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Long-term athletic development

Hielko Miljoen, Joris Ector, Christophe Garweg, Johan Saenen, Wim Huybrechts, Andrea Sarkozy, Rik Willems, Hein Heidbuchel
AIMS: Prolonged participation in exercise results in structural and electrical cardiac remodelling. The development of an athlete's heart is recognized as a risk factor for atrial arrhythmias. This study aims to evaluate the impact of athlete heart remodelling on the presentation of atrioventricular nodal re-entrant tachycardia (AVNRT). METHODS AND RESULTS: A retrospective analysis of an ablation database selecting all patients with an electrophysiologically confirmed diagnosis of AVNRT...
February 14, 2019: Europace: European Pacing, Arrhythmias, and Cardiac Electrophysiology
L S Kox, P P F M Kuijer, J Opperman, G M J J Kerkhoffs, M Maas, M H W Frings-Dresen
Objectives Young athletes do not always seek medical help for overuse wrist injuries, risking invalidating long-term consequences resulting from late diagnosis. This study aimed to develop a questionnaire to identify overuse wrist injuries in young athletes. Methods According to the COnsensus-based Standards for the selection of health Measurement INstruments (COSMIN) criteria, items were collected from literature and 6 focus groups of sports physicians and of young athletes with (previous) overuse wrist injuries...
February 15, 2019: Physician and Sportsmedicine
Simone M Schmid, Cara Troy Short, Claudio R Nigg
Physical Activity (PA) is essential for the prevention of non-communicable diseases (NCD). The risk of developing NCDs is three times as high among people with disabilities than people without disabilities. In 2016, an estimated 158,570 people in Hawai'i had disabilities. So far, only limited studies have considered increasing PA opportunities for people with disabilities. AccesSurf is a non-profit organization empowering people with disabilities to perform adaptive swimming and surfing. The purpose of this study was to conduct qualitative process and pilot outcome evaluation of AccesSurf...
February 2019: Hawai'i Journal of Medicine & Public Health: a Journal of Asia Pacific Medicine & Public Health
Zachary M Gillen, Marni E Shoemaker, Brianna D McKay, Joel T Cramer
This study compared athletic performance differences among high school American football combine participants originating from states of different population sizes. High school-aged American football players (n=7,214) who had participated in athletic performance combines between March 2015 and January 2016 were included in this analysis. Data included combine date and location, school state of origin, football position, class, height, weight, 10-, 20-, and 40-yd dash times, pro-agility, L-cone drill, vertical jump, broad jump, and power push-up...
2019: International Journal of Exercise Science
Daizong Wen, Till Utesch, Jun Wu, Samuel Robertson, John Liu, Guopeng Hu, Haichun Chen
OBJECTIVES: To examine the effects of different protocols of high-intensity interval training (HIIT) on VO2 max improvements in healthy, overweight/obese and athletic adults, based on the classifications of work intervals, session volumes and training periods. DESIGN: Systematic review and meta-analysis. METHODS: PubMed, Scopus, Medline, and Web of Science databases were searched up to April 2018. Inclusion criteria were randomised controlled trials; healthy, overweight/obese or athletic adults; examined pre- and post-training VO2 max/peak; HIIT in comparison to control or moderate intensity continuous training (MICT) groups...
January 29, 2019: Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport
Kimberly G Harmon, James R Clugston, Katherine Dec, Brian Hainline, Stanley Herring, Shawn F Kane, Anthony P Kontos, John J Leddy, Michael McCrea, Sourav K Poddar, Margot Putukian, Julie C Wilson, William O Roberts
Sport-related concussion (SRC) is a common injury in recreational and organised sport. Over the past 30 years, there has been significant progress in our scientific understanding of SRC, which in turn has driven the development of clinical guidelines for diagnosis, assessment and management of SRC. In addition to a growing need for knowledgeable healthcare professionals to provide evidence-based care for athletes with SRC, media attention and legislation have created awareness and, in some cases, fear about many issues and unknowns surrounding SRC...
February 2019: British Journal of Sports Medicine
Kate E Webster, Julian A Feller
Most athletes who undergo anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction surgery plan to return to some level of sporting activity. However, rates of return to pre-injury sport are often less than might be expected and many factors influence whether individuals return to sport after this surgery. They include surgical and rehabilitation factors as well as social, psychological and demographic characteristics. The fate of the younger athlete who sustains an ACL injury is a topic that has received recent attention due to accumulating evidence that younger athletes are at considerable risk for not only one, but multiple ACL injuries...
January 28, 2019: Journal of Orthopaedics and Traumatology: Official Journal of the Italian Society of Orthopaedics and Traumatology
Lisa Steidl-Müller, Carolin Hildebrandt, Christian Raschner, Erich Müller
Alpine ski racing is one of the most popular sports in many countries; nevertheless, selection disadvantages and severe injuries result in high dropout rates. In this review we summarize existing knowledge about the specific challenges associated with selection bias and injuries, and their effects on talent development in ski racing. The relative age effect (RAE) appears in all age categories of national Austrian and international alpine ski racing. Relatively younger athletes seem to only have a chance for selection if they are early maturing...
March 2019: Journal of Sports Sciences
Allen Nicholson, Logan Petit, Anthony Egger, Paul Saluan, Cordelia W Carter
Discoid meniscus is a rare anatomical variant with altered morphology and structure that can sometimes present symptomatically, typically in the pediatric population. The discoid meniscus is usually in the lateral compartment of the knee and is characterized by a partial or complete filling-in of central meniscal tissue, increased meniscal thickness, disorganization of longitudinal collagen fibers, and sometimes lack of peripheral attachments. These changes to both the macro- and micro-structure of the meniscus predispose affected patients to increased rates of both meniscal tears and mechanical symptoms...
December 2018: American Journal of Orthopedics
Ben Desbrow, Nicholas A Burd, Mark Tarnopolsky, Daniel R Moore, Kirsty J Elliott-Sale
Adolescent, female and Masters athletes have unique nutritional requirements as a consequence of undertaking daily training and competition in addition to the specific demands of age and gender-related physiological changes. Dietary education and recommendations for these special population athletes require a focus on eating for long-term health, with special consideration given to "at risk" dietary patterns and nutrients (e.g. sustained restricted eating, low calcium, Vitamin D and/or iron intakes relative to requirements)...
January 11, 2019: International Journal of Sport Nutrition and Exercise Metabolism
Anthony C Egger, L Morgan Oberle, Paul Saluan
In the United States, youth participation in sports continues to increase yearly. This increase in participation, in conjunction with the trend toward early sports specialization and year round training, has led to a similar increase in athletically developed injuries. These injuries vary in nature and acuity, with the type of injury often related to the athlete's age, sport, and level of training. Endurance athletes are at an elevated risk of injury as they frequently push their body to the limit during their arduous training...
March 2019: Sports Medicine and Arthroscopy Review
Arne Güllich
The study examined the "micro-structure" of football practice and the "macro-structure" of participation history of female professional football players. Participants were 29 German 1st league (Bundesliga) players, 14 of whom played on the senior national team (Olympic Champion in 2016). A questionnaire recorded the players' positions, proportions of physical conditioning, drill-type skill exercises and playing forms within coach-led football practice, and the volume of coach-led practice and peer-led play, in both football and other sports, from childhood to adulthood...
December 24, 2018: Journal of Sports Sciences
Oliver Ludwig, Jens Kelm, Annette Hammes, Eduard Schmitt, Michael Fröhlich
Poor posture in childhood and adolescence is held responsible for the occurrence of associated disorders in adult age. This study aimed to verify whether body posture in adolescence can be enhanced through the improvement of neuromuscular performance, attained by means of targeted strength, stretch, and body perception training, and whether any such improvement might also transition into adulthood. From a total of 84 volunteers, the posture development of 67 adolescents was checked annually between the age of 14 and 20 based on index values in three posture situations...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
Grant T Baldwin, Matthew J Breiding, R Dawn Comstock
Sports and recreation-related (SRR) activities are common in the United States. Beyond the benefits to health, SRR activities can create new friendships, give people a sense of belonging, foster teamwork and other leadership skills, and develop sportsmanship and a respect for rules that govern play. Public awareness about the risk of concussion has grown as the long-term consequences of traumatic brain injury (TBI) have become better known, and likely explains the increasing concussion incidence rates. Currently, surveillance systems capture SRR concussions among high school and college athletes participating in sanctioned sports...
2018: Handbook of Clinical Neurology
Edward T Ha, Michael L Weinrauch, Jeffrey Brensilver
Currently, the cardiovascular risk associated with the use of anabolic steroids is not well documented. Recent studies have shown that its use may potentiate the development of cardiac dysfunction in the short term. This case report describes an encounter that supports a causal link between anabolic-androgenic steroid use (AAS) and cardiomyopathy later in life. We herein present a case study of a 73-year-old prior Olympic athlete who had misused AAS for 20 years and subsequently was found to have developed a systolic and diastolic cardiomyopathy, presumably due to long-standing left ventricular hypertrophy...
September 17, 2018: Curēus
Alberto Gobbi, Graeme P Whyte
BACKGROUND: Surgical treatment to repair partial anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury without reconstruction has demonstrated inconsistent clinical success. PURPOSE: To examine the long-term clinical outcomes of primary ACL repair combined with biologic healing augmentation in patients with symptomatic partial ACL tears. STUDY DESIGN: Case series; Level of evidence, 4. METHODS: 50 patients (mean age, 29.5 years) with a partial ACL tear and symptomatic knee instability were treated with primary ligament repair in conjunction with marrow stimulation and followed prospectively for a mean duration of 10...
December 2018: American Journal of Sports Medicine
Nicola Keay, Gavin Francis, Karen Hind
Objectives: To evaluate the efficacy of a sport-specific energy availability (EA) questionnaire, combined with clinical interview, for identifying male athletes at risk of developing bone health, endocrine and performance consequences of relative energy deficiency in sports (RED-S). Methods: Fifty competitive male road cyclists, recruited through links of participants in a pilot study, were assessed by a newly developed sport-specific questionnaire and clinical interview (SEAQ-I) and received dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) bone mineral density (BMD) and body composition scans and blood tests for endocrine markers...
2018: BMJ Open Sport & Exercise Medicine
Stacey Emmonds, Tom Sawczuk, Sean Scantlebury, Kev Till, Ben Jones
Emmonds, S, Sawczuk, T, Scantlebury, S, Till, K, and Jones, B. Seasonal changes in the physical performance of elite youth female soccer players. J Strength Cond Res XX(X): 000-000, 2018-This study investigated the seasonal change in physical performance of 113 (Under 10: U10 [n = 20], U12 [n = 30], U14 [n = 31], and U16 [n = 32]) elite youth female soccer players. Players completed testing pre-, mid-, and post-season, including speed (10- and 30-m sprint), change of direction (CoD; 505 test), power (countermovement jump [CMJ]), strength (isometric midthigh pull), and aerobic capacity (Yo-Yo intermittent recovery test level 1 [YYIRL1])...
October 24, 2018: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
Emily E Cust, Alice J Sweeting, Kevin Ball, Sam Robertson
Objective assessment of an athlete's performance is of importance in elite sports to facilitate detailed analysis. The implementation of automated detection and recognition of sport-specific movements overcomes the limitations associated with manual performance analysis methods. The object of this study was to systematically review the literature on machine and deep learning for sport-specific movement recognition using inertial measurement unit (IMU) and, or computer vision data inputs. A search of multiple databases was undertaken...
October 11, 2018: Journal of Sports Sciences
Emmanuel Androulakis, Peter P Swoboda
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) is frequently used in the investigation of suspected cardiac disease in athletes. In this review, we discuss how CMR can be used in athletes with suspected cardiomyopathy with particular reference to volumetric analysis and tissue characterization. We also discuss the finding of non-ischaemic fibrosis in athletes describing its prevalence, distribution and clinical importance. RECENT FINDINGS: The strengths of CMR include high spatial resolution, unrestricted imaging planes and lack of ionizing radiation...
August 31, 2018: Current Treatment Options in Cardiovascular Medicine
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