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Pro-poor health policy

Chipo Mutyambizi, Frederik Booysen, Andrew Stokes, Milena Pavlova, Wim Groot
BACKGROUND: Inequalities in diabetes are widespread and are exacerbated by differences in lifestyle. Many studies that have estimated inequalities in diabetes make use of self-reported diabetes which is often biased by differences in access to health care and diabetes awareness. This study adds to this literature by making use of a more objective standardised measure of diabetes in South Africa. The study estimates socio-economic inequalities in undiagnosed diabetes, diagnosed diabetes (self-reported), as well as total diabetes (undiagnosed diabetics + diagnosed diabetics)...
2019: PloS One
Emily Catherine Keats, Nadia Akseer, Zaid Bhatti, William Macharia, Anthony Ngugi, Arjumand Rizvi, Zulfiqar Ahmed Bhutta
Importance: Previous work has underscored subnational inequalities that could impede additional health gains in Kenya. Objective: To provide a comprehensive assessment of the burden, distribution, and change in inequalities in reproductive, maternal, newborn, child, and adolescent health (RMNCAH) interventions in Kenya from 2003 to 2014. Design, Setting, and Participants: This population-based cross-sectional study used data from the 2003, 2008, and 2014 Kenya Demographic and Health Surveys...
December 7, 2018: JAMA network open
Hai Gu, Yun Kou, Hua You, Xinpeng Xu, Nichao Yang, Jing Liu, Xiyan Liu, Jinghong Gu, Xiaolu Li
BACKGROUND: Population ageing in China has brought increasing attention to the health inequalities of the elderly. The purpose of this paper is to measure income-related health inequality among the elderly in China and decompose its causes. METHODS: The data are from the China Health and Retirement Longitudinal Study (CHARLS) survey in 2013, which contains 6176 individuals aged 60 years and above. A multiple linear regression model was used to analyze the influencing factors of self-rated health (SRH) among the elder people...
January 8, 2019: International Journal for Equity in Health
Oluwasegun Jko Ogundele, Milena Pavlova, Wim Groot
BACKGROUND: Equitable use of reproductive health care services is of critical importance since it may affect women's and children's health. Policies to reduce inequality in access to reproductive health care services are often general and frequently benefit the richer population. This is known as the inverse equity situation. We analyzed the magnitude and trends in wealth-related inequalities in the use of family planning, antenatal and delivery care services in Ghana and Nigeria. We also investigate horizontal inequalities in the determinants of reproductive health care service use over the years...
December 13, 2018: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth
Mary Bartram, Jennifer M Stewart
This paper compares income-based inequities in access to psychotherapy and other mental health services in Canada and Australia, two federal parliamentary systems with sharply contrasting responses to high rates of unmet need. Income-based inequity is measured by need-standardized concentration indices, using comparable data from the Canadian Community Health Survey 2011-2012 and the Australian National Survey of Mental Health and Well-Being 2007. The results indicate that utilization of psychologist services is more concentrated at higher income levels (i...
October 16, 2018: Health Policy
Tara Tancred, Sara Paparini, G J Melendez-Torres, James Thomas, Adam Fletcher, Rona Campbell, Chris Bonell
BACKGROUND: Schools can play an important role in promoting health. However, many education policies and institutions are increasingly emphasising academic attainment targets, which appear to be diminishing the time available for health education lessons. Interventions that integrate both health and academic learning may present an ideal solution, simultaneously addressing health education and academic development. The theories of change underlying these interventions are therefore of interest, but are poorly studied...
November 13, 2018: Systematic Reviews
Satar Rezaei, Mohammad Hajizadeh, Yahya Salimi, Ghobad Moradi, Bijan Nouri
OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to explain the health-related quality of life (HRQoL) gap between the poorest and the wealthiest quintiles in the capitals of Kermanshah and Kurdistan Provinces (Kermanshah and Sanandaj), in western Iran. METHODS: This was a cross-sectional study conducted among 1772 adults. Data on socio-demographic characteristics, socioeconomic status (SES), lifestyle factors, body mass index, and HRQoL of participants were collected using a self-administered questionnaire...
