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Thermal physiology

G Brambila-Souza, C C Mylonas, P H Mello, R Y Kuradomi, S R Batlouni, C E Tolussi, R G Moreira
Lambari-do-rabo-amarelo Astyanax altiparanae in the wild reproduce during spring and summer, but females undergo vitellogenesis throughout the year, including the non-spawning winter period when water temperatures are low. The present study investigated the physiological role of temperature modulation on the hypothalamus-pituitary-gonads axis of lambari during winter, as well as the effects of gonadotropin releasing hormone agonist (GnRHa) therapy. Captive females were exposed to two different temperatures (20°C and 27°C) and were injected weekly with GnRHa for 21 days during winter (Control, CTR; Low dose; LD and high dose of GnRHa, HD)...
February 12, 2019: General and Comparative Endocrinology
Qin-Yi Chen, Chao-Yang Tan, Yang Wang, Ke-Tao Ma, Li Li, Jun-Qiang Si
Transmembrane member 16A (TMEM16A) is involved in many physiological functions, such as epithelial secretion, sensory conduction, nociception, control of neuronal excitability, and regulation of smooth muscle contraction, and may be important in peripheral pain transmission. To explore the role of TMEM16A in the persistent hyperalgesia that results from chronic constriction injury-induced neuropathic pain, a rat model of the condition was established by ligating the left sciatic nerve. A TMEM16A selective antagonist (10 μg T16Ainh-A01) was intrathecally injected at L5-6...
June 2019: Neural Regeneration Research
Shireesh Srivastava, Richard L Veech
Brown adipose tissue (BAT) is proposed to maintain thermal homeostasis through dissipation of chemical energy as heat by the uncoupling proteins (UCPs) present in their mitochondria. The recent demonstration of the presence of BAT in humans has invigorated research in this area. The research has provided many new insights into the biology and functioning of this tissue and the biological implications of its altered activities. Another finding of interest is browning of white adipose tissue (WAT) resulting in what is known as beige/brite cells, which have increased mitochondrial proteins and UCPs...
2019: Frontiers in Physiology
Imanuel Lerman, Bryan Davis, Mingxiong Huang, Charles Huang, Linda Sorkin, James Proudfoot, Edward Zhong, Donald Kimball, Ramesh Rao, Bruce Simon, Andrea Spadoni, Irina Strigo, Dewleen G Baker, Alan N Simmons
The mechanisms by which noninvasive vagal nerve stimulation (nVNS) affect central and peripheral neural circuits that subserve pain and autonomic physiology are not clear, and thus remain an area of intense investigation. Effects of nVNS vs sham stimulation on subject responses to five noxious thermal stimuli (applied to left lower extremity), were measured in 30 healthy subjects (n = 15 sham and n = 15 nVNS), with fMRI and physiological galvanic skin response (GSR). With repeated noxious thermal stimuli a group × time analysis showed a significantly (p < ...
2019: PloS One
Valerio Zupo, Mirko Mutalipassi, Nadia Ruocco, Francesca Glaviano, Antonino Pollio, Antonio Luca Langellotti, Giovanna Romano, Maria Costantini
Organisms adaptable to extreme conditions share the ability to establish protective biofilms or secrete defence toxins. The extracellular substances that are secreted may contain monosaccharides and other toxic compounds, but environmental conditions influence biofilm characteristics. Microorganisms that are present in the same environment achieve similar compositions, regardless of their phylogenetic relationships. Alternatively, cyanobacteria phylogenetically related may live in different environments, but we ignore if their physiological answers may be similar...
February 8, 2019: Toxins
Hiroshi Saito
To elucidate location and characteristics of the central thermoregulatory sudomotor pathway in the human brainstem, thermoregulatory sweating (TS) in 91 patients with focal brainstem lesions was studied. TS was symmetric or minimally asymmetric in 40 subjects (Group S), and was apparently asymmetric in 51 patients (Group AS). In Group AS, the main abnormality was ipsilateral segmental hypohidrosis with a varying extent, involving predominantly the upper half of the body. Lesion locations, correlations between thermoregulatory sweat test results, and other autonomic and somatic functions were compared between the groups...
March 2019: Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic & Clinical
Juanying Ou, Mingfu Wang, Jie Zheng, Shiyi Ou
Polyphenols are hot research topics worldwide owing to their physiological and pharmaceutical activities. Polyphenols and polyphenol-enriched by-products have been widely used in bakery foods because of their neutraceutical properties. This review summarizes the classification, biosynthesis, main source and analysis of polyphenols and intensively discusses the effects of their incorporation in baked foods. The positive effects of polyphenol incorporation include elevation of antioxidant activity of baked foods, scavenging of food-borne toxins produced during thermal processing and decreasing postprandial serum glucose level...
