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tissue and exosomes

X C Liu, S H Wu, W Y Wang, Q Hao, Z D Guo, W Z Wang
Objective: Exosomes are considered to mediate intercellular communication by delivering biomolecules like mRNA, miRNA into recipient cells. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of exosomes secreted by fibroblasts from women with stress urinary incontinence (SUI-EXO) on endothelial cells angiogenesis. Methods: Primary fibroblasts were acquired from periurethral vaginal wall tissues and exosomes were prepared by ultracentrifugation of fibroblasts cells conditioned medium. The expression levels of pro-angiogenic and anti-angiogenic genes were assessed using qRT-PCR analysis...
February 19, 2019: Zhonghua Yi Xue za Zhi [Chinese medical journal]
Paul J Galardy, Tibor Bedekovics, Elizabeth Macintyre, Rodney R Miles
In the modern era, clinicians and pathologists increasingly make challenging diagnoses in patients with suspected lymphoma using minimal amounts of diagnostic material. The increase in utilization of minimally invasive procedures, such as fine needle aspiration or needle core biopsies, lead to challenges in our ability to make accurate histopathological assessments of disease, including the integration of new diagnostic and prognostic testing, with smaller amounts of material. The trend towards minimally invasive diagnostics is also often in conflicting interest with researchers seeking to study tissue specimens to better understand the biology and genetics of these diseases to move the field forward...
February 19, 2019: British Journal of Haematology
Susana Junqueira-Neto, Inês A Batista, José Luís Costa, Sónia A Melo
Liquid biopsy represents the analysis of tumor-derived material in the blood and other body fluids of cancer patients. This portrays a minimally invasive detection tool for molecular biomarkers. Liquid biopsy has emerged as a complementary or alternative method to surgical biopsy. This non-invasive detection tool overcomes the recurrent problems in the clinical assessment of tumors that stem from the lack of accessibility to the tumor tissue and its clonal heterogeneity. Moreover, body fluid-derived components have shown to reflect the genetic profile of both primary and metastatic lesions and provide a real-time monitoring of tumor dynamics, representing a great promise for personalized medicine...
February 15, 2019: Acta Cytologica
Huixin Zhang, Jin Wu, Jiahuan Wu, Qi Fan, Jingchao Zhou, Junwen Wu, Sichen Liu, Jie Zang, Jinhai Ye, Ming Xiao, Tian Tian, Jun Gao
BACKGROUND: Accumulating evidence shows that microRNA-210 (miR-210) holds great promise to improve angiogenesis for brain tissue repair after cerebral ischemia. However, safe and efficient delivery of miR-210 via intravenous administration is still a challenge. In the past decade, exosomes have emerged as a novel endogenous delivery system. Here, c(RGDyK) peptide is conjugated to exosomes, and they are loaded with cholesterol-modified miR-210 (RGD-exo:miR-210). RESULTS: In a transient middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) mouse model, the RGD-exo:miR-210 targets the lesion region of the ischemic brain after intravenous administration, resulting in an increase in miR-210 at the site...
February 19, 2019: Journal of Nanobiotechnology
Gloria Bellin, Chiara Gardin, Letizia Ferroni, Juan Carlos Chachques, Massimo Rogante, Dinko Mitrečić, Roberto Ferrari, Barbara Zavan
Exosomes are a subgroup of extracellular vesicles containing a huge number of bioactive molecules. They represent an important means of cell communication, mostly between different cell populations, with the purpose of maintaining tissue homeostasis and coordinating the adaptive response to stress. This type of intercellular communication is important in the cardiovascular field, mainly due to the fact that the heart is a complex multicellular system. Given the growing interest in the role of exosomes in cardiovascular diseases and the numerous studies published in the last few decades, we focused on the most relevant results about exosomes in the cardiovascular filed starting from their characterization, passing through the study of their function, and ending with perspectives for their use in cardiovascular therapies...
February 17, 2019: Cells
Catarina Roma-Rodrigues, Rita Mendes, Pedro V Baptista, Alexandra R Fernandes
Cancer development is highly associated to the physiological state of the tumor microenvironment (TME). Despite the existing heterogeneity of tumors from the same or from different anatomical locations, common features can be found in the TME maturation of epithelial-derived tumors. Genetic alterations in tumor cells result in hyperplasia, uncontrolled growth, resistance to apoptosis, and metabolic shift towards anaerobic glycolysis (Warburg effect). These events create hypoxia, oxidative stress and acidosis within the TME triggering an adjustment of the extracellular matrix (ECM), a response from neighbor stromal cells (e...
February 15, 2019: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Seyed Hamid Jalalian, Mohammad Ramezani, Seyed Ali Jalalian, Khalil Abnous, Seyed Mohammad Taghdisi
Exosomes are endosomal-derived vesicles, playing a major role in cell-to-cell communication. Multiple cells secret these vesicles to induce and inhibit different cellular and molecular pathways. Cancer-derived exosomes have been shown to affect development of cancer in different stages and contribute to the recruitment and reprogramming of both proximal and distal tissues. The growing interest in defining the clinical relevance of these nano-sized particles in cancers, has led to the identification of either tissue- or disease-specific exosomal contents, such as nucleic acids, proteins and lipids as a source of new biomarkers which propose the diagnostic potentials of exosomes in early detection of cancers...
February 15, 2019: Analytical Biochemistry
Tuomas Kaprio, Tiina Rasila, Jaana Hagström, Harri Mustonen, Petri Lankila, Caj Haglund, Leif C Andersson
Ornithine decarboxylase (ODC) is the rate-limiting enzyme of polyamine synthesis. The two ODC antizyme inhibitors (AZIN1) and (AZIN2) are regulators of the catalytic activity of ODC. While AZIN1 is a regulator of cell proliferation, AZIN2 is involved in intracellular vesicle transport and secretion. There are no previous reports on the impact of AZIN2 expression in human cancer. We applied immunohistochemistry with antibodies to human AZIN2 on tissue micro- arrays of colorectal cancers (CRC) from 840 patients with a median follow-up of 5...
2019: PloS One
Yiming Meng, Jing Sun, Xiaonan Wang, Tingting Hu, Yushu Ma, Cuicui Kong, Haozhe Piao, Tao Yu, Guirong Zhang
Currently, despite the advances in individualized treatment, breast cancer still remains the deadliest form of cancer in women. Diagnostic, prognostic, and therapy-predictive methods are mainly based on the evaluation of tumor tissue samples and are aimed to improve the overall therapeutic level. Therefore, the exploration of a series of circulating biomarkers, which serve as the information source of tumors and could be obtained by peripheral blood samples, represents a high field of interest. Apart from classical biomarkers, exosomes, which are nanovesicles, are emerging as an accessible and efficient source of cell information...
January 1, 2019: Technology in Cancer Research & Treatment
Jacopo Meldolesi
Two types of extracellular vesicles (EVs), exosomes and ectosomes, are generated and released by all cells, including immune cells. The two EVs appear different in many properties: size, mechanism and site of assembly, composition of their membranes and luminal cargoes, sites and processes of release. In functional terms, however, these differences are minor. Moreover, their binding to and effects on target cells appear similar thus the two types are considered distinct only in a few cases, otherwise they are presented together as EVs...
February 13, 2019: Clinical and Experimental Immunology
Hui-Zeng Sun, Yanhong Chen, Le Luo Guan
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) play essential roles in regulating gene expression involved in various biological functions. The knowledge of miRNA expression profiles across different tissues in cattle is still limited. Using the miRNAs data generated from 158 samples in three studies, we characterized the miRNA expression profiles of bovine sera, exosomes and 11 different tissues. Totally 639 miRNAs were identified and 159 miRNAs were expressed in all samples. After relative log expression normalization, four miRNA expression clusters were generated: 1) sera and exosomes; 2) liver; 3) mammary gland; 4) rumen and gut tissues...
February 12, 2019: Scientific Data
Shi-Ying Dang, Yang Leng, Zi-Xian Wang, Xing Xiao, Xin Zhang, Tao Wen, Hui-Zhen Gong, An Hong, Yi Ma
Exosomes, the nano-vesicles released from living cells, were the important mediator for cell-to-cell communication. In order to clarify whether the exosomes derived from obesity adipose tissue mediate insulin resistance of hepatocytes, we extract the exosomes from the adipose tissue of different mice models. Exosomes derived from ob/ob mice (Ob-exosomes), B6 mice fed with a high-fat diet (HFD-exosomes) and normal B6 mice (WT-exosomes) displayed similar size and molecular makers, but their effect on the insulin sensitivity of hepatocytes were obviously different or opposite...
2019: International Journal of Biological Sciences
Yusheng Lin, Hongmei Dong, Weilun Deng, Wan Lin, Kai Li, Xiao Xiong, Yi Guo, Fuyou Zhou, Changchun Ma, Yuping Chen, Hongzheng Ren, Haijun Yang, Ningtao Dai, Lang Ma, Stephen J Meltzer, Sai-Ching J Yeung, Hao Zhang
PURPOSE: Transcriptionally-induced chimeric RNAs are an important emerging area of research into molecular signatures for biomarker and therapeutic target development. Salivary exosomes represent a relatively unexplored but convenient and noninvasive area of cancer biomarker discovery. However, the potential of cancer-derived exosomal chimeric RNAs in saliva as biomarkers is unknown. Here, we explore the potential clinical utility of salivary exosomal GOLM1-NAA35 chimeric RNA (se G-N chiRNA) in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC)...
