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3D visualization

Andreas Harloff, Paul Hagenlocher, Thomas Lodemann, Anja Hennemuth, Cornelius Weiller, Jürgen Hennig, Werner Vach
OBJECTIVES: Retrograde blood flow from complex atheroma in the descending aorta (DAo) has only recently been described as a potential mechanism of stroke. However, prevalence of this mechanism in the general population and the exact factors influencing stroke risk are unclear. METHODS: One hundred twenty-six consecutively recruited inhabitants of Freiburg, Germany, between 20 and 80 years of age prospectively underwent 3-T MRI. Aortic plaque location and thickness were determined by 3D T1 MRI (1 mm3 )...
March 15, 2019: European Radiology
Roberto D Tabernero Rico, Juan Antonio Juanes Méndez, Alberto Prats-Galino
A widely known alternative for reading and exchanging digital files is the PDF file, by Adobe. This type of file has become the most used for the electronic exchange of files. It is platform-independent, suitable for the exchange of medical data in electronic academic publication. PDF can support additional resources such image, media, even, three-dimensional surface mesh models. A three-dimensional model of the base of the skull is generated from computed tomography images to provide an overview of the PDF file format, with emphasis on biomedical images...
March 15, 2019: Journal of Medical Systems
Tianjiao Zeng, Hayden K-H So, Edmund Y Lam
We develop an image despeckling method that combines nonlocal self-similarity filters with machine learning, which makes use of convolutional neural network (CNN) denoisers. It consists of three major steps: block matching, CNN despeckling, and group shrinkage. Through the use of block matching, we can take advantage of the similarity across image patches as a regularizer to augment the performance of data-driven denoising using a pre-trained network. The outputs from the CNN denoiser and the group coordinates from block matching are further used to form 3D groups of similar patches, which are then filtered through a wavelet-domain shrinkage...
March 1, 2019: Applied Optics
Fernando Marmolejo-Ramos, Artin Arshamian, Carlos Tirado, Raydonal Ospina, Maria Larsson
Research on the metaphorical mapping of valenced concepts onto space indicates that positive, neutral, and negative concepts are mapped onto upward, midward, and downward locations, respectively. More recently, this type of research has been tested for the very first time in 3D physical space. The findings corroborate the mapping of valenced concepts onto the vertical space as described above but further show that positive and negative concepts are placed close to and away from the body; neutral concepts are placed midway...
2019: Frontiers in Psychology
Mian Wei, Lingyan Shi, Yihui Shen, Zhilun Zhao, Asja Guzman, Laura J Kaufman, Lu Wei, Wei Min
Three-dimensional visualization of tissue structures using optical microscopy facilitates the understanding of biological functions. However, optical microscopy is limited in tissue penetration due to severe light scattering. Recently, a series of tissue-clearing techniques have emerged to allow significant depth-extension for fluorescence imaging. Inspired by these advances, we develop a volumetric chemical imaging technique that couples Raman-tailored tissue-clearing with stimulated Raman scattering (SRS) microscopy...
March 14, 2019: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
N Bergsland, D Ramasamy, E Tavazzi, D Hojnacki, B Weinstock-Guttman, R Zivadinov
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Leptomeningeal inflammation is associated with the development of global cortical gray matter atrophy in multiple sclerosis. However, its association with localized loss of tissue remains unclear. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the relationship between leptomeningeal contrast enhancement, a putative marker of leptomeningeal inflammation, and focal cortical thinning in MS. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Forty-three patients with relapsing-remitting MS and 15 with secondary-progressive MS were imaged on a 3T scanner...
March 14, 2019: AJNR. American Journal of Neuroradiology
Zhiqiang Liu, Jiawei Fan, Minghui Li, Hui Yan, Zhihui Hu, Peng Huang, Yuan Tian, Junjie Miao, Jianrong Dai
PURPOSE: To develop a deep learning method for prediction of three-dimensional (3D) voxel-by-voxel dose distributions of helical tomotherapy (HT). METHODS: Using previously treated HT plans as training data, a deep learning model named U-ResNet-D was trained to predict a 3D dose distribution. First, the contoured structures and dose volumes were converted from plan database to 3D matrix with a program based on a developed visualization toolkit (VTK), then transferred to U-ResNet-D for correlating anatomical features and dose distributions at voxel-level...
