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Oncologic radiology

Koichi Nagata
The journal Veterinary Radiology & Ultrasound is a veterinary specialty journal devoted to the fields of veterinary diagnostic imaging and radiation oncology. The purpose of this retrospective, observational study is to evaluate progressive trends in radiation oncology articles published in Veterinary Radiology & Ultrasound during the 40-year period (1976-2015) and describe a shift of trends through several viewpoints. This 40-year period was divided into four subperiods: Period 1 (1976-1985), Period 2 (1986-1995), Period 3 (1996-2005), and Period 4 (2006-2015)...
February 18, 2019: Veterinary Radiology & Ultrasound
Manfred Kurz
The assessment of the benefit-risk ratio of investigational medicinal products (IMPs) and the approval of clinical trial applications (CTAs) conducted in the European Union (EU) is a remit of national competent authorities (NCAs) of the 28 member states. The aim of this article is to shed light on clinical studies for oncology drugs carried out in Germany which involve diagnostic radiation tests. The authorisation process surrounding diagnostic radiology accompanying clinical investigations and used for measuring IMP related treatment effects is not well understood...
February 2019: Critical Reviews in Oncology/hematology
Bonnie Liu, Jordyn Clark, Trustin Domes, Chris Wall, Kunal Jana
INTRODUCTION: Irreversible electroporation (IRE) is a novel technology used in the minimally invasive treatment of small solid organ tumours. Currently, there is a paucity of literature studying treatment of small renal masses (SRMs) with IRE. Our pilot study is the first case series in Canada to use IRE in the treatment of SRMs. METHODS: This retrospective cohort pilot study includes five patients (three females and two males) who presented with a SRM that was deemed not amendable to any other treatment than a radical nephrectomy or IRE...
January 21, 2019: Canadian Urological Association Journal, Journal de L'Association des Urologues du Canada
Thomas J Jackson, Richard D Williams, Jesper Brok, Tanzina Chowdhury, Milind Ronghe, Mark Powis, Kathy Pritchard-Jones, Gordan M Vujanić
INTRODUCTION: The International Society of Paediatric Oncology (SIOP) protocols recommend preoperative chemotherapy appropriate for Wilms tumors (WTs) in children with renal tumors aged ≥6 months, reserving biopsy for "atypical" cases. The Children's Cancer and Leukaemia Group (CCLG) joined the SIOP-WT-2001 study but continued the national practice of biopsy at presentation. METHOD: Retrospective study of concordance between locally reported renal tumor biopsies and central pathology review nephrectomy diagnoses of children enrolled by CCLG centers in the SIOP-WT-2001 study...
February 13, 2019: Pediatric Blood & Cancer
Parveen Jain, Dinesh Chandra Doval, Ullas Batra, Pankaj Goyal, Sneha Jatan Bothra, Chaturbhuj Agarwal, Dutta Kumardeep Choudhary, Abhishek Yadav, Venkata Pradeep Babu Koyalla, Mansi Sharma, Prashanta Dash, Vineet Talwar
Aims: To investigate Ki-67 index with regard to its ability to predict achievement of pathologic complete response (pCR) to neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NACT) in breast cancer patient. Material and methods: It was a prospective observational study, conducted in Department of Medical Oncology, Rajiv Gandhi Cancer Institute & Research Center (RGCIRC), New Delhi from February 2014 to March 2016. A total of 134 patients with Stage II/III breast cancer who underwent NACT followed by surgery at our center were enrolled and analyzed...
February 12, 2019: Japanese Journal of Clinical Oncology
Yvan de la Monneraye, J Michon, H Pacquement, I Aerts, Daniel Orbach, F Doz, F Bourdeaut, S Sarnacki, P Philippe-Chomette, G Audry, A Coulomb, P Fréneaux, J Klijanienko, D Berrebi, J-M Zucker, G Schleiermacher, H J Brisse
OBJECTIVES: According to the Renal Tumor Study Group (RTSG) of the International Society of Paediatric Oncology (SIOP), diagnostic biopsy of renal tumors prior to neoadjuvant chemotherapy is not mandatory unless the presentation is atypical for a Wilms tumor (WT). This study addresses the relevance of this strategy as well as the accuracy and safety of image-guided needle biopsy. METHODS: Clinical, radiological, and pathological data from 317 children (141 males/176 females, mean age: 4 years, range, 0-17...
February 12, 2019: Pediatric Blood & Cancer
R M Egea-Gámez, V Ponz-Lueza, A Cendrero-Torrado, C Martínez-González, J A Certucha-Barragán, R González-Díaz
INTRODUCTION AND OBJECTIVE: Osteosarcoma is the most frequent malignant spinal tumour in the paediatric age group. Diagnosis and early treatment of this pathology is essential for a good prognosis. The aim of this study was to present the results of treatment of paediatric patients with lumbar osteosarcoma and conduct a literature review. MATERIAL AND METHODS: All the patients with lumbar osteosarcoma who were operated between 2012 and 2014 in the same centre were included...
