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Liliya V Vasileva, Mariya V Ivanovska, Marianna A Murdjeva, Kremena E Saracheva, Milen I Georgiev
The interplay of chronic stress, neuroinflammation and altered immune reactivity has been shown to be important for the pathophysiology of brain disorders such as schizophrenia, depressive disorders and post-traumatic stress disorder. This immuno-inflammatory theory has been extensively studied in the past three decades leading to the formation of the integrative discipline of psychoneuroimmunology. Targeting of the central nervous system by conventional pharmacotherapeutic methods is mainly through modulation of neuroendocrine systems such as the dopaminergic, GABA-ergic, adrenergic and serotoninergic systems...
March 8, 2019: Food and Chemical Toxicology
Lukas Engler, Daniel A Heinrich, Christian Adolf, Anna Riester, Anna Franke, Marcel Pawlowski, Felix Beuschlein, Martin Reincke, Axel Steiger, Heike Künzel
The mineralocorticoid receptor (MR)/glucocorticoid receptor balance plays an important role in the pathophysiology of anxiety and depression. Aldosterone, a primary MR ligand, seems to be related to the pathophysiology of anxiety and depressive symptoms. The objective of this study was to investigate effects of aldosterone excess on sleep EEG, as sleep EEG is a tool to gain insight into psychoneuroendocrine function. Here, 19 untreated patients (9 males, 10 females) suffering from primary aldosteronism were investigated using sleep EEG and several rating scales for anxiety, depression, quality of life and sleep before starting specific treatment...
February 23, 2019: Journal of Psychiatric Research
Nusiebeh Redpath, Hannah S Rackers, Mary C Kimmel
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Our current understanding of the underlying mechanisms and etiologies of perinatal mood and anxiety disorders (PMADs) is not clearly identified. The relationship of stress-induced adaptations (i.e., the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, the autonomic nervous system (ANS), the immune system) and the microbiota are potential contributors to psychopathology exhibited in women during pregnancy and postpartum and should be investigated. RECENT FINDINGS: The stress response activates the HPA axis and dysregulates the ANS, leading to the inhibition of the parasympathetic system...
March 2, 2019: Current Psychiatry Reports
Johanna M Gostner, Simon Geisler, Marlies Stonig, Lisa Mair, Barbara Sperner-Unterweger, Dietmar Fuchs
In the past, accelerated tryptophan breakdown was considered to be a feature of clinical conditions, such as infection, inflammation, and malignant disease. More recently, however, the focus has changed to include the additional modulation of tryptophan metabolism by changes in nutrition and microbiota composition. The regulation of tryptophan concentration is critical for the maintenance of systemic homeostasis because it integrates essential pathways involved in nutrient sensing, metabolic stress response, and immunity...
February 26, 2019: Neuropsychobiology
Norbert Müller
Infection and inflammation resulting from a malfunctioning of the immune system have been discussed as pathological factors in psychosis for more than 130 years. The first immune-modulating therapeutic approaches for psychosis were developed more than 100 years ago, but the breakthrough of antipsychotic treatment in the 1950s shifted the emphasis of research to catecholaminergic neurotransmission. In the 1990s, however, the unsatisfactory therapeutic effects of antipsychotics, and the fact that the pathological mechanisms of psychosis were still unknown, reignited the scientific interest in other topics, including inflammation...
February 19, 2019: Current Topics in Behavioral Neurosciences
Michael H Antoni, Firdaus S Dhabhar
The range of psychosocial stress factors/processes (eg, chronic stress, distress states, coping, social adversity) were reviewed as they relate to immune variables in cancer along with studies of psychosocial interventions on these stress processes and immune measures in cancer populations. The review includes molecular, cellular, and clinical research specifically examining the effects of stress processes and stress-management interventions on immune variables (eg, cellular immune function, inflammation), which may or may not be changing directly in response to the cancer or its treatment...
February 15, 2019: Cancer
Daniele Mattei, Tina Notter
The hypothesis that the neuroimmune system plays a role in the pathogenesis of different psychiatric disorders, including schizophrenia, depression, and bipolar disease, has attained increasing interest over the past years. Previously thought to have the sole purpose of protecting the central nervous system (CNS) from harmful stimuli, it is now known that the central immune system is critically involved in regulating physiological processes including neurodevelopment, synaptic plasticity, and circuit maintenance...
February 10, 2019: Current Topics in Behavioral Neurosciences
Jelena Meštrović-Štefekov, Gaby Novak-Bilić, Matea Kuna, Nives Pap, Liborija Lugović-Mihić
Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a frequent dermatosis with a growing incidence and multifactorial and complex pathogenic mechanisms that are still being investigated. Although the connection between AD and psychological stress has been known for a long time, there is a lack of reliable and objective indicators for the characterization of this association. Psychological stress triggers complex immune pathways. Therefore, acute stress quickly triggers a high release of cortisol and adrenalin or noradrenalin which then stimulates the immune system, primarily T-helper type 1 (Th1 cells) to produce pro-inflammatory cytokines, resulting in a cellular immune response and inflammation...
December 2018: Acta Dermatovenerologica Croatica: ADC
Mohammed Al-Alawi, Hamed Al Sinawi, Roshe Rashid
Bipolar affective disorder (BPAD) is a chronic debilitating psychiatric illness seriously affecting the quality of patients' life. The available treatment is effective in about half of those suffering from the illness. The neurobiological basis of the disorder is not fully unraveled. With such lacunae, attempts have been made to decipher the underlying neuroimmunological process of the illness as is the case with other mental disorders. As a result, some inflammatory processes have been implicated in the etiology of BPAD, as described in this communication...
December 2018: Molecular Neuropsychiatry
Zhimin Tim Cao, Stephanie E Wemm, Liqiao Han, David C Spink, Edelgard Wulfert
Liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) for measurements of steroids in human saliva has garnered increased interest in the area of clinical psychoneuroendocrinological research. However, performance characteristics of LC-MS/MS methods for the analysis of steroids in saliva are limited. Human saliva samples were collected via passive drool. Cortisol and dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEA-S) in the samples were extracted together, resolved on a C18-A column, and analyzed using tandem mass spectrometry...
January 5, 2019: Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry
K N Loganovsky, M O Bomko, I V Abramenko, K V Kuts, N I Belous, S V Masiuk, M V Gresko, T K Loganovska, K Yu Antypchuk, I V Perchuk, G Yu Kreinis, S A Chumak
Relevance of the present work is determined by the considerable prevalence of both affective and cognitive disor-ders in the victims due to the Chornobyl accident, the pathogenesis of which is insufficiently studied.Objective is to identify the neuropsychiobiological mechanisms of the formation of the remote affective and cog-nitive disorders following exposure to ionizing radiation taking into account the specific gene polymorphisms.Design, object and methods of research. The retrospective and prospective cohort study with the external andinternal control groups...
December 2018: Problemy Radiat︠s︡iĭnoï Medyt︠s︡yny Ta Radiobiolohiï
Matti Sillanpää, Maiju M Saarinen, Mira Karrasch, Dieter Schmidt, Bruce P Hermann
OBJECTIVE: To study associations of the severity of impairment in childhood neurocognition (NC) with long-term mortality and complete seizure remission. METHODS: A population-based cohort of 245 subjects with childhood onset epilepsy was followed up for 50 years (median = 45, range = 2-50). Childhood NC before age 18 years was assessed as a combination of formal intelligence quotient scores and functional criteria (school achievement, working history, and psychoneurological development)...
November 22, 2018: Epilepsia
Holger Steinberg
This article provides an analysis of the content of 15 letters and postcards written by the Leipzig neurologist Paul Julius Möbius to his Zurich-based colleague Auguste-Henri Forel between 1889 and 1902. Moreover, they are set in the context of the works of the two correspondence partners. The 15 documents preserved at the University of Zurich Medico-Historical Institute and Museum comprise one half of the correspondence, whereas the letters Forel sent in response do not seem to have been preserved. So far, biographic research has neglected the letters analyzed here...
December 17, 2018: Der Nervenarzt
Christian Schubert, Carmen Hagen
This "integrative single-case study" investigated the bidirectional cause and effect relations between various emotional states (i.e., mood, irritation, mental activity) and urinary IL-6 levels in a 49-year-old female breast cancer survivor (woman) under conditions of "life as it is lived." During a period of 28 days, the patient collected her entire urine in 12-h intervals for IL-6 measurement and completed each morning and evening a list of adjectives regarding mood, irritation, and mental activity (55 measurements in total)...
2018: Frontiers in Neuroscience
Mravec Boris, Tibenský Miroslav, Horváthová Ľubica
BACKGROUND: Gallen observed that psychosocial factors influence tumor incidence. Findings of the last decades have enabled us to understand the mechanisms and pathways responsible for this influence. Ader, Solomon, Besedovsky, and other pioneers of psychoneuroimmunology demonstrated that the nervous system can regulate the activity of immune cells. Based on their findings, the mechanisms via which psychosocial stressors potentiate tumor growth indirectly through inhibition of anti-tumor immune cells have been reported...
2018: Klinická Onkologie: Casopis Ceské a Slovenské Onkologické Spolecnosti
Stefanie Stanzer, Elisabeth Andritsch, Silke Zloklikovits, Verena Ladinek, Clemens Farkas, Thomas Augustin, Barbara Obermayer-Pietsch, Hellmut Samonigg, Thomas Bauernhofer
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to determine a potential benefit of the specific psycho-educational intervention "Learning to Live with Cancer" (LTLWC) for patients with operated non-metastatic breast cancer, with respect to psychological variables and endocrine and immune parameters. METHODS: Fifty-two postmenopausal women with operated stage I - III breast cancer were randomized to either a breast cancer intervention group (BCIG, n=30) who immediately began participating in the LTLWC intervention program or to a breast cancer control group (BCCG, n=22)...
November 27, 2018: Psychosomatic Medicine
Danielle Tometich, Brent J Small, Judith E Carroll, Wanting Zhai, George Luta, Xingtao Zhou, Lindsay C Kobayashi, Tim Ahles, Andrew J Saykin, Jonathan D Clapp, Heather S L Jim, Paul B Jacobsen, Arti Hurria, Deena Graham, Brenna C McDonald, Neelima Denduluri, Martine Extermann, Claudine Isaacs, Asma Dilawari, James Root, Christine Rini, Jeanne S Mandelblatt
CONTEXT: Symptoms affect quality of life (QOL), functional status, and cognitive function in cancer survivors, but older survivors are understudied. OBJECTIVES: To identify prototypical pre-systemic therapy psychoneurological symptom clusters among older breast cancer survivors, and determine whether these symptom clusters predicted cognition and QOL over time. METHODS: Women with newly diagnosed non-metastatic breast cancer (n=319) and matched non-cancer controls (n=347) aged 60+ completed questionnaires and neuropsychological tests before systemic therapy and 12- and 24-months later...
November 22, 2018: Journal of Pain and Symptom Management
Yaroslava Yu Marunkevych
OBJECTIVE: Introduction: Suicidal behavior in schizophrenia is one of the most urgent problems of modern psychiatry. The aim of the study was to study the suicidal activity of patients with paranoid schizophrenia in the context of clinical symptoms. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Materials and methods: The medical documentation of 407 men and 409 women who were diagnosed as "paranoid schizophrenia" in the period 1967-2017 on the basis of the Vinnytsia Regional Psychoneurological Hospital was studied by the method of continuous analysis; the prevalence of separate symptoms was analyzed in accordance with the standard ICD-10 criteria in the context of the presence of suicidal thoughts and suicidal actions...
2018: Wiadomości Lekarskie: Organ Polskiego Towarzystwa Lekarskiego
Sandra Zänkert, Silja Bellingrath, Stefan Wüst, Brigitte M Kudielka
Stress is an ubiquitous phenomenon with significant impact on human physiology when it lasts too long, when it is too intense, or when it hits vulnerable individuals. Examining the mechanisms linking stress exposure with health and disease is an important endeavor in psychoneuroendocrine research. Empirical evidence so far revealed large intra- as well as inter-individual variability in hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis responses to acute psychosocial stress, showing that the HPA axis is a highly adaptive system...
October 29, 2018: Psychoneuroendocrinology
Gee Su Yang, Sreelakshmy Kumar, Susan G Dorsey, Angela R Starkweather, Debra Lynch Kelly, Debra E Lyon
PURPOSE: Psychoneurological (PN) symptoms, such as anxiety, cognitive impairment, depression, fatigue, sleep disturbances, and pain, are highly prevalent in breast cancer patients undergoing cancer treatment. Emerging evidence suggests that genetic polymorphisms may contribute to differential symptom susceptibility. We aimed to systematically review associations between genetic polymorphisms and PN symptoms during or after cancer treatment for early-stage breast cancer. METHODS: Twenty-six eligible articles published until October 2017 were identified in PubMed, PsycINFO, Web of Science, and additional records...
October 20, 2018: Supportive Care in Cancer: Official Journal of the Multinational Association of Supportive Care in Cancer
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