September 2018: Journal of Preventive Medicine and Public Health, Yebang Ŭihakhoe Chi
Evelyn Kabia, Rahab Mbau, Kelly W Muraya, Rosemary Morgan, Sassy Molyneux, Edwine Barasa
BACKGROUND: Health inequity has mainly been linked to differences in economic status, with the poor facing greater challenges accessing healthcare than the less poor. To extend financial coverage to the poor and vulnerable, Kenya has therefore implemented several pro-poor health policy reforms. However, other social determinants of health such as gender and disability also influence health status and access to care. This study employed an intersectional approach to explore how gender disability and poverty interact to influence how poor women in Kenya benefit from pro-poor financing policies that target them...
September 19, 2018: International Journal for Equity in Health
Jue Yan, Yangling Ren, Zhongliang Zhou, Tiange Xu, Xiao Wang, Leilei Du, Yafei Si
BACKGROUND: Equity is an important goal for countries in formulating relevant health policies, and research on the equity of health services is more important for China, where the gap between the rich and poor is widening. The aims of this study are to explore to what extent the benefit equity of New Rural Cooperative Medical System enrollees has been achieved and to determine the geographical disparities in Shaanxi province and thus provide suggestions for future policy formulations...
September 19, 2018: BMC Health Services Research
Virginia Wiseman, Hasbullah Thabrany, Augustine Asante, Manon Haemmerli, Soewarta Kosen, Lucy Gilson, Anne Mills, Andrew Hayen, Viroj Tangcharoensathien, Walaiporn Patcharanarumol
BACKGROUND: Many low and middle income countries are implementing reforms to support Universal Health Coverage (UHC). Perhaps one of the most ambitious examples of this is Indonesia's national health scheme known as the JKN which is designed to make health care available to its entire population of 255 million by end of 2019. If successful, the JKN will be the biggest single payer system in the world. While Indonesia has made steady progress, around a third of its population remains without cover and out of pocket payments for health are widespread even among JKN members...
September 12, 2018: International Journal for Equity in Health
Yvonne Beaugé, Jean-Louis Koulidiati, Valéry Ridde, Paul Jacob Robyn, Manuela De Allegri
BACKGROUND: Targeting efforts aimed at increasing access to care for the poorest by reducing to a minimum or completely eliminating payments at point of use are increasingly being adopted across low and middle income countries, within the framework of Universal Health Coverage policies. No evidence, however, is available on the real cost of designing and implementing these efforts. Our study aimed to fill this gap in knowledge through the systematic assessment of both the financial and economic costs associated with designing and implementing a pro-poor community-based targeting intervention across eight districts in rural Burkina Faso...
September 4, 2018: Health Economics Review
Meliyanni Johar, Prastuti Soewondo, Retno Pujisubekti, Harsa Kunthara Satrio, Ardi Adji
While disparities in access to health services by different economic groups have been well documented, much less is known about the factors that are contributing to these disparities. In this paper, we take the case of Indonesia, which has the six-worst wealth inequality in the world. The data is derived from the national socio-economic survey from 2011 to 2016, giving a total sample of over 5.5 million individuals. We find that only access to outpatient care at public primary health facilities is pro-poor, whilst access to other types of health care is pro-rich...
September 2018: Social Science & Medicine
Mostafa Amini Rarani, Mehdi Nosratabadi, Maryam Moeeni
BACKGROUND: Early childhood development is influenced by family socioeconomic status in such a way that socioeconomic deprivation might be accompanied with adverse outcomes in early development of a child. This study aimed to assess early childhood development based on average and also based on the distribution of socioeconomic inequality in Iran and its provinces. METHODS: Using data from provincially representative Multiple Indicator Demographic and Health Survey (2010), we developed a suitable latent class approach to construct a proxy of socioeconomic status...
