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theta epilepsy

Bing Hu, Xiyezi Diao, Liqing Zong, Jingsong Zhang, Liang Yu, Hao Dai, Luonan Chen
In this paper, we build a basal ganglia-cortex-thalamus model to study the oscillatory mechanisms and boundary conditions of the beta frequency band (13-30 Hz) that appears in the subthalamic nucleus. First, a theoretical oscillatory boundary formula is obtained in a simplified model by using the Laplace transform and linearization process of the system at fixed points. Second, we simulate the oscillatory boundary conditions through numerical calculations, which fit with our theoretical results very well, at least in the changing trend...
March 8, 2019: Journal of Theoretical Biology
Raúl Roberto Valdés Sedeño, Lilia María Morales Chacón, Abel Sánchez Coroneux
The purpose of this paper is to estimate the association between quantitative electroencephalogram frequency composition (QEEGC) and post-surgical evolution in patients with pharmacoresistant temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) and to evaluate the predictive value of QEEGC before and after surgery. A prospective, longitudinal study was made at International Neurological Restoration Center, Havana, Cuba. Twenty-nine patients with TLE submitted to epilepsy surgery were evaluated before surgery, and six months and two years after...
March 4, 2019: Behavioral Sciences
Jolanda Derks, Shanna Kulik, Pieter Wesseling, Tianne Numan, Arjan Hillebrand, Edwin van Dellen, Philip C de Witt Hamer, Jeroen J G Geurts, Jaap C Reijneveld, Cornelis J Stam, Martin Klein, Linda Douw
INTRODUCTION: Cognitive deficits occur frequently in diffuse glioma patients, but are limitedly understood. An important marker for survival in these patients is isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH) mutation (IDH-mut). Patients with IDH-mut glioma have a better prognosis but more often suffer from epilepsy than patients with IDH-wildtype (IDH-wt) glioma, who are generally older and more often have cognitive deficits. We investigated whether global brain functional connectivity differs between patients with IDH-mut and IDH-wt glioma, and whether this measure reflects variations in cognitive functioning in these subpopulations beyond the associated differences in age and presence of epilepsy...
February 26, 2019: Brain and Behavior
Karen A Moxon, Kiarash Shahlaie, Fady Girgis, Ignacio Saez, Jeffrey Kennedy, Gene G Gurkoff
Despite decades of research, our understanding of epilepsy, including how seizures are generated and propagate, is incomplete. However, there is growing recognition that epilepsy is more than just the occurrence of seizures, with patients often experiencing comorbid deficits in cognition that are poorly understood. In addition, the available therapies for treatment of epilepsy, from pharmaceutical treatment to surgical resection and seizure prevention devices, often exacerbate deficits in cognitive function...
February 21, 2019: Neurobiology of Disease
Ali Izadi, Aleksandr Pevzner, Darrin J Lee, Arne D Ekstrom, Kiarash Shahlaie, Gene G Gurkoff
BACKGROUND: Temporal lobe epilepsy is most prevalent among focal epilepsies, and nearly one-third of patients are refractory to pharmacological intervention. Persistent cognitive and neurobehavioral comorbidities also occur due to the recurrent nature of seizures and medication-related side effects. HYPOTHESIS: Electrical neuromodulation is an effective strategy to reduce seizures both in animal models and clinically, but its efficacy to modulate cognition remains unclear...
January 17, 2019: Brain Stimulation
Laura Gil, Ahsan Moosa, Ajay Gupta
Subclinical rhythmic electrographic discharges of adult (SREDA) is a rare variant considered to be normal in EEG. It consists of sharp-contoured or sinusoidal waveforms in the theta frequency range (usually 5-7 Hz), occurring in a widespread distribution, often maximal over the parietotemporal regions. SREDA is usually bilateral but could be unilateral (atypical SREDA). Compared with true ictal activities, SREDA has little change in frequency, morphology, and distribution. It has been described in adults and is extremely rare in children/adolescents...
January 23, 2019: Clinical EEG and Neuroscience: Official Journal of the EEG and Clinical Neuroscience Society (ENCS)
Xiashuang Wang, Guanghong Gong, Ni Li
Automatic recognition methods for non-stationary electroencephalogram (EEG) data collected from EEG sensors play an essential role in neurological detection. The integrated approaches proposed in this study consist of Symlet wavelet processing, a gradient boosting machine, and a grid search optimizer for a three-class classification scheme for normal subjects, intermittent epilepsy, and continuous epilepsy. Fourth-order Symlet wavelets are adopted to decompose the EEG data into five frequencies sub-bands, such as gamma, beta, alpha, theta, and delta, whose statistical features were computed and used as classification features...
