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Infectional disease of pediatric

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https://read.qxmd.com/read/30758340/pediatric-warts-update-on-interventions
#1
Nanette B Silverberg
Warts are superficial viral infections of the skin that are extremely common in children. The infection usually lasts more than 1 year and can be moderately contagious in specific settings; for instance, warts are particularly common and spread more easily in the setting of atopic dermatitis, a chronic, itchy pediatric skin condition caused by barrier and immune defects. Therapies for pediatric warts are characterized according to 6 major categories: destructive; immune stimulating; immune modulating, including normalization of epithelial growth; vascular destructive; irritant; and nitric oxide releasing...
January 2019: Cutis; Cutaneous Medicine for the Practitioner
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30755326/surgical-management-of-pulmonary-aspergillosis-in-pediatric-population
#2
S AlShanafey, N AlMoosa, Bin Hussain, H AlHindi
INTRODUCTION: Aspergillosis is an invasive infection that affects mainly immunocompromised patients, and the lung is the most common site of infection. We reviewed our experience with the surgical management of pulmonary aspergillosis (PA) in pediatric population at a tertiary care institution. METHODS: A retrospective chart review was conducted for pediatric patients (<16 years) who were managed for PA over the period from January 2001 to December 2016. Demographic, clinical, and outcome data were retrieved, and descriptive data were generated...
January 11, 2019: Journal of Pediatric Surgery
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30747983/hpv-vaccine-in-adolescents
#3
Paula K Braverman
Human papillomavirus (HPV), the most common sexually transmitted viral infection worldwide, is the causative agent for cervical cancer and attributed to anogenital cancers as well as oropharyngeal cancer. Three effective, safe, prophylactic HPV vaccines have been licensed, and studies have demonstrated decreases in HPV prevalence and HPV-related disease endpoints without evidence of waning protection to date. In the United States, only the 9-valent vaccine, which covers 90% of the cancers attributed to HPV in US registries, is available...
February 1, 2019: Pediatric Annals
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30746387/a-rare-case-of-bartonella-encephalitis-with-hemiplegia
#4
Laura Rosas, Kavya Rao, Christine McGough, Ashley Becker
The authors describe a 12-year-old girl with an atypical presentation of Bartonella encephalitis. She presented with fever and altered mental status and developed flaccid paralysis of her left upper extremity a day later. An electroencephalogram showed slowing over her right hemisphere. She had mild leukocytosis and bandemia, but her imaging and cerebrospinal studies were unrevealing. After five days, her symptoms resolved and she was discharged home on doxycycline due to suspicion for Bartonella encephalitis...
2019: Child Neurology Open
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30739513/respiratory-syncytial-virus-prophylaxis-for-children-with-chronic-lung-disease-have-we-got-the-criteria-right
#5
Bosco Paes, Xavier Carbonell-Estrany
The use of palivizumab for the prevention of respiratory syncytial virus-related hospitalization is well-established and has been adopted universally in pediatric position statements. Areas covered: The definition of chronic lung disease (CLD, bronchopulmonary dysplasia) has evolved over time and has significantly impacted the reported incidence of the condition, and the description of mild, moderate and severe disease in published studies. We reviewed lung function in infancy, childhood and adulthood of healthy preterm infants and those with CLD and how alterations in airway function, especially following respiratory syncytial virus infection may set the stage for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in adults...
February 9, 2019: Expert Review of Anti-infective Therapy
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30735686/nk-cells-in-treated-hiv-infected-children-display-altered-phenotype-and-function
#6
Sanjana Mahapatra, William T Shearer, Charles G Minard, Emily Mace, Mary Paul, Jordan S Orange
BACKGROUND: Chronic human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection is known to trigger a population redistribution and alteration in the functional capacity of NK cells. Due to improved anti-retroviral treatments, there are rising numbers of adolescents and young adults worldwide that are living with HIV infection since birth. OBJECTIVE: We sought to determine how NK cell phenotypic and functional subsets are altered in treated pediatric patients. METHODS: NK cells were contrasted among 29 HIV-unexposed and uninfected controls (5-19 years), 23 HIV-exposed but uninfected patients (HEU) (3-19 years) and 25 HIV-infected patients (3-19 years) using multi-parametric flow cytometry...