August 3, 2018: International Journal of Health Planning and Management
Mohammad Hajizadeh, Min Hu, Amy Bombay, Yukiko Asada
Using three nationally representative Aboriginal Peoples Surveys (2001, 2006 and 2012, n = 68,040), we examined income-related inequalities in self-perceived poor/fair general health status among Indigenous adults (18+) living off-reserve in Canada. We used the relative and absolute concentration indices (RC and AC, respectively) to quantify income-related inequalities in health for men and women, within the three Indigenous populations (First Nations, Métis, and Inuit), and in different geographic regions...
August 2018: Health Policy
Peter C Rockers, Richard O Laing, Veronika J Wirtz
Introduction: Wealth-based inequity in access to medicines is an impediment to achieving universal health coverage in many low-income and middle-income countries. We explored the relationship between household wealth and access to medicines for non-communicable diseases (NCDs) in Kenya. Methods: We administered a cross-sectional survey to a sample of patients prescribed medicines for hypertension, diabetes or asthma. Data were collected on medicines available in the home, including the location and cost of purchase...
2018: BMJ Global Health
Tanvir M Huda, Alison Hayes, Michael J Dibley
Background: The utilization of maternal health care services has increased in many developing countries, but persistent wealth-related inequalities in use of maternal services remained an important public health issue. The paper examined the horizontal inequities and identified the key social determinants that can potentially explain such wealth-related inequalities in use of facility delivery services. Methods: The countries studied are Bangladesh, Pakistan and Nepal...
June 2018: Journal of Global Health
Athanase Nzokirishaka, Imose Itua
Background: High unmet need for family planning (32.4%) characterized Burundi in 2010. However, there has not been any study examining the relationship between unmet need and associated factors in Burundi. The present study aims at determining the demographic, socioeconomic and other factors underlying the unmet need for contraception among married women aged 15-49 in Burundi. Methods: This study used data from the 2010 Burundi Demographic and Health Survey. Total unmet need, unmet need for spacing and for limiting were used as outcomes and demographic, socioeconomic and other factors as independent variables...
2018: Contraception and Reproductive Medicine
Shahab Rezaeian, Mohammad Hajizadeh, Satar Rezaei, Sina Ahmadi, Ali Kazemi Karyani, Yahya Salimi
BACKGROUND: Equity in healthcare utilization is a major health policy goal in all healthcare systems. This study aimed to examine socioeconomic inequalities in public healthcare utilization in Kermanshah City, western Iran. STUDY DESIGN: A cross-sectional study. METHODS: Using convenience sampling method, 2040 adult aged 18-65 yr were enrolled from Kermanshah City in 2017. A self-administrated questionnaire was used to collect data on socio-demographic characteristics, socioeconomic status, behavioral factors, and utilization of public healthcare services (inpatient and outpatient care) over the period between from May to Aug 2017...
May 14, 2018: Journal of Research in Health Sciences
William Joe, Jessica M Perkins, Saroj Kumar, Sunil Rajpal, S V Subramanian
To achieve faster and equitable improvements in maternal and child health outcomes, the government of India launched the National Rural Health Mission in 2005. This paper describes the equity-enhancing role of the public sector in increasing use of institutional delivery care services in India between 2004 and 2014. Information on 24 661 births from nationally representative survey data for 2004 and 2014 is analysed. Concentration index is computed to describe socioeconomic-rank-related relative inequalities in institutional delivery and decomposition is used to assess the contributions of public and private sectors in overall socioeconomic inequality...
June 1, 2018: Health Policy and Planning
Franco Sassi, Annalisa Belloni, Andrew J Mirelman, Marc Suhrcke, Alastair Thomas, Nisreen Salti, Sukumar Vellakkal, Chonlathan Visaruthvong, Barry M Popkin, Rachel Nugent
Governments can use fiscal policies to regulate the prices and consumption of potentially unhealthy products. However, policies aimed at reducing consumption by increasing prices, for example by taxation, might impose an unfair financial burden on low-income households. We used data from household expenditure surveys to estimate patterns of expenditure on potentially unhealthy products by socioeconomic status, with a primary focus on low-income and middle-income countries. Price policies affect the consumption and expenditure of a larger number of high-income households than low-income households, and any resulting price increases tend to be financed disproportionately by high-income households...
May 19, 2018: Lancet
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