January 9, 2019: Sensors
Shunichiro Ikeda, Ryouhei Ishii, Roberto D Pascual-Marqui, Leonides Canuet, Masafumi Yoshimura, Keiichiro Nishida, Yuichi Kitaura, Koji Katsura, Toshihiko Kinoshita
OBJECTIVES: eLORETA (exact low-resolution brain electromagnetic tomography) is a technique created by Pascual-Marqui et al. [Int J Psychophysiol. 1994 Oct; 18(1): 49-65] for the 3-dimensional representation of current source density in the brain by electroencephalography (EEG) data. Kurtosis analysis allows for the identification of spiky activity in the brain. In this study, we focused on the evaluation of the reliability of eLORETA kurtosis analysis. For this purpose, the results of eLORETA kurtosis source localization of paroxysmal activity in EEG were compared with those of eLORETA current source density (CSD) analysis of EEG data in 3 epilepsy patients with partial seizures...
January 9, 2019: Neuropsychobiology
Tatyana Y Postnikova, Alina M Trofimova, Julia L Ergina, Olga E Zubareva, Sergey V Kalemenev, Aleksey V Zaitsev
The mechanisms of impairment in long-term potentiation after status epilepticus (SE) remain unclear. We investigated the properties of LTP induced by theta-burst stimulation in hippocampal slices of rats 3 h and 1, 3, and 7 days after SE. Seizures were induced in 3-week old rats by a single injection of pentylenetetrazole (PTZ). Only animals with generalized seizures lasting more than 30 min were included in the experiments. The results revealed that LTP was strongly attenuated in the CA1 hippocampal area after PTZ-induced SE as compared with that in control animals...
January 3, 2019: Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology
Ye-Hwa Jun, Tae-Hoon Eom, Young-Hoon Kim, Seung-Yun Chung, In-Goo Lee, Jung-Min Kim
BACKGROUND: Several neuroimaging studies have reported neurophysiological alterations in patients with benign childhood epilepsy with centrotemporal spikes (BCECTS). However, reported outcomes have been inconsistent, and the progression of these changes in the brain remains unresolved. Moreover, background electroencephalography (EEG) in cases of BCECTS has not been performed often. METHODS: We investigated background EEG activity changes after six months of oxcarbazepine treatment to better understand the neurophysiological alterations and progression that occur in BCECTS...
January 3, 2019: BMC Neurology
Surajit Sahu, Emmanuelle Buhler, Jean-Christophe Vermoyal, Françoise Watrin, Alfonso Represa, Jean-Bernard Manent
OBJECTIVE: Malformations of cortical development are common causes of intellectual disability and epilepsy, yet there is a crucial lack of relevant preclinical models associating seizures and cortical malformations. Here, we describe a novel rat model with bilateral subcortical band heterotopia (SBH) and examine whether this model develops spontaneous epileptic seizures. METHODS: To generate bilateral SBH in rats, we combined RNAi-mediated knockdown of Dcx and in utero electroporation with a tripolar electrode configuration enabling simultaneous transfection of the two brain hemispheres...
December 30, 2018: Epilepsia
Ali Izadi, Katelynn Ondek, Amber Schedlbauer, Inna Keselman, Kiarash Shahlaie, Gene Gurkoff
Focal epilepsies represent approximately half of all diagnoses, and more than one-third of these patients are refractory to pharmacologic treatment. Although resection can result in seizure freedom, many patients do not meet surgical criteria, as seizures may be multifocal in origin or have a focus in an eloquent region of the brain. For these individuals, several U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-approved electrical stimulation paradigms serve as alternative options, including vagus nerve stimulation, responsive neurostimulation, and stimulation of the anterior nucleus of the thalamus...
December 2018: Epilepsia open
Jerome Engel, Anatol Bragin, Richard Staba
There are no reliable nonictal biomarkers for epilepsy, electroencephalography (EEG) or otherwise, but efforts to identify biomarkers that would predict the development of epilepsy after a potential epileptogenic insult, diagnose the existence of epilepsy, or assess the effects of antiseizure or antiepileptogenic interventions are relying heavily on electrophysiology. The most promising EEG biomarkers to date are pathologic high-frequency oscillations (pHFOs), brief EEG events in the range of 100 to 600 Hz, which are believed to reflect summated action potentials from synchronously bursting neurons...
December 2018: Epilepsia Open
Giulia Liberati, Maxime Algoet, Susana Ferrao Santos, Jose Geraldo Ribeiro-Vaz, Christian Raftopoulos, André Mouraux
The human insula is an important target for spinothalamic input, but there is still no consensus on its role in pain perception and nociception. In this study, we show that the human insula exhibits activity preferential for sustained thermonociception. Using intracerebral EEG recorded from the insula of 8 patients (2 females) undergoing a presurgical evaluation of focal epilepsy (53 contacts: 27 anterior, 26 posterior), we "frequency-tagged" the insular activity elicited by sustained thermonociceptive and vibrotactile stimuli, by periodically modulating stimulation intensity at a fixed frequency of 0...