June 30, 2019: Food Chemistry
Robine H J Leeuwis, Gordon W Nash, Rebeccah M Sandrelli, Fábio S Zanuzzo, Anthony K Gamperl
Given the potential impacts of global warming, such as increases in temperature and the frequency/severity of hypoxia in marine ecosystems, it is important to study the impacts of these environmental challenges on sea-cage reared aquaculture species. This study focuses on the sablefish (Anoplopoma fimbria), an emerging aquaculture species that has a unique ecology in the wild. For instance, adults inhabit oxygen minimum zones and cool waters at depths up to 1500 m. Using Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) (~1132 g adults) as a comparative species, we used intermittent-flow respirometry to characterize the tolerance and metabolic response of sablefish (~10 g juveniles and ~675 g adults) to acute increases in temperature (2 °C h-1 ) and decreases in oxygen level (~10% air saturation h-1 )...
February 8, 2019: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part A, Molecular & Integrative Physiology
Cody L Barnes, Nicholas W Blay, Shawn M Wilder
Temperature strongly influences the physiology and behavior of ectotherms. Persistence within different environments can be limited by thermal tolerances. These thermal tolerances can also shift through life stages and differ between sexes. The critical thermal maximum (CTMax ) defines the temperature at which animals experience unorganized locomotion or spasms. In this study, we tested if CTMax varied between a native and an invasive widow species. We separately tested if CTMax varied by widow life stage and sex...
February 8, 2019: Journal of Insect Physiology
Aleš Urban, David M Hondula, Hana Hanzlíková, Jan Kyselý
We compared selected thermal indices in their ability to predict heat-related mortality in Prague, Czech Republic, during the extraordinary summer 2015. Relatively, novel thermal indices-Universal Thermal Climate Index and Excess Heat Factor (EHF)-were compared with more traditional ones (apparent temperature, simplified wet-bulb globe temperature (WBGT), and physiologically equivalent temperature). The relationships between thermal indices and all-cause relative mortality deviations from the baseline (excess mortality) were estimated by generalized additive models for the extended summer season (May-September) during 1994-2014...
February 9, 2019: International Journal of Biometeorology
F Clarac, A Quilhac
The crocodylians are ectothermic semi-aquatic vertebrates which are assessed to have evolved from endothermic terrestrial forms during the Mesozoic. Such a physiological transition should have involved modifications in their cardio-vascular system allowing to increase the heat transfers with the surrounding environment by growing a peripheral vascularization which would be mainly located in the dermal skeleton: the dermatocranium and the osteoderms. In order to assess the implication of these anatomical regions in thermal exchanges, we have recorded the temperature above a set of representative skin areas in order to draw comparisons between the skull, the osteoderms, and the rest of the body parts which present either none or residual dermal ossification...
February 2019: Zoology: Analysis of Complex Systems, ZACS
Roberto Guizzardi, Luca Vaghi, Marcello Marelli, Antonino Natalello, Ivan Andreosso, Antonio Papagni, Laura Cipolla
Gelatin is a biopolymer with interesting properties that can be useful for biomaterial design for different applications such as drug delivery systems, or 3D scaffolds for tissue engineering. However, gelatin suffers from poor mechanical stability at physiological temperature, hence methods for improving its properties are highly desirable. In the present work, a new chemical cross-linking strategy based on triazolinedione ene-type chemistry towards stable hydrogel is proposed. Two different homobifunctional 1,2,4-triazoline-3,5(4 H )-diones, namely 4,4'-hexane-1,6-diylbis(3 H -1,2,4-triazoline-3,5(4 H )-dione) 1 and 4,4'-[methylenebis(4,1-phenylene)] bis (3 H -1,2,4-triazoline-3,5(4 H )-dione) 2 were used as cross-linkers in different ratio to tyrosine residues in gelatin...
February 7, 2019: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
Lucy Alford, Richard Marley, Anthony Dornan, Jean-Sébastien Pierre, Julian A T Dow, Ronald J Nachman, Shireen A Davies
BACKGROUND: Neuropeptides are regulators of critical life processes in insects and, due to their high specificity, represent potential targets in the development of greener insecticidal agents. Fundamental to this drive is understanding neuroendocrine pathways that control key physiological processes in pest insects and the screening of potential analogues. The current study investigated neuropeptide binding sites of kinin and CAPA (CAPA-1) in the aphids Myzus persicae and Macrosiphum rosae and the effect of biostable analogues on aphid fitness under conditions of desiccation, starvation and thermal (cold) stress...