February 7, 2019: Revista Española de Cirugía Ortopédica y Traumatología
Ailbhe White-Gibson, Paul Lennon, Esther O'Regan, Conrad Timon
We report an extremely rare case of a hybrid tumour of the maxillary sinus. A 51-year-old man presented with a 6-week history of nasal congestion and epiphora. Radiological imaging demonstrated a maxillary sinus tumour, with extensive local invasion. Surgical excision included maxillectomy, left eye exenteration and free flap closure. Histology of the excised specimen showed a rare hybrid tumour containing adenoid cystic carcinoma, salivary duct carcinoma, epithelial-myoepithelial carcinoma and basal cell adenoma...
February 7, 2019: BMJ Case Reports
Sebastian Scheidt, Cornelius Jacobs, Sebastian Koob, Kristian Welle, Sebastian Walter, Jens Jakob, Michael Kehrer, Jan Schmolders
Soft tissue sarcomas are a heterogeneous group of neoplasias that due to their often clinically silent appearance often remain undetected or experience delayed treatment. Especially soft tissue swelling is often misinterpreted by patients and doctors and trivialized or verified with an incorrect biopsy technique. The hereby evoked complications for the patients are serious and may be reduced by simply following the available guidelines. The treatment of soft tissue sarcomas requires a close interdisciplinary coordination between specialists in tumor orthopedics, oncology, radiology, pathology and radiotherapy...
February 8, 2019: Zeitschrift Für Orthopädie und Unfallchirurgie
Laura Filograna, Antonello Calcagni, Giorgia Rossi, Carla Di Stefano, Emanuela Beninati, Alberto Collura, Roberto Floris
We report a case of vascular malformation arising from internal jugular vein discovered during radiological investigations for restaging of metastatic colon carcinoma of an adult male patient. Congenital absence of internal jugular vein is extremely uncommon. These developmental anomalies in general population are seen in about 0.05%-0.25%. The awareness of these vascular anomalies is extremely important to avoid unsafe complications, primarily in oncological patients, whom usually require the incannulation of neck veins for diagnostic procedures or intravenous therapy administration...
April 2019: Radiology Case Reports
J J Díez, J C Galofré, A Oleaga, E Grande, M Mitjavila, P Moreno
AIM: There is an important lack of knowledge as to the functioning of multidisciplinary teams on thyroid cancer in current clinical practice. We aimed to retrieve data on the composition, structure, and procedures developed by the multidisciplinary units of thyroid cancer in Spain. METHODS: A nationwide survey consisting of questions about composition, structure, and functioning of multidisciplinary teams was designed. It was available online from November 15, 2017 to February 15, 2018...
February 5, 2019: Clinical & Translational Oncology
Debora Basile, Annamaria Parnofiello, Maria Grazia Vitale, Francesco Cortiula, Lorenzo Gerratana, Valentina Fanotto, Camilla Lisanti, Giacomo Pelizzari, Elena Ongaro, Michele Bartoletti, Silvio Ken Garattini, Victoria Josephine Andreotti, Anna Bacco, Donatella Iacono, Marta Bonotto, Mariaelena Casagrande, Paola Ermacora, Fabio Puglisi, Nicoletta Pella, Gianpiero Fasola, Giuseppe Aprile, Giovanni G Cardellino
BACKGROUND: Pancreatic cancer (PC) patients have multiple risk factors for sarcopenia and loss of skeletal muscle mass (LSMM), which may cause greater treatment toxicities, reduced response to cancer therapy, prolonged hospitalization, impaired quality of life, and worse prognosis. METHODS: This is a retrospective study on advanced PC patients treated at the Department of Oncology of Udine, Italy, from January 2012 to November 2017. Among 162 patients who received chemotherapy, 94 consecutive patients with an available computed tomography (CT) scan were retrospectively analyzed...
February 4, 2019: Journal of Cachexia, Sarcopenia and Muscle
I Mallick, A Das, M Arunsingh
AIMS: Node-positive prostate cancer is a unique subgroup, with varied practice on locoregional treatment. Definitive treatment with hypofractionated radiotherapy has not been widely reported. We have routinely used standard regimens of hypofractionated radiotherapy for node-positive disease and report our results of toxicity, biochemical control and survival. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Medical records of patients diagnosed with prostate cancer between February 2011 and April 2016 with radiologically involved pelvic nodes on magnetic resonance imaging/computed tomography without distant metastases were analysed...
February 1, 2019: Clinical Oncology: a Journal of the Royal College of Radiologists
Charles S Fuchs, Kohei Shitara, Maria Di Bartolomeo, Sara Lonardi, Salah-Eddin Al-Batran, Eric Van Cutsem, David H Ilson, Maria Alsina, Ian Chau, Jill Lacy, Michel Ducreux, Guillermo Ariel Mendez, Alejandro Molina Alavez, Daisuke Takahari, Wasat Mansoor, Peter C Enzinger, Vera Gorbounova, Zev A Wainberg, Susanna Hegewisch-Becker, David Ferry, Ji Lin, Roberto Carlesi, Mayukh Das, Manish A Shah
BACKGROUND: VEGF and VEGF receptor 2 (VEGFR-2)-mediated signalling and angiogenesis can contribute to the pathogenesis and progression of gastric cancer. We aimed to assess whether the addition of ramucirumab, a VEGFR-2 antagonist monoclonal antibody, to first-line chemotherapy improves outcomes in patients with metastatic gastric or gastro-oesophageal junction adenocarcinoma. METHODS: For this double-blind, randomised, placebo-controlled, phase 3 trial done at 126 centres in 20 countries, we recruited patients aged 18 years or older with metastatic, HER2-negative gastric or gastro-oesophageal junction adenocarcinoma, an Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group (ECOG) performance status of 0 or 1, and adequate organ function...
