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optogenetics seizure

Michael Chang, Suzie Dufour, Peter L Carlen, Taufik A Valiante
Controlling seizures remains a challenging issue for the medical community. To make progress, researchers need a way to extensively study seizure dynamics and investigate its underlying mechanisms. Acute seizure models are convenient, offer the ability to perform electrophysiological recordings, and can generate a large volume of electrographic seizure-like (ictal) events. The promising findings from acute seizure models can then be advanced to chronic epilepsy models and clinical trials. Thus, studying seizures in acute models that faithfully replicate the electrographic and dynamical signatures of a clinical seizure will be essential for making clinically relevant findings...
January 19, 2019: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
Maxime Lévesque, Massimo Avoli
High-pass filtering (> 80 Hz) of EEG signals has enabled neuroscientists to analyze high-frequency oscillations (HFOs; i.e., ripples: 80-200 Hz and fast ripples: 250-500 Hz) in epileptic patients presenting with focal seizures and in animal models mimicking this condition. Evidence obtained from these studies indicate that HFOs mirror pathological network activity that may initiate and sustain ictogenesis and epileptogenesis. HFOs are observed in temporal lobe regions of epileptic animals during interictal periods but they also occur before seizure onset and during the ictal period, suggesting that they can pinpoint to the mechanisms of seizure generation...
December 24, 2018: Neurobiology of Disease
Mitra L Miri, Martin Vinck, Rima Pant, Jessica A Cardin
Although failure of GABAergic inhibition is a commonly hypothesized mechanism underlying seizure disorders, the series of events that precipitate a rapid shift from healthy to ictal activity remain unclear. Furthermore, the diversity of inhibitory interneuron populations poses a challenge for understanding local circuit interactions during seizure initiation. Using a combined optogenetic and electrophysiological approach, we examined the activity of identified mouse hippocampal interneuron classes during chemoconvulsant seizure induction in vivo...
November 2, 2018: ELife
Vincent Magloire, Marion S Mercier, Dimitri M Kullmann, Ivan Pavlov
Seizures are complex pathological network events characterized by excessive and hypersynchronized activity of neurons, including a highly diverse population of GABAergic interneurons. Although the primary function of inhibitory interneurons under normal conditions is to restrain excitation in the brain, this system appears to fail intermittently, allowing runaway excitation. Recent developments in optogenetics, combined with genetic tools and advanced electrophysiological and imaging techniques, allow us for the first time to assess the causal roles of identified cell-types in network dynamics...
October 15, 2018: Neuroscientist: a Review Journal Bringing Neurobiology, Neurology and Psychiatry
Alexander G Zestos, Hiram Luna-Munguia, William C Stacey, Robert T Kennedy
Epilepsy is a common neurological disease characterized by recurrent unpredictable seizures. For the last 30 years, microdialysis sampling has been used to measure changes in excitatory and inhibitory neurotransmitter concentrations before, during, and after seizures. These advances have fostered breakthroughs in epilepsy research by identifying neurochemical changes associated with seizures and correlating them to electrophysiological data. Recent advances in methodology may be useful in further delineating the chemical underpinnings of seizures...
July 23, 2018: ACS Chemical Neuroscience
Lulu Wang, Kang Huang, Cheng Zhong, Liping Wang, Yi Lu
<AbstractText Label="Abstract" NlmCategory="UNASSIGNED">Recent advances in optogenetics have established a precisely timed and cell-specific methodology for understanding the functions of brain circuits and the mechanisms underlying neuropsychiatric disorders. However, the fabrication of optrodes, a key functional element in optogenetics, remains a great challenge. Here, we report reliable and efficient fabrication strategies for chronically implantable optrode arrays. To improve the performance of the fabricated optrode arrays, surfaces of the recording sites were modified using optimized electrochemical processes...
2018: Biophysics Reports
Fredrik Berglind, My Andersson, Merab Kokaia
The detailed mechanisms of progressive intensification of seizures often occurring in epilepsy are not well understood. Animal models of kindling, with progressive intensification of stimulation-induced seizures, have been previously used to investigate alterations in neuronal networks, but has been obscured by limited recording capabilities during electrical stimulations. Remote networks in kindling have been studied by physical deletions of the connected structures or pathways, inevitably leading to structural reorganisations and related adverse effects...
April 4, 2018: Scientific Reports
K P Lillis, K J Staley
For over a century, epileptic seizures have been characterized as a state of pathological, hypersynchronous brain activity. Anti-epileptic therapies have been developed largely based on the dogma that the altered brain rhythms result from an overabundance of glutamatergic activity or insufficient GABAergic inhibition. The most effective drugs in use today act to globally decrease excitation, increase inhibition, or decrease all activity. Unfortunately, such broad alterations to brain activity often lead to impactful side effects such as drowsiness, cognitive impairment, and sleep disruption...
August 2018: Journal of Neural Engineering
Anh D Bui, Theresa M Nguyen, Charles Limouse, Hannah K Kim, Gergely G Szabo, Sylwia Felong, Mattia Maroso, Ivan Soltesz
Temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) is characterized by debilitating, recurring seizures and an increased risk for cognitive deficits. Mossy cells (MCs) are key neurons in the hippocampal excitatory circuit, and the partial loss of MCs is a major hallmark of TLE. We investigated how MCs contribute to spontaneous ictal activity and to spatial contextual memory in a mouse model of TLE with hippocampal sclerosis, using a combination of optogenetic, electrophysiological, and behavioral approaches. In chronically epileptic mice, real-time optogenetic modulation of MCs during spontaneous hippocampal seizures controlled the progression of activity from an electrographic to convulsive seizure...
February 16, 2018: Science
Shuo Chen, Adam Z Weitemier, Xiao Zeng, Linmeng He, Xiyu Wang, Yanqiu Tao, Arthur J Y Huang, Yuki Hashimotodani, Masanobu Kano, Hirohide Iwasaki, Laxmi Kumar Parajuli, Shigeo Okabe, Daniel B Loong Teh, Angelo H All, Iku Tsutsui-Kimura, Kenji F Tanaka, Xiaogang Liu, Thomas J McHugh
Optogenetics has revolutionized the experimental interrogation of neural circuits and holds promise for the treatment of neurological disorders. It is limited, however, because visible light cannot penetrate deep inside brain tissue. Upconversion nanoparticles (UCNPs) absorb tissue-penetrating near-infrared (NIR) light and emit wavelength-specific visible light. Here, we demonstrate that molecularly tailored UCNPs can serve as optogenetic actuators of transcranial NIR light to stimulate deep brain neurons. Transcranial NIR UCNP-mediated optogenetics evoked dopamine release from genetically tagged neurons in the ventral tegmental area, induced brain oscillations through activation of inhibitory neurons in the medial septum, silenced seizure by inhibition of hippocampal excitatory cells, and triggered memory recall...
February 9, 2018: Science
Lezio S Bueno-Junior, José E Peixoto-Santos, Rafael N Ruggiero, Milton A V Ávila, Danilo B Marques, Cleiton Lopes-Aguiar, João P Leite
The prefrontal cortex integrates a variety of cognition-related inputs, either unidirectional, e.g., from the hippocampal formation, or bidirectional, e.g., with the limbic thalamus. While the former is usually implicated in synaptic plasticity, the latter is better known for regulating ongoing activity. Interactions between these processes via prefrontal neurons are possibly important for linking mnemonic and executive functions. Our work further elucidates such dynamics using in vivo electrophysiology in rats...
January 22, 2018: Scientific Reports
Xiaoya Fan, Nicolas Gaspard, Benjamin Legros, Federico Lucchetti, Rudy Ercek, Antoine Nonclercq
We propose an approach that combines a neural mass model and clinical intracranial electroencephalographic (iEEG) recordings to explore the potential pathophysiological mechanisms (at the neuronal population level) of ictogenesis. Thirty iEEG recordings from 10 temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) patients around seizure onset were investigated. Physiologically meaningful parameters [average excitatory (Ae ), slow (B), and fast (G) inhibitory synaptic gain] were identified during interictal to ictal transition. Four ratios (Ae /G, Ae /B, Ae /(B + G), and B/G) were derived from these parameters, and their evolution over time was analyzed...
February 2018: European Journal of Neuroscience
Hui Ye, Stephanie Kaszuba
Alteration in the excitatory/inhibitory neuronal balance is believed to be the underlying mechanism of epileptogenesis. Based on this theory, GABAergic interneurons are regarded as the primary inhibitory neurons, whose failure of action permits hyperactivity in the epileptic circuitry. As a consequence, optogenetic excitation of GABAergic interneurons is widely used for seizure suppression. However, recent evidence argues for the context-dependent, possibly "excitatory" roles that GABAergic cells play in epileptic circuitry...
December 5, 2017: Journal of Biomedical Science
Honghai Zhang, Haiting Zhao, Chang Zeng, Christa Van Dort, Carl L Faingold, Norman E Taylor, Ken Solt, Hua-Jun Feng
Sudden unexpected death in epilepsy (SUDEP) is a devastating epilepsy complication. Seizure-induced respiratory arrest (S-IRA) occurs in many witnessed SUDEP patients and animal models as an initiating event leading to death. Thus, understanding the mechanisms underlying S-IRA will advance the development of preventive strategies against SUDEP. Serotonin (5-HT) is an important modulator for many vital functions, including respiration and arousal, and a deficiency of 5-HT signaling is strongly implicated in S-IRA in animal models, including the DBA/1 mouse...
February 2018: Neurobiology of Disease
Kimberly B Hoang, Isaac R Cassar, Warren M Grill, Dennis A Turner
The goal of this review is to describe in what ways feedback or adaptive stimulation may be delivered and adjusted based on relevant biomarkers. Specific treatment mechanisms underlying therapeutic brain stimulation remain unclear, in spite of the demonstrated efficacy in a number of nervous system diseases. Brain stimulation appears to exert widespread influence over specific neural networks that are relevant to specific disease entities. In awake patients, activation or suppression of these neural networks can be assessed by either symptom alleviation (i...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroscience
Sang-Eon Park, Nealen G Laxpati, Mark J Connolly, Babak Mahmoudi, Robert E Gross
In this study, we explored the role of pre-stimulation neural states on the effectiveness of optogenetic stimulation. Optogenetic stimulation was applied to the medial septum glutamatergic neurons to modulate the hippocampal neural activity in a rat tetanus toxin seizure model. The hippocampal local field potential was recorded using a multi electrode array in an awake and behaving rat. Optical stimulation with a 465nm light source was applied at 35Hz in a 20 seconds off / 20 seconds on pattern with simultaneous recording from the hippocampus...
July 2017: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
Guo-He Tan, Yuan-Yuan Liu, Lu Wang, Kui Li, Ze-Qiang Zhang, Hong-Fu Li, Zhong-Fei Yang, Yang Li, Dan Li, Ming-Yue Wu, Chun-Lei Yu, Juan-Juan Long, Ren-Chao Chen, Li-Xi Li, Lu-Ping Yin, Ji-Wei Liu, Xue-Wen Cheng, Qi Shen, You-Sheng Shu, Kenji Sakimura, Lu-Jian Liao, Zhi-Ying Wu, Zhi-Qi Xiong
Mutations in the proline-rich transmembrane protein 2 (PRRT2) are associated with paroxysmal kinesigenic dyskinesia (PKD) and several other paroxysmal neurological diseases, but the PRRT2 function and pathogenic mechanisms remain largely obscure. Here we show that PRRT2 is a presynaptic protein that interacts with components of the SNARE complex and downregulates its formation. Loss-of-function mutant mice showed PKD-like phenotypes triggered by generalized seizures, hyperthermia, or optogenetic stimulation of the cerebellum...
January 2018: Cell Research
Gilles van Luijtelaar, Mehrnoush Zobeiri, Annika Lüttjohann, Antoine Depaulis
BACKGROUND: The benign character of absence epilepsy compared to other genetic generalized epilepsy syndromes has often hampered the search for new treatment options. Absence epilepsy is most often treated with ethosuximide or valproic acid. However, both drugs are not always well tolerated or fail, and seizure freedom for a larger proportion of patients remains to be achieved. The availability of genuine animal models of epilepsy does allow to search for new treatment options not only for absence epilepsy per se but also for other genetic - previously called idiopathic - forms of epilepsy...
2017: Current Pharmaceutical Design
Oscar C González, Zahra Shiri, Giri P Krishnan, Timothy L Myers, Sylvain Williams, Massimo Avoli, Maxim Bazhenov
A balance between excitation and inhibition is necessary to maintain stable brain network dynamics. Traditionally, seizure activity is believed to arise from the breakdown of this delicate balance in favor of excitation with loss of inhibition. Surprisingly, recent experimental evidence suggests that this conventional view may be limited, and that inhibition plays a prominent role in the development of epileptiform synchronization. Here, we explored the role of the KCC2 co-transporter in the onset of inhibitory network-induced seizures...
January 2018: Neurobiology of Disease
Jack K Tung, Fu Hung Shiu, Kevin Ding, Robert E Gross
Although optogenetic techniques have proven to be invaluable for manipulating and understanding complex neural dynamics over the past decade, they still face practical and translational challenges in targeting networks involving multiple, large, or difficult-to-illuminate areas of the brain. We utilized inhibitory luminopsins to simultaneously inhibit the dentate gyrus and anterior nucleus of the thalamus of the rat brain in a hardware-independent and cell-type specific manner. This approach was more effective at suppressing behavioral seizures than inhibition of the individual structures in a rat model of epilepsy...
January 2018: Neurobiology of Disease
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