakage of blood-derived fibrinogen has been associated with cerebral arteriolosclerosis small vessel disease (SVD) and subsequent white matter lesions (WML). Furthermore, BBB-dysfunction is associated with the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD) with the presence of CSF plasma proteins suggested to be a potential biomarker of AD. We aimed to determine if extravascular fibrinogen in the white matter was associated with the development of AD hallmark pathologies, i...
November 28, 2018: Brain Pathology
Shahram Oveisgharan, Zoe Arvanitakis, Lei Yu, Jose Farfel, Julie A Schneider, David A Bennett
Alzheimer's dementia is significantly more common in women than in men. However, few pathological studies have addressed sex difference in Alzheimer's disease (AD) and other brain pathologies. We leveraged postmortem data from 1453 persons who participated in one of two longitudinal community-based studies of older adults, the Religious Orders Study and the Rush Memory and Aging Project. Postmortem examination identified AD pathologies, neocortical Lewy bodies, DNA-binding protein 43 (TDP-43), hippocampal sclerosis, gross and micro infarcts, atherosclerosis, arteriolosclerosis, and cerebral amyloid angiopathy...
October 17, 2018: Acta Neuropathologica
Melissa Lamar, Lei Yu, Leah H Rubin, Bryan D James, Lisa L Barnes, Jose Marcelo Farfel, Chris Gaiteri, Aron S Buchman, David A Bennett, Julie A Schneider
INTRODUCTION: Apolipoprotein E (APOE) is a susceptibility gene for late-onset Alzheimer's disease neuropathology; less is known about the relationship between APOE and cerebrovascular disease (CVD) neuropathology. METHODS: We investigated associations of APOE status with arteriolosclerosis, macroinfarcts and microinfarcts, and atherosclerosis in 1383 adults (65.9-108.2 years at death) with and without dementia. Excluding ε2/ε4 carriers, multivariable regressions for each CVD-related neuropathology compared ε4 and ε2 carriers to ε3/ε3 carriers adjusting for confounders including age and Alzheimer's neuropathology...
October 12, 2018: Alzheimer's & Dementia: the Journal of the Alzheimer's Association
Hak Joo Lee, Olga Gonzalez, Edward J Dick, Andrew Donati, Denis Feliers, Choudhury Goutam Ghosh, Corinna Ross, Manjeri Venkatachalam, Suzette D Tardif, Balakuntalam S Kasinath
We evaluated whether the marmoset, a nonhuman primate, can serve as a good model to study aging related changes in the kidney by employing healthy young and aged marmosets of both sexes. Aging was associated with glomerulosclerosis, interstitial fibrosis and arteriolosclerosis in both sexes; correspondingly, the content of matrix proteins was increased. Functionally, aging resulted in an increase in urinary albumin and protein excretion. There was a robust correlation between markers of fibrosis and functional changes...
October 13, 2018: Journals of Gerontology. Series A, Biological Sciences and Medical Sciences
Jean-Benoît Monfort, Karine Cury, Philippe Moguelet, François Chasset, Claude Bachmeyer, Camille Francès, Annick Barbaud, Patricia Senet
BACKGROUND: The histological characteristic of hypertensive leg ulcers (HLU) is the presence of "arteriolosclerosis." The pertinence of performing a skin biopsy to diagnose HLU is questionable, as cutaneous arteriolosclerosis may be related to patient comorbidities. The objective here was to evaluate the frequency of arteriolosclerosis in skin leg biopsies performed in patients without ulcer and in control patients with HLU. METHODS: We performed a retrospective study between January 2013 and July 2014...
2018: Dermatology: International Journal for Clinical and Investigative Dermatology
Toshihide Naganuma, Yoshiaki Takemoto
Cerebrovascular disease is a major cause of death in dialysis patients, who have a much higher incidence of stroke compared to the normal population. Recent studies have shown that asymptomatic cerebral small-vessel disease, including silent brain infarction (SBI), white matter hyperintensities (WMHs), and cerebral microbleeds (CMBs), is related to the future onset of stroke. Cerebral small-vessel disease is caused by microvascular damage to the small penetrating arteries of the middle cerebral artery including arteriolosclerosis, fibrinoid necrosis, and lipohyalinosis attributed to advanced age, hypertension, etc...
2018: Contributions to Nephrology
F Crosta, U Occhiuzzi, G Passalacqua, E Occhiuzzi, A Cimini, D Grassi, C Ferri, C Marini, C Borghi, G Desideri
Increasing evidence suggests that uric acid (UA) is a relevant risk factor for arteriolosclerosis and recent studies have demonstrated the positive relationship between UA concentrations and the severity of leukoaraiosis. However, the association between lacunar infarcts (LI) and UA levels has seldom been reported in the literature. The aim of our study was to assess whether serum UA levels may be related to the presence of LI. We recruited 242 patients (113 males and 129 females, aged 82.83 ± 6.49 years) from our Geriatric Department for whom CAT scans (CT) were available...
