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Health of the poor

Elisabete Pereira Silva, Ana Bernarda Ludermir, Marília de Carvalho Lima, Sophie Helena Eickmann, Alan Emond
BACKGROUND: Exposure to intimate partner violence (IPV) is an important adverse childhood experience, but there are few longitudinal studies in low and middle-income countries. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the consequences of exposure to IPV for a child's mental health. PARTICIPANTS AND SETTING: 614 mother-child pairs were evaluated in a poor urban district in Recife, northeastern Brazil. METHODS: Women were interviewed in pregnancy, postpartum and six to nine years after delivery, and asked about their experience of IPV, and the exposure of their child to violence...
March 19, 2019: Child Abuse & Neglect
Jamie Kowal, Muhammad Imtiaz Ahmad, Yabing Li, Elsayed Z Soliman
BACKGROUND: Echocardiographically detected right ventricular hypertrophy (RVH) is associated with cardiovascular disease (CVD) and mortality. However, the prognostic significance of electrocardiographic (ECG)RVH criteria as predictors of poor outcomes in the general population is unclear. METHODS: This study included 7857 participants (59.8 ± 13.4 years, 52.6% women) from the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Sixteen different ECG-RVH criteria were created from digitally recorded and centrally processed electrocardiograms...
March 13, 2019: Journal of Electrocardiology
Hongting Ning, Tracie C Harrison, Yinan Zhao, Hengyu Hu, Huijing Chen, Lulu Liao, Renhe Yu, Shuang Wu, Hui Feng
The current study sought to determine the prevalence and correlates of depressive symptoms among older adults with physical functional limitations in China. A total of 2,410 older adults (age ≥60 years) were enrolled. Depressive symptoms and physical function were assessed with the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9) and Barthel Index of Activities of Daily Living, respectively. Univariate logistic regression and stepwise multiple logistic regression analyses were performed. The mean score for depressive symptoms was 5...
March 22, 2019: Research in Gerontological Nursing
Jessica I Lundin, Julann A Spromberg, Jeffrey C Jorgensen, James M Myers, Paul M Chittaro, Richard W Zabel, Lyndal L Johnson, Robert M Neely, Nathaniel L Scholz
In the western United States, the long-term recovery of many Pacific salmon populations is inextricably linked to freshwater habitat quality. Industrial activities from the past century have left a legacy of pollutants that persist, particularly near working waterfronts. The adverse impacts of these contaminants on salmon health have been studied for decades, but the population-scale consequences of chemical exposure for salmonids are still poorly understood. We estimated acute and delayed mortality rates for seaward migrating juvenile Chinook salmon that feed and grow in a Superfund-designated area in the Lower Willamette River in Portland, Oregon...
2019: PloS One
Janaki Santhiveeran
The purpose of this study is to examine the influence of obesity and sociodemographic factors on the health hardships among women veterans, using a sample from California. This study evaluates the following research questions: 1) What health hardships do women veterans experience? 2) What are the differences among women veterans with normal weight, overweight, and obesity and their experience with health hardships? 3) What is the impact of obesity combined with other factors (sociodemographic and health-care variables) in predicting the presence of one or more health hardships? Health hardships encompass the presence of several diseases including (heart disease, asthma, diabetes, or high blood pressure) among women veterans? The study sample included 197 female veterans retrieved from a community sample of women in California...
March 22, 2019: Social Work in Health Care
Mirjam Ekstedt, Kristina Schildmeijer, Camilla Wennerberg, Lina Nilsson, Carolina Wannheden, Amanda Hellström
BACKGROUND: Prostate cancer has increased in incidence worldwide and is the leading cause of cancer death in 24 countries. The most common treatment is radical prostatectomy. However, surgery is associated with postoperative complications such as urinary incontinence and sexual dysfunction, causing decreased quality of life. If survivors are encouraged to be more active in self-care management, the symptom burden may decrease and quality of life may improve. An electronic health (eHealth) intervention based on motivational behavioral theory has been developed for this purpose...
March 22, 2019: JMIR Research Protocols
Annibal Coelho de Amorim, Valcler Rangel Fernandes, Juraci Vieira Sérgio, José Paulo Vicente da Silva
Curitiba's Declaration during the 22nd World Conference on Health Promotion of the IUHPE highlighted equity as a prerequisite for health and as an essential element of health promotion, though not as an isolated aim. Latin America today is facing the loss of civil rights, austerity policies and social inequities, which together are increasing the gap between rich and poor and putting the health sector on alert. As health professionals, it is therefore our responsibility to provide cross-cutting analyses on how inter-sectoral public policies might represent utopias and realities in such a dramatic period of our history...
March 1, 2019: Health Promotion International
Nirupa Thomas, Rekha Krishnapillai, P Ramakrishnan Bindhu, Priya Thomas
Background and Aim: Oral cancer is a major health problem in South East Asia. The immunohistochemical (IHC) overexpression of COX-2 in squamous cell carcinoma is well documented. This IHC study was undertaken to understand the COX-2 expression in different grades of oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) and to compare the COX-2 expression in OSCC and normal mucosa. Material and Methods: A total of 30 cases of OSCC and 10 cases of normal mucosa and positive control colon cancer were studied for IHC expression of COX-2...
January 2019: Indian Journal of Dental Research: Official Publication of Indian Society for Dental Research
Anthony Mark Dalzell, Muhammad Eyad Ba'Ath
Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) should be considered in any child with a persistently altered bowel habit. Growth failure may be a consequence and there may also be extra-intestinal manifestations. Oesophago-gastroduodenoscopy and colonoscopy and conventional histopathology are the diagnostic tools of choice in IBD. The identification and management of children with IBD in resource-poor settings is difficult and there are few data on its prevalence in low- and middle-income countries. The main challenges are a lack of resources and infrastructure including trained personnel in settings where there are other priorities for maintaining the health and wellbeing of children...
February 2019: Paediatrics and International Child Health
Dominiek Coates, Maralyn Foureur
Perinatal mental health problems are linked to poor outcomes for mothers, babies and families. Despite a recognition of the significance of this issue, women often do not receive the care they need and fall between the gap of maternity and mental health services. To address this, there is a call for reform in the way in which perinatal mental healthcare is delivered. This paper responds to this by exploring the role and competence of midwives in delivering mental healthcare. Using a scoping review methodology, quantitative and qualitative evidence were considered to answer the research question 'what is the nature of the evidence relevant to the provision of mental health interventions by midwives?' To identify studies, the databases PubMed, Maternity and Infant Care, Science Citation Index, Social Sciences Citation Index, Medline, Science Direct and CINAHL were searched from 2011 to 2018, and reference lists of included studies were examined...
March 21, 2019: Health & Social Care in the Community
Hyun Jin Kwon, Young Ah Lee, Choong Ho Shin, Kijeong Kim
Patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) tend to experience poor self-rated health. However, few studies have examined the association between physical activity and self-rated health in pediatric patients with T1DM. The purpose of this study was to investigate the association between regular physical activity, regular muscle strength exercise, and self-rated health in pediatric patients with T1DM who lacked diabetes care. The eligible participants for this study were 37 pediatric patients with T1DM aged 9 to 17 years...
February 2019: Journal of Exercise Rehabilitation
Ousman A Abdela, Mohammed B Ayalew, Jibril S Yesuf, Sifelig A Getnet, Alemneh A Biyazin, Maebel Y Lemma, Bilal T Yimer
Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the commonest cause of morbidity and mortality with an estimation of 17.9 million deaths worldwide annually. Knowledge about the disease and risk factors changes individuals' health attitudes, behaviors and lifestyle practices. We assessed the knowledge and perception of University students towards CVD risk factors. A cross-sectional survey was done on undergraduate students at University of Gondar, Ethiopia. We stratified sampled students based on their colleges and then used convenience sampling technique to pick up study participants from each college...
2019: American Journal of Cardiovascular Disease
Karl Peltzer, Supa Pengpid
Objective: Alcohol use in pregnancy is linked with various negative health effects on the infant. The aim of this study was to examine the prevalence of maternal alcohol use during pregnancy and socio-demographic and health correlates. Methods: Data of ever-pregnant women from the cross-sectional 'South African National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (SANHANES-1) 2011-2012' were analysed. The sample included 5089 adolescents and adult women aged 15-55 years...