February 1, 2019: Lancet Oncology
Bas Vaarwerk, Gianni Bisogno, Kieran McHugh, Hervé J Brisse, Carlo Morosi, Nadège Corradini, Meriel Jenney, Daniel Orbach, Julia C Chisholm, Andrea Ferrari, Ilaria Zanetti, Gian Luca De Salvo, Rick R van Rijn, Johannes H M Merks
PURPOSE: To evaluate the clinical significance of indeterminate pulmonary nodules at diagnosis (defined as ≤ 4 pulmonary nodules < 5 mm or 1 nodule measuring ≥ 5 and < 10 mm) in patients with pediatric rhabdomyosarcoma (RMS). PATIENTS AND METHODS: We selected patients with supposed nonmetastatic RMS treated in large pediatric oncology centers in the United Kingdom, France, Italy, and the Netherlands, who were enrolled in the European Soft Tissue Sarcoma Study Group (E pSSG) RMS 2005 study...
January 31, 2019: Journal of Clinical Oncology: Official Journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
Allison N Martin, Kelly-Mariella Kaneza, Amol Kulkarni, Pacifique Mugenzi, Rahel Ghebre, David Ntirushwa, André M Ilbawi, Lydia E Pace, Ainhoa Costas-Chavarri
PURPOSE: The WHO framework for early cancer diagnosis highlights the need to improve health care capacity among primary care providers. In Rwanda, general practitioners (GPs) at district hospitals (DHs) play key roles in diagnosing, initiating management, and referring suspected patients with cancer. We sought to ascertain educational and resource needs of GPs to provide a blueprint that can inform future early cancer diagnosis capacity-building efforts. METHODS: We administered a cross-sectional survey study to GPs practicing in 42 Rwandan DHs to assess gaps in cancer-focused knowledge, skills, and resources, as well as delays in the referral process...
January 2019: Journal of Global Oncology
Jeffrey D Rudie, Andreas M Rauschecker, R Nick Bryan, Christos Davatzikos, Suyash Mohan
Due to the exponential growth of computational algorithms, artificial intelligence (AI) methods are poised to improve the precision of diagnostic and therapeutic methods in medicine. The field of radiomics in neuro-oncology has been and will likely continue to be at the forefront of this revolution. A variety of AI methods applied to conventional and advanced neuro-oncology MRI data can already delineate infiltrating margins of diffuse gliomas, differentiate pseudoprogression from true progression, and predict recurrence and survival better than methods used in daily clinical practice...
January 22, 2019: Radiology
Anuradha Rao, Raghuram Parampalli
OBJECTIVES: The objectives of the study are to evaluate the role of multidetector computed tomography (MDCT), its sensitivity and specificity in recognizing the complications related to oncology, and its treatment in patients with known malignancies and to determine how clinician's diagnosis, diagnostic dilemma, and management decisions are affected by the results of computed tomography (CT) in a tertiary care oncology setup. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A thorough retrospective search of the database of 1 year in the Department of Radiology was done at our tertiary oncology center, of patients who were diagnosed or suspected with complications associated with cancer...
January 21, 2019: Emergency Radiology
Maria J Disselhorst, Josine Quispel-Janssen, Ferry Lalezari, Kim Monkhorst, Jeltje F de Vries, Vincent van der Noort, Emmy Harms, Sjaak Burgers, Paul Baas
BACKGROUND: Single-drug checkpoint inhibition has shown efficacy in patients with recurrent malignant pleural mesothelioma. Here, we assessed the safety and efficacy of the combination of nivolumab, an anti-programmed cell death 1 antibody, plus ipilimumab, an anti-cytotoxic T-lymphocyte protein 4 antibody, in patients with previously treated and relapsed malignant pleural mesothelioma. METHODS: INITIATE was a prospective single-centre, single arm, phase 2 trial...
January 16, 2019: Lancet Respiratory Medicine
Elias Kikano, Nils Grosse Hokamp, Leslie Ciancibello, Nikhil Ramaiya, Christos Kosmas, Amit Gupta
BACKGROUND: One of the key steps in generating three-dimensional (3D) printed models in medicine is segmentation of radiologic imaging. The software tools used for segmentation may be automated, semi-automated, or manual which rely on differences in material density, attenuation characteristics, and/or advanced software algorithms. Spectral Detector Computed Tomography (SDCT) is a form of dual energy computed tomography that works at the detector level to generate virtual monoenergetic images (VMI) at different energies/ kilo-electron volts (keV)...
January 18, 2019: 3D printing in medicine
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