March 14, 2019: Medical Physics
Ryan Beveridge, Shane Wilson, Michael Callaghan, Damien Coyle
Motion-onset visually evoked potentials (mVEPs) are neural potentials that are time-locked to the onset of motion of evoking stimuli. Due to their visually elegant properties, mVEP stimuli may be suited to video game control given gaming's inherent demand on the users' visual attention and the requirement to process rapidly changing visual information. Here, we investigate mVEPs associated with 5 different stimuli to control the position of a car in a visually rich 3D racing game in a group of 15 BCI naïve teenagers and compared to 19 BCI naive adults...
March 11, 2019: IEEE Transactions on Neural Systems and Rehabilitation Engineering
Matías Exequiel Rodríguez, Mariana Rizzi, Lucas Caeiro, Yamil Masip, Daniel O Sánchez, Valeria Tekiel
While cellular invasion by T. cruzi trypomastigotes and intracellular amastigote replication are well-characterized events that have been described by using 2D monolayer cultures, other relevant parasite-host interactions, like the dynamics of tissue invasiveness, cannot be captured using monolayer cultures. Spheroids constitute a valuable three-dimensional (3D) culture system because they mimic the microarchitecture of tissues and provide an environment similar to the encountered in natural infections, which includes the presence of extracellular matrix as well as 3D cell-cell interactions...
2019: Methods in Molecular Biology
John R Jungck, Roger Wagner, Denis van Loo, Bathsheba Grossman, Noppadon Khiripet, Jutarat Khiripet, Wongarnet Khantuwan, Margeurita Hagan
The illustrations of the late nineteenth-/twentieth-century scientist/artist Ernst Haeckel, as depicted in his book Art Forms in Nature (originally in German as Kunstformen der Natur, 1898-1904), have been at the intersection of art, biology, and mathematics for over a century. Haeckel's images of radiolaria (microscopic protozoans described as amoeba in glass houses) have influenced various artists for over a century (glass artists Leopold and Rudolph Blaschka; sculptor Henry Moore; architects Rene Binet, Zaha Hadid, Antoni Gaudi, Chris Bosse and Frank Gehry; and designers-filmmakers Charles and Ray Eames)...
March 13, 2019: Theory in Biosciences
Irene Reppa, E Charles Leek
The human visual system has an extraordinary capacity to compute three-dimensional (3D) shape structure for both geometrically regular and irregular objects. The goal of this study was to shed new light on the underlying representational structures that support this ability. Observers (N = 85) completed two complementary perceptual tasks. Experiment 1 involved whole-part matching of image parts to whole geometrically regular and irregular novel object shapes. Image parts comprised either regions of edge contour, volumetric parts, or surfaces...
March 12, 2019: Attention, Perception & Psychophysics
Prateek Mathur, Golnoosh Samei, Keith Tsang, Julio Lobo, Septimiu Salcudean
PURPOSE: Prostate cancer is the most prevalent form of male-specific cancers. Robot-assisted laparoscopic radical prostatectomy (RALRP) using the da Vinci surgical robot has become the gold-standard treatment for organ-confined prostate cancer. To improve intraoperative visualization of anatomical structures, many groups have developed techniques integrating transrectal ultrasound (TRUS) into the surgical workflow. TRUS, however, is intrusive and does not provide real-time volumetric imaging...
March 13, 2019: International Journal of Computer Assisted Radiology and Surgery
Javad Fotouhi, Mathias Unberath, Tianyu Song, Wenhao Gu, Alex Johnson, Greg Osgood, Mehran Armand, Nassir Navab
PURPOSE: As the trend toward minimally invasive and percutaneous interventions continues, the importance of appropriate surgical data visualization becomes more evident. Ineffective interventional data display techniques that yield poor ergonomics that hinder hand-eye coordination, and therefore promote frustration which can compromise on-task performance up to adverse outcome. A very common example of ineffective visualization is monitors attached to the base of mobile C-arm X-ray systems...
March 12, 2019: International Journal of Computer Assisted Radiology and Surgery
Daniel T I Bayley, Andrew O M Mogg, Heather Koldewey, Andy Purvis
Reef structural complexity provides important refuge habitat for a range of marine organisms, and is a useful indicator of the health and resilience of reefs as a whole. Marine scientists have recently begun to use 'Structure from Motion' (SfM) photogrammetry in order to accurately and repeatably capture the 3D structure of physical objects underwater, including reefs. There has however been limited research on the comparability of this new method with existing analogue methods already used widely for measuring and monitoring 3D structure, such as 'tape and chain rugosity index (RI)' and graded visual assessments...