February 7, 2019: Pest Management Science
Fan-Wei Wang, Chia-Wei Hsu, Chih-Chen Hsieh
Stimuli-responsive polymers are capable of responding to external stimuli and therefore have been widely used for sensing. However, such applications are often based on naïve designs and cannot achieve desired performance. In this study, we created a micro thermosensor with temperature-sensitive poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) (PNIPAM) hydrogel and temperature-insensitive poly(ethylene glycol) diacrylate (PEGDA) hydrogel using stop-flow lithography(SFL). The thermosensor is a bihydrogel microparticle consisting of a NIPAM-rich section and a NIPAM-poor section...
February 6, 2019: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Julien Allard
KEY POINTS: Spinal cord lamina I neurons receiving dense input from nociceptors, and projecting to the parabrachial area at the ponto-mesencephalic junction form the major ascending pain-related pathway in rodents. Lamina I spinoparabrachial neurons have never been characterised in mice, despite the growing and extensive use of this species to understand the contribution of lamina I spinoparabrachial neurons in chronic pain. The electrophysiological properties of lamina I spinoparabrachial neurons recorded here in the anaesthetized mice are comparable to those of rat or cat, forming a nociceptive and thermoreceptive pathway...
February 4, 2019: Journal of Physiology
Rita I Monarca, John R Speakman, Maria da Luz Mathias
Rodents colonising subterranean environments have developed several morphological, physiological and behaviour traits that promote the success of individuals in such demanding conditions. Resting metabolic rate, thermoregulation capacity and daily energy expenditure were analysed in two semi-fossorial pine-vole species Microtus lusitanicus and Microtus duodecimcostatus inhabiting distinct areas of the Iberian Peninsula. Individuals capture location varied in habitat and soil features, allowing the comparison of energetic parameters with ecological characteristics, that can help explain the use of the subterranean environment and dependence of the burrow system...
February 4, 2019: Journal of Comparative Physiology. B, Biochemical, Systemic, and Environmental Physiology
Hannah E Aichelman, Richard C Zimmerman, Daniel J Barshis
Variation in environmental characteristics and divergent selection pressures can drive adaptive differentiation across a species' range. Astrangia poculata is a temperate scleractinian coral that provides unique opportunities to understand the roles of phenotypic plasticity and evolutionary adaptation in coral physiological tolerance limits. A. poculata inhabits hard bottom ecosystems from the northwestern Atlantic to the Gulf of Mexico and withstands an annual temperature range up to 20°C. Additionally, A...
February 4, 2019: Journal of Experimental Biology
Katia Rubini, Elisa Boanini, Adriana Bigi
Dicalcium phosphate dihydrate (DCPD) is one of the mineral phases indicated as possible precursors of biological apatites and it is widely employed in the preparation of calcium phosphate bone cements. Herein, we investigated the possibility to functionalize DCPD with aspartic acid (ASP) and poly-aspartic acid (PASP), as models of the acidic macromolecules of biomineralized tissues, and studied their influence on DCPD hydrolysis. To this aim, the synthesis of DCPD was performed in aqueous solution in the presence of increasing concentrations of PASP and ASP, whereas the hydrolysis reaction was carried out in physiological solution up to three days...
February 1, 2019: Journal of Functional Biomaterials
Steve Tumilty, Divya Bharatkumar Adhia, James M Smoliga, Angela Spontelli Gisselman
OBJECTIVES: To determine normal temperatures over the Achilles tendon over nine weeks. DESIGN: A prospective cohort study with nine weeks of observation. SETTING: University's Human Biomechanics and Physiology Laboratory. PARTICIPANTS: Male or female competitive runners running at least 25 miles per week who did not report pain in the region of the Achilles over 9 weeks of data collection. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: Thermal images taken at the same time and day of the week, were used to measure the temperature of the skin over the Achilles tendon...
January 28, 2019: Physical Therapy in Sport
Eric J Gangloff, Mahaut Sorlin, Gerardo A Cordero, Jérémie Souchet, Fabien Aubret
Warming climates are facilitating the range expansion of many taxa to habitats that were formerly thermally inhospitable, including to higher latitudes and elevations. The potential for such colonization, however, varies widely among taxa. Because environmental factors may interact to affect colonization potential, an understanding of underlying physiological and behavioral mechanisms is necessary to predict how species will respond to potentially suitable habitats. For example, temperature and oxygen availability will interact to shape physiological and performance traits...
March 2019: Physiological and Biochemical Zoology: PBZ
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