July 2018: Journal of Molecular Neuroscience: MN
Lilah M Besser, Walter A Kukull, Merilee A Teylan, Eileen H Bigio, Nigel J Cairns, Julia K Kofler, Thomas J Montine, Julie A Schneider, Peter T Nelson
Neuropathologic evaluation remains the gold standard for determining the presence and severity of aging-related neurodegenerative diseases. Researchers at U.S. Alzheimer's Disease Centers (ADCs) have worked for >30 years studying human brains, with the goals of achieving new research breakthroughs. Harmonization and sharing among the 39 current and past ADCs is promoted by the National Alzheimer's Coordinating Center (NACC), which collects, audits, and disburses ADC-derived data to investigators on request...
August 1, 2018: Journal of Neuropathology and Experimental Neurology
Robert J Dawe, Lei Yu, Julie A Schneider, Konstantinos Arfanakis, David A Bennett, Patricia A Boyle
The purpose of this study was to determine whether metrics of brain tissue integrity derived from postmortem magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) are associated with late-life cognitive decline, independent of cerebral vessel disease. Using data from 554 older adults, we used voxelwise regression to identify regions where the postmortem MRI transverse relaxation rate constant R2 was associated with the rate of decline in global cognition. We then used linear mixed models to investigate the association between a composite R2 measure and cognitive decline, controlling for neuropathology including 3 indices of vessel disease: atherosclerosis, arteriolosclerosis, and cerebral amyloid angiopathy...
September 2018: Neurobiology of Aging
Sezin Fıçıcıoğlu, Nuray Can, Busem Tutuğ
The differential diagnosis of chronic ulcers covers a wide range of diseases and poses a diagnostic challenge. Subcutaneous ischemic arteriolosclerosis can lead to local ischaemia and ulceration as a result of arteriolar narrowing and reduction of tissue perfusion. This pathophysiological feature can be seen in eutrophication (nonuremic calciphylaxis) in morbid obesity, hypertensive ischemic leg ulcer (Martorell ulcer) and calciphylaxis in chronic renal insufficiency. All of the ulcers happened in this way can be wrongly diagnosed as pyoderma gangrenosum because of clinical similarity and inadequate biopsies...
April 23, 2018: Dermatology Reports
Dimitri Renard, Lavinia Tatu, Eric Thouvenot
BACKGROUND: Cerebral microbleeds (CMBs) observed in hypertension-related arteriolosclerosis tend to occur in the supratentorial deep gray matter, whereas those in cerebral amyloid angiopathy (CAA) typically show a supratentorial lobar distribution. Recently, superficial spontaneous cerebellar intracerebral hemorrhage has been shown to be associated with strictly lobar CMBs. Few data exist on infratentorial CMBs in CAA. The purpose of this study was to describe the incidence, number, and characteristics of infratentorial CMBs in patients with CAA...
September 2018: Journal of Stroke and Cerebrovascular Diseases: the Official Journal of National Stroke Association
Michael L Alosco, Michael A Sugarman, Lilah M Besser, Yorghos Tripodis, Brett Martin, Joseph N Palmisano, Neil W Kowall, Rhoda Au, Jesse Mez, Charles DeCarli, Thor D Stein, Ann C McKee, Ronald J Killiany, Robert A Stern
BACKGROUND: White matter hyperintensities (WMH) on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) have been postulated to be a core feature of Alzheimer's disease. Clinicopathological studies are needed to elucidate and confirm this possibility. OBJECTIVE: This study examined: 1) the association between antemortem WMH and autopsy-confirmed Alzheimer's disease neuropathology (ADNP), 2) the relationship between WMH and dementia in participants with ADNP, and 3) the relationships among cerebrovascular disease, WMH, and ADNP...
2018: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
Rufus O Akinyemi, Mayowa O Owolabi, Masafumi Ihara, Albertino Damasceno, Adesola Ogunniyi, Catherine Dotchin, Stella-Maria Paddick, Julius Ogeng'o, Richard Walker, Raj N Kalaria
With increased numbers of older people a higher burden of neurological disorders worldwide is predicted. Stroke and other cerebrovascular diseases do not necessarily present with different phenotypes in Africa but their incidence is rising in tandem with the demographic change in the population. Age remains the strongest irreversible risk factor for stroke and cognitive impairment. Modifiable factors relating to vascular disease risk, diet, lifestyle, physical activity and psychosocial status play a key role in shaping the current spate of stroke related diseases in Africa...
May 25, 2018: Brain Research Bulletin
Yoshiki Hase, Aiqing Chen, Letitia L Bates, Lucinda J L Craggs, Yumi Yamamoto, Elizabeth Gemmell, Arthur E Oakley, Viktor I Korolchuk, Raj N Kalaria
Objectives Cerebral autosomal dominant arteriopathy with subcortical infarcts and leukoencephalopathy (CADASIL) is characterised by strategic white matter (WM) hyperintensities on MRI. Pathological features include WM degeneration, arteriolosclerosis, lacunar infarcts and the deposition of granular osmiophilic material. Based on the hypothesis that the gliovascular unit is compromised, we assessed the nature of astrocyte damage in the deep WM of CADASIL subjects. Methods We evaluated post-mortem brains from CADASIL, cerebral small vessel disease, similar age cognitively normal and older control subjects...
May 14, 2018: Brain Pathology
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