February 11, 2019: Clinical Cancer Research: An Official Journal of the American Association for Cancer Research
Cassandra Ringuette Goulet, Audrey Champagne, Geneviève Bernard, Dominique Vandal, Stéphane Chabaud, Frédéric Pouliot, Stéphane Bolduc
BACKGROUND: Cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs), activated by tumour cells, are the predominant type of stromal cells in cancer tissue and play an important role in interacting with neoplastic cells to promote cancer progression. Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is a key feature of metastatic cells. However, the mechanism by which CAFs induce EMT program in bladder cancer cells remains unclear. METHODS: To investigate the role of CAFs in bladder cancer progression, healthy primary bladder fibroblasts (HFs) were induced into CAFs (iCAFs) by bladder cancer-derived exosomes...
February 11, 2019: BMC Cancer
Wenqi Sun, Zhelong Li, Xueying Zhou, Guodong Yang, Lijun Yuan
Recently, exosomes have been emerged as promising drug delivery carriers, while certain tissues are intrinsically resistant to exosomes. Therapeutically improving the drug delivery efficiency in these tissues/organs would certainly broaden the potential application of exosomes in future. Ultrasound-targeted microbubble destruction (UTMD) is a promising technique for non-invasive, targeted drug delivery. In this study, we explore the possibility that UTMD assists exosome delivery in these intrinsically resistant tissues...
December 2019: Drug Delivery
M P Rubtsova, D P Vasilkova, M A Moshareva, A N Malyavko, M B Meerson, T S Zatsepin, Y V Naraykina, A V Beletsky, N V Ravin, O A Dontsova
Telomeres are special DNA-protein structures that are located at the ends of linear eukaryotic chromosomes. The telomere length determines the proliferation potential of cells. Telomerase is a key component of the telomere length maintenance system. While telomerase is inactive in the majority of somatic cells, its activity determines the clonogenic potential of stem cells as a resource for tissue and organism regeneration. Reactivation of telomerase occurs during the process of immortalization in the majority of cancer cells...
February 8, 2019: Scientific Reports
Kseniia Boriachek, Mostafa Kamal Masud, Carlos Palma, Hoang-Phuong Phan, Yusuke Yamauchi, Md Shahriar A Hossain, Nam-Trung Nguyen, Carlos Salomon, Muhammad J A Shiddiky
Most of the current strategies for exosome analysis are time-consuming and largely dependent on pre-isolation step using a commercial extraction kit, which requires extensive sample manipulation, costly isolation, reagents, tedious procedures, and sophisticated equipment, and is prone to bias/artefacts. Herein we introduce a simple method for direct isolation and subsequent detection of a specific population of exosomes using an engineered superparamagnetic material with multi-functional properties, namely gold-loaded ferric oxide nanocubes (Au-NPFe2O3NC)...
February 8, 2019: Analytical Chemistry
Juanjuan Qiu, Zhenggui Du, Yao Wang, Yuting Zhou, Yuanxin Zhang, Yanyan Xie, Qing Lv
This study aimed to identify modules associated with breast cancer (BC) development by constructing a gene co-expression network, and mining hub genes that may serve as markers of invasive breast cancer (IBC).We downloaded 2 gene expression datasets from the Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) database, and used weighted gene co-expression network analysis (WGCNA) to dynamically study the changes of co-expression genes in normal breast tissues, ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) tissues, and IBC tissues. Modules that highly correlated with BC development were carried out functional enrichment analysis for annotation, visualization, and integration discovery...
February 2019: Medicine (Baltimore)
Connie S Chamberlain, Anna B Clements, John A Kink, Ugeun Choi, Geoffrey S Baer, Matthew A Halanski, Peiman Hematti, Ray Vanderby
Tendon healing follows a complex series of coordinated events that ultimately produces a mechanically inferior tissue more scar-like than native tendon. More regenerative healing occurs when anti-inflammatory M2 macrophages play a more dominant role. Mesenchymal stromal/stem cells (MSCs) are able to polarize macrophages to an M2 immunophenotype via paracrine mechanisms. We previously reported that co-culture of CD14+ macrophages (MQs) with MSCs resulted in a unique M2-like macrophage. More recently, we generated M2-like macrophages using only extracellular vesicles (EVs) isolated from MSCs creating "EV-educated macrophages" (also called exosome-educated macrophages, EEMs), thereby foregoing direct use of MSCs...
February 5, 2019: Stem Cells
Xu-He Gong, Hui Liu, Si-Jia Wang, Si-Wen Liang, Guo-Gan Wang
Exosomes extracted from mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) was reported to reduce myocardial ischemia/reperfusion damage. Besides, stromal-derived factor 1 (SDF1a) functions as cardiac repair after myocardial infarction (MI). Therefore, the present study aims to identify whether exosomes (Exo) released from SDF1-overexpressing MSCs display a beneficial effect on ischemic myocardial infarction. Initially, a gain-of-function study was performed to investigate the function of SDF1 in ischemic myocardial cells and cardiac endothelial cells...
February 5, 2019: Journal of Cellular Physiology
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