February 5, 2019: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30735240/fungemia-in-hematological-malignancies-seifem-2015-survey
#7
Marianna Criscuolo, Francesco Marchesi, Anna Candoni, Chiara Cattaneo, Annamaria Nosari, Barbara Veggia, Luisa Verga, Nicola Fracchiolla, Nicola Vianelli, Maria Ilaria Del Principe, Marco Picardi, Mario Tumbarello, Franco Aversa, Alessandro Busca, Livio Pagano
BACKGROUND: Fungal infections are still a relevant challenge for clinicians involved in the cure of patients with cancer. We retrospectively reviewed charts of hospitalized patients with hematological malignancies (HMs), in which a documented fungemia was diagnosed between January 2011 and December 2015 at 28 adult and 6 pediatric Italian Hematology Departments. METHODS: During the study period we recorded 215 fungal blood stream infections (BSI). Microbiological analyses documented that BSI was due to molds in 17 patients (8%) and yeasts in 198 patients (92%), being Candida spp identified in 174 patients (81%)...
February 8, 2019: European Journal of Clinical Investigation
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30734424/pediatric-non-hodgkin-lymphoma-characteristics-stratification-and-treatment-at-a-single-institute-in-thailand
#8
Worawut Choeyprasert, Usanarat Anurathapan, Samart Pakakasama, Nongnuch Sirachainan, Duantida Songdej, Surapong Lertthammakiat, Suradej Hongeng
BACKGROUND: In the modern era of chemotherapy, the outcome of pediatric non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) continues to improve internationally. Limited data such as information on epidemiology and survival, however, are available in Asian countries. METHODS: Children (≤15 years old) diagnosed with histologically proven NHL from 1998 to 2014 were retrospectively analyzed. RESULTS: In total, 114 patients were enrolled; they were predominantly male (65...
January 2019: Pediatrics International: Official Journal of the Japan Pediatric Society
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30732569/clinical-course-management-of-childhood-nephrotic-syndrome-in-germany-a-large-epidemiological-esped-study
#9
Ingo Franke, Malik Aydin, Lisa Kurylowicz, Corinna Elke Llamas Lopez, Rainer Ganschow, Michael J Lentze, Mark Born
BACKGROUND: Nephrotic syndrome (NS) is one of the most frequent occurring chronic kidney diseases in childhood, despite its rarely occurrence in the general population. Detailed information about clinical data of NS (e.g. average length of stay, complications) as well as of secondary nephrotic syndrome (SNS) is not well known. METHODS: A nationwide ESPED follow-up study presenting the clinical course and management of children with NS in Germany. RESULTS: In course of 2 years, 347 children developed the first onset of NS, hereof 326 patients (93...
February 7, 2019: BMC Nephrology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30724836/rsvpredict-an-online-tool-to-calculate-the-likelihood-of-respiratory-syncytial-virus-infection-in-children-hospitalized-with-acute-respiratory-disease
#10
Britta Manuel, Matthes Hackbusch, Julia Tabatabai, Johannes Hoos, Rebecca Peters, Sarah Valerie Schnee, Clara Marlene Ihling, Paul Schnitzler, Johannes Pfeil
BACKGROUND: Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is the leading cause of acute lower respiratory tract infection (ALRI) in young children. Early detection of RSV infection can avoid unnecessary diagnostic and therapeutic intervention, and is required to prevent the nosocomial spread of RSV infection in pediatric hospitals. We developed a web tool to calculate the probability of RSV infection in children hospitalized with acute respiratory tract infection (RSVpredict). METHODS: During winter seasons 2014/15 to 2017/18, 1545 children hospitalized with clinical symptoms of acute respiratory tract infection at the University Hospital Heidelberg/Germany were prospectively included...