December 5, 2018: NeuroImage
(no author information available yet)
The putative mechanism of vagus nerve stimulation (VNS) for medically refractory epilepsy is desynchronization of hippocampal and thalamocortical circuitry; however, the nature of the dose-response relationship and temporal dynamics is poorly understood. For greater elucidation, a study in a nonepileptic rat model was previously conducted and showed that rapid-cycle (RC) VNS achieved superior desynchrony compared to standard-cycle (SC) VNS. Here, the authors report on the first in-human analysis of the neuromodulatory dose-response effects of VNS in a patient with posttraumatic, independent, bilateral mesial temporal lobe epilepsy refractory to medications and SC-VNS who was referred as a potential candidate for a responsive neurostimulation device...
November 1, 2018: Journal of Neurosurgery
Omer Ashmaig, Mark Connolly, Robert E Gross, Babak Mahmoudi
There is a great need for an electrical stimulation therapy to treat medication-resistant, surgically ineligible epileptic patients that successfully reduces seizure incidence with minimal side effects. Critical to advancing such therapies will be identifying the trade-offs between therapeutic efficacy and side effects. One novel treatment developed in the tetanus toxin rat model of mesial temporal lobe epilepsy, asynchronous distributed microelectrode stimulation (ADMETS) in the hippocampus has been shown to significantly reduce seizure frequency...
July 2018: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
Stanislas Lagarde, Sinziana Buzori, Agnès Trebuchon, Romain Carron, Didier Scavarda, Mathieu Milh, Aileen McGonigal, Fabrice Bartolomei
OBJECTIVE: In this study, we seek to analyze the determinants of the intracranial electroencephalography seizure onset pattern (SOP) and the impact of the SOP in predicting postsurgical seizure outcome. METHODS: To this end, we analyzed 820 seizures from 252 consecutive patients explored by stereo-electroencephalography (total of 2148 electrodes), including various forms of focal refractory epilepsies. We used a reproducible method combining visual and time-frequency analyses...
January 2019: Epilepsia
Linfeng Ma, Yue Pan, Ming Sun, Haonan Shen, Limei Zhao, Yingjie Guo
BACKGROUND: Individual susceptibility to valproic acid (VPA)-caused hepatotoxicity might result from genetic deficiencies in the detoxification and antioxidant enzymes including glutathione S-transferases (GSTs), catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and glutathione peroxidase (GPx). This study aimed to investigate the relationships between GST mu 1(GSTM1), GST theta 1(GSTT1), CAT C-262T, GPx1 Pro200Leu and SOD2 Val16Ala polymorphisms and the risk of abnormal liver function in Chinese epileptic patients treated with VPA monotherapy...
October 30, 2018: Therapeutic Drug Monitoring
Marta Maschio, Alessia Zarabla, Andrea Maialetti, Francesca Sperati, Loredana Dinapoli, Sabrina Dispenza, Gianluca Petreri, Tonino Cantelmi
OBJECTIVE: Therapeutic doses of antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) may alter EEG background activity, which is considered an index of the functional state of the brain. Quantitative analysis (qEEG) of EEG background activity is a valid instrument to assess the effects of many centrally active drugs on the central nervous system, including AEDs. Lacosamide (LCM) is a new AED that could be a valid therapeutic choice in patients with brain tumor-related epilepsy (BTRE). METHODS: We used qEEG to analyze the possible effect of LCM as an add-on, on background EEG activity after 4 months in patients with BTRE...
November 2018: Brain and Behavior
Dong Chen, Lukas Kunz, Wenjing Wang, Hui Zhang, Wen-Xu Wang, Andreas Schulze-Bonhage, Peter C Reinacher, Wenjing Zhou, Shuli Liang, Nikolai Axmacher, Liang Wang
Grid cells and theta oscillations are fundamental components of the brain's navigation system. Grid cells provide animals [1, 2] and humans [3, 4] with a spatial map of the environment by exhibiting multiple firing fields arranged in a regular grid of equilateral triangles. This unique firing pattern presumably constitutes the neural basis for path integration [5-8] and may also enable navigation in visual and conceptual spaces [9-12]. Theta frequency oscillations are a prominent mesoscopic network phenomenon during navigation in both rodents and humans [13, 14] and encode movement speed [15-17], distance traveled [18], and proximity to spatial boundaries [19]...
October 22, 2018: Current Biology: CB
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