2019: South African Journal of Psychiatry: SAJP
James O'Donovan, Misha Verkerk, Niall Winters, Shelly Chadha, Mahmood F Bhutta
Introduction: Community health workers (CHWs) have the potential to improve access to ear and hearing services for people across low-income or middle-income countries, remote, underserved, or resource-poor areas of the world. We performed a systematic scoping review to identify evidence on how CHWs are currently deployed in the prevention, screening, diagnosis, treatment and management of ear disease and hearing loss; methods to train and support CHWs in this context; and cost-effectiveness of CHWs...
2019: BMJ Global Health
Victoria Simpkin, Evelyn Namubiru-Mwaura, Lorcan Clarke, Elias Mossialos
Global research and development (R&D) pipelines for diseases that disproportionately affect African countries appear to be inadequate, with governments struggling to prioritise investment in R&D. This article provides insights into the sources of investment in health science research, available research capacity and level of research output in Africa. The African region comprises 15% of the world's population, yet only accounted for 1.1% of global investments in R&D in 2016. There were substantial disparities within the continent, with Egypt, Nigeria and South Africa contributing 65...
2019: BMJ Global Health
Christian Bommer, Sebastian Vollmer, S V Subramanian
Introduction: Reducing stunting is an important part of the global health agenda. Despite likely changes in risk factors as children age, determinants of stunting are typically analysed without taking into account age-related heterogeneity. We aim to fill this gap by providing an in-depth analysis of the role of socioeconomic status (SES) as a moderator for the stunting-age pattern. Methods: Epidemiological and socioeconomic data from 72 Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS) were used to calculate stunting-age patterns by SES quartiles, derived from an index of household assets...
2019: BMJ Global Health
Anne Cockcroft, Khalid Omer, Yagana Gidado, Muhammad Chadi Baba, Amar Aziz, Umaira Ansari, Adamu Ibrahim Gamawa, Yahaya Yarima, Neil Andersson
Introduction: Maternal mortality in Nigeria is extremely high. Access to quality antenatal and obstetric care is limited. In Bauchi State, we found maternal morbidity was associated with domestic violence, heavy work in pregnancy, ignorance of danger signs, and lack of spousal communication. This cluster randomized controlled trial tested the impact of universal home visits that discussed these upstream risk factors with pregnant women and their spouses, to precipitate household actions protecting pregnant women...
2019: BMJ Global Health
Yan Liu, Guangzhou Guo, Zhijuan Zhong, Lijie Sun, Liya Liao, Xiaojin Wang, Qingdong Cao, Hongtao Chen
BACKGROUND: Gastric cancer (GC) is one of the most common digestive tract tumors, and a serious threat to human health. Long non-coding RNA (lncRNA) are involved in many cancers. However, the biological functions of most lncRNAs are unclear. In this study, we investigated the mechanisms by which FLVCR1-AS1 regulated GC progression. METHODS: FLVCR1-AS1 expression in GC tissues and 3 GC cell lines were measured by quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR). Invasion, proliferation, and apoptosis profiles were analyzed by commercial assays to determine the biological functions of FLVCR1-AS1 in GC cells...
2019: American Journal of Translational Research
Randall Waechter, Dilesha Kumanayaka, Colleen Angus-Yamada, Christine Wekerle, Savanah Smith
Objective: There is a well-documented link between child maltreatment and poor health across the lifespan. This provides a strong case for ongoing research with youth involved in the child welfare system to reduce negative outcomes and support resilience while being inclusive of youth voices. However, detailed inquiries about maltreatment history and health consequences may cause re-experiencing of events and psychological distress for study participants. Data that accounts for different contexts, such as severity of maltreatment history and current trauma symptomatology, have been limited in considering the question of potential harms to youth who participate in research-especially longitudinal studies...
2019: Child and Adolescent Psychiatry and Mental Health
Christina Grosserichter-Wagener, Djawad Radjabzadeh, Hessel van der Weide, Kyra N Smit, Robert Kraaij, John P Hays, Menno C van Zelm
Changes in the intestinal microbiota have been associated with the development of immune-mediated diseases in humans. Additionally, the introduction of defined bacterial species into the mouse intestinal microbiota has been shown to impact on the adaptive immune response. However, how much impact the intestinal microbiota composition actually has on regulating adaptive immunity remains poorly understood. Therefore, we studied aspects of the adaptive immunity in healthy adults possessing distinct intestinal microbiota profiles...
2019: Frontiers in Immunology
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