February 4, 2019: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30724001/incidence-of-invasive-haemophilus-influenzae-infections-in-children-with-sickle-cell-disease
#11
Marianne E Yee, Nitya Bakshi, Sara H Graciaa, Peter A Lane, Robert C Jerris, Yun F Wang, Inci Yildirim
BACKGROUND: Children with sickle cell disease (SCD) are at increased risk for invasive infection with encapsulated bacteria. Antibiotic prophylaxis and immunizations against Streptococcus pneumoniae and Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) have decreased the overall incidence of invasive infections and have shifted distribution of serotypes causing disease toward those not covered by immunizations. We sought to determine the current incidence of invasive H. influenzae infections in children with SCD and to describe the clinical features and management of these infections...
February 5, 2019: Pediatric Blood & Cancer
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30720672/health-related-quality-of-life-among-survivors-of-pediatric-sepsis
#12
Elizabeth Y Killien, Reid W D Farris, R Scott Watson, Leslie A Dervan, Jerry J Zimmerman
OBJECTIVES: Mortality from pediatric sepsis has steadily declined over the past several decades; however, little is known about morbidity among survivors. We aimed to determine the prevalence of and risk factors for failure to recover to baseline health-related quality of life following community-acquired pediatric sepsis. DESIGN: Retrospective cohort study. SETTING: Seattle Children's Hospital. PATIENTS: Children aged 1 month to 21 years admitted to the inpatient wards or ICUs from 2012 to 2015 who met 2005 consensus sepsis criteria within 4 hours of hospitalization and were enrolled in the hospital's Outcomes Assessment Program with baseline, admission, and post-discharge health-related quality of life data available...
February 1, 2019: Pediatric Critical Care Medicine
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30718242/malglycemia-is-associated-with-poor-outcomes-in-pediatric-and-adolescent-hematopoietic-stem-cell-transplant-patients
#13
Jenna Sopfe, Laura Pyle, Amy K Keating, Kristen Campbell, Arthur K Liu, R Paul Wadwa, Michael R Verneris, Roger H Giller, Gregory P Forlenza
Malglycemia (hypoglycemia, hyperglycemia, and/or glycemic variability) in adult hematopoietic stem cell transplant (HSCT) recipients is associated with increased infection, graft-versus-host disease, organ dysfunction, delayed engraftment, and mortality. Malglycemia has not been studied in pediatric HSCT recipients. This study aimed to characterize the incidence and consequences of malglycemia in this population. Medical records for a cohort of 344 patients, age 0 to 30 years, who underwent first HSCT from 2007 to 2016 at Children's Hospital Colorado were retrospectively reviewed...
February 12, 2019: Blood Advances
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30714344/model-informed-assessment-of-anti-infectives-for-young-children-in-low-and-middle-income-countries
#14
Ping Zhao, Jonathan Arm, Lyou-Fu Ma, Stephen Ward, David Hermann, David Wesche, Dan Hartman, Steven Kern
Infectious diseases continue to threaten the lives of young children in low and middle-income countries (LMICs). Pediatric assessment of anti-infectives for these children should be initiated early. This assessment can center around an iterative dose-selection process that is informed by an integrated prediction platform based on physiologically-based pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic (PBPK-PD) models. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
February 3, 2019: CPT: Pharmacometrics & Systems Pharmacology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30705142/mutation-in-itch-gene-can-cause-syndromic-multisystem-autoimmune-disease-with-acute-liver-failure
#15
Nicola Kleine-Eggebrecht, Christian Staufner, Simone Kathemann, Magdeldin Elgizouli, Robert Kopajtich, Holger Prokisch, Elke Lainka
Pediatric intractable autoimmune hepatitis is rare and may be responsible for acute liver failure. Mutations in the itchy E3 ubiquitin protein ligase ( ITCH ) gene (located on chromosome 20q11.22) can lead to a deficiency of the encoded protein, resulting in increased T-cell activity with lack of immune tolerance and manifestation of a complex systemic autoimmune disease. A 1-year-old girl of consanguineous parents received a liver transplant (LT) because of acute liver failure attributed to a drug-induced hypereosinophilic syndrome with positive liver-kidney-mikrosome-2 antibodies...
January 31, 2019: Pediatrics
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30702169/guidance-for-assessment-of-erythroderma-in-neonates-and-infants-for-the-pediatric-immunologist
#16
REVIEW
Hagen Ott
Neonatal and infantile erythroderma (NIE) represent the common clinical phenotype of heterogenous diseases ranging from benign and transient skin conditions to fatal multiorgan disorders. NIE regularly demands a comprehensive diagnostic workup in a multiprofessional setting, especially if newborns and young infants with the disease develop a failure to thrive and concomitant infectious, neurological or metabolic complications. By obtaining a detailed medical history and performing a thorough clinical examination, targeted diagnostic steps can be scheduled for most affected children...
January 31, 2019: Pediatric Allergy and Immunology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30702047/graft-survival-in-patients-with-lower-urinary-tract-dysfunction
#17
Gulsah Kaya Aksoy, Mustafa Koyun, Ayhan Dinckan, Ibrahim Aliosmanoglu, Atilla Gemici, Erol Gultekin, Elif Comak, Sema Akman
OBJECTIVES: We aimed to the determine urinary tract infection and graft survival rates in pediatric renal transplant recipients with lower urinary tract dysfunction with particular focus on neurogenic bladder, posterior urethral valve, and vesicoureteral reflux nephropathy. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Patients were grouped according to primary diseases as those with and without lower urinary tract dysfunction. Urinary tract infections during year 1 posttransplant were investigated...
January 31, 2019: Experimental and Clinical Transplantation
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30700948/heart-failure-in-ethiopian-children-mirroring-the-unmet-cardiac-services
#18
Bezaye Nigussie, Henok Tadele
Background: HeartFailure (HF) is a progressive clinical and pathophysiological syndrome caused by cardiovascular and noncardiovascular abnormalities. Childhood HF has not been well studied in Sub-Sharan Africa, particularly in Ethiopia. Hence, this study aimed at describing the pattern and outcome of pediatrics HF at a referral-teaching hospital. Methods: Medical records of 216 HF children aged 2 months to 14 years, and admitted between January 2014 and January 2016 were reviewed...
January 2019: Ethiopian Journal of Health Sciences
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30696485/neuromyelitis-optica-spectrum-disorder-with-increased-aquaporin-4-microparticles-prior-to-autoantibodies-in-cerebrospinal-fluid-a-case-report
#19
Susanne Bejerot, Eva Hesselmark, Fariborz Mobarrez, Håkan Wallén, Max Albert Hietala, Rolf Nybom, Lennart Wetterberg
BACKGROUND: Neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorders are severe autoimmune inflammatory diseases of the central nervous system associated with the presence of immunoglobulin G antibodies against the water channel protein aquaporin-4. During exacerbation, specific aquaporin-4 immunoglobulin G may be produced intrathecally. We measured extracellular aquaporin-4 microparticles in the cerebrospinal fluid of a patient who later developed the typical symptoms and signs of a neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder...
January 30, 2019: Journal of Medical Case Reports
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30696410/clinical-etiological-and-antimicrobial-susceptibility-profile-of-pediatric-urinary-tract-infections-in-a-tertiary-care-hospital-of-nepal
#20
Lok Bahadur Shrestha, Ratna Baral, Prakash Poudel, Basudha Khanal
BACKGROUND: Urinary tract infection (UTI) is one of most common pediatric infections. The study was designed to assess the clinical profile, common bacterial microorganisms causing UTI and their antimicrobial susceptibility patterns at B. P. Koirala Institute of Health Sciences (BPKIHS) hospital. METHODS: This is a prospective cross-sectional study conducted at Department of Microbiology and Infectious Diseases for 6 months (January to June 2018). A total of 1962 non-repetitive urine specimens (midstream, nappy pad, catheter aspirated) of pediatric patients (0-14 years age) suspected of UTI were obtained in the Microbiology laboratory...
January 29, 2019: BMC Pediatrics
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