2019: PeerJ
Chao An, Xin Li, Ping Liang, Jie Yu, Zhigang Cheng, Zhiyu Han, Fangyi Liu, Linan Dong
Purpose: This study aimed to investigate the clinical value of a tumor map for assessing the ablative effect after ultrasound-guided percutaneous microwave ablation (US-PMWA) for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Methods: The medical records of 68 patients (49 male and 19 female, 59.9±12.7 years) with HCC who underwent US-PMWA from May 2013 to May 2017 were reviewed. A tumor map was generated from the fusion of three-dimensional (3D) visualization images based on the preoperative target tumor and postoperative ablation area, to evaluate whether the ablation area covering the tumor has reached a 5 mm ablative margin (AM)...
2019: Cancer Management and Research
Issei Kan, Naoki Kato, Katharina Otani, Yukiko Abe, Toshihiro Ishibashi, Yuichi Murayama
BACKGROUND: Although intra-arterial 3D digital subtraction angiography (ia-3DDSA) using an angiographic C-arm system is still gold standard for postoperative confirmation of surgical clipping of intracranial aneurysms, ia-3DDSA requires catheterization and intra-arterial injection of contrast medium, which adds risks to the surgical procedure and takes time. We propose a less invasive acquisition of 3D DSA with intravenous injection (iv-3DDSA) in the hybrid operating room to confirm the results of surgical clipping immediately after the surgery...
March 9, 2019: World Neurosurgery
Justin Shing Yan Wong, Janice Chi Kay Lau, King Him Chui, Kwok Leung Tiu, Kin Bong Lee, Wilson Li
BACKGROUND: Three-dimensional (3D)-guided navigation percutaneous screw fixation of pelvi-acetabular fractures has been reported in patients with high-energy trauma. Its use in fragility fractures of the pelvis is expanding and its results are promising. METHODS: We report a series of 17 consecutive patients with fragility fractures of the pelvis treated with 3D-guided navigation percutaneous screw fixation from 2016 to 2017. Percutaneous screw trajectories were planned preoperatively for the majority of patients...
January 2019: Journal of Orthopaedic Surgery
Carlos Casares-Hidalgo, Alejandro Pérez-Ramos, Manuel Forner-Gumbau, Francisco J Pastor, Borja Figueirido
In this study, we explore the relationship between orbit anatomy and different ecological factors in carnivorous mammals from a phylogenetic perspective. We calculated the frontation (α), convergence (β), and orbitotemporal (Ω) angles of the orbit from 3D coordinates of anatomical landmarks in a wide sample of carnivores with different kinds of visual strategy (i.e. photopic, scotopic, and mesopic), habitat (i.e. open, mixed, and closed), and substrate use (i.e. arboreal, terrestrial, and aquatic). We used Bloomberg's K and Pagel's λ to assess phylogenetic signal in frontation, convergence, and orbitotemporal angles...
March 12, 2019: Journal of Anatomy
Yoshiro Itatani, Kazutaka Obama, Tatsuto Nishigori, Riki Ganeko, Shigeru Tsunoda, Hisahiro Hosogi, Shigeo Hisamori, Kyoichi Hashimoto, Yoshiharu Sakai
Laparoscopic gastrectomy for gastric cancer is now widely accepted and has become a standard surgery. This study investigated the advantages of three-dimensional (3D) stereoscopic visualization for laparoscopic gastrectomy over a conventional two-dimensional (2D) planar screen. The primary outcome of this study was operative time. Ninety-four consecutive cases of gastric cancer patients who underwent laparoscopic total gastrectomy (LTG) (25 cases) or laparoscopic distal gastrectomy (LDG) (69 cases) were enrolled in this study before and after the introduction of the 3D system...
March 11, 2019: Scientific Reports
Roberto Conte, Filippo Forin Valvecchi, Antonio L Gracco, Giovanni Bruno, Alberto De Stefani
BACKGROUND: Temporo-mandibular disorders (TMD) is a collective term comprehending different clinical issues involving masticatory muscles, temporo-mandibular joint (TMJ) and other associated structures. TMD diagnosis is not made for its pathogenesis or etiology, but mainly on clinical symptoms. Primary dysfunction develops mostly on four factors: individual predisposition, high psychomotor activity (due to stress or parafunction), occlusal instability and low or absent tissue adaptation capability...
April 2019: Minerva Stomatologica
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