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Shu-Yu Lin, Yu-Hsien Kuo, Ya-Wen Tien, Yi-Yu Ke, Wan-Ting Chang, Hsiao-Fu Chang, Li-Chin Ou, Ping-Yee Law, Jing-Hua Xi, Pao-Luh Tao, Horace H Loh, Yu-Sheng Chao, Chuan Shih, Chiung-Tong Chen, Shiu-Hwa Yeh, Shau-Hua Ueng
Morphine is widely used for the treatment of severe pain. This analgesic effect is mediated principally by the activation of μ-opioid receptors (MOR). However, prolonged activation of MOR also results in tolerance, dependence, addiction, constipation, nausea, sedation, and respiratory depression. To address this problem, we sought alternative ways to activate MOR - either by use of novel ligands, or via a novel activation mechanism. To this end, a series of compounds were screened using a sensitive CHO-K1/MOR/Gα15 cell-based FLIPR® calcium high-throughput screening (HTS) assay, and the bithiazole compound 5a was identified as being able activate MOR in combination with naloxone...
February 2, 2019: European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
Aleksandra Kotlinska-Lemieszek, Pål Klepstad, Dagny Faksvåg Haugen
CONTEXT: Most patients with advanced malignant disease need to take several drugs to control symptoms. This treatment raises risks of serious adverse effects and drug-drug interactions (DDIs). OBJECTIVES: To identify studies reporting clinically significant DDIs involving medications used for symptom control, other than opioids used for pain management, in adult patients with advanced malignant disease. METHODS: Systematic review with searches in Embase, MEDLINE and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, from the start of the databases (Embase from 1980) through 21st June 2018...
February 15, 2019: Journal of Pain and Symptom Management
Kanokvalai Kulthanan, Saowalak Hunnangkul, Papapit Tuchinda, Leena Chularojanamontri, Puncharas Weerasubpong, Chanika Subchookul, Marcus Maurer
BACKGROUND: Several treatment options for cold urticaria (ColdU) have been studied and reported, but systematic reviews and meta-analyses are limited. OBJECTIVES: To meta-analyze and review the efficacy and safety of ColdU treatments. METHODS: We followed the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) recommendations. Suitable reports were identified by searching PubMed, Scopus, and Web of Science. Our systematic review included 16 studies, 9 of which met the eligibility criteria for the meta-analysis...
February 15, 2019: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology
Boeun Kim, Min Jang, Jungmin Sohn, Hyunjung Oh, Sangmin Jo, Mincheol Choi, Inhyung Lee, Junghee Yoon
The effects of intramuscular injection of alfaxalone ([ALF] 5 mg/kg), acepromazine ([ACE] 0.05 mg/kg), and an ALF-ACE combination ([AA] 0.025 mg/kg ACE followed by 2.5 mg/kg ALF) on the sedation, echocardiographic, biochemical, and blood gas indexes and recovery were evaluated in seven cats. No sedation was obtained with ACE, and sedation scores were higher with ALF than with AA treatment. Compared with baseline, an increase in heart rate occurred after ACE, and all treatments caused a decrease in systemic arterial pressure...
March 2019: Journal of the American Animal Hospital Association
John Wesson Ashford
In this issue, an article by La et al. provides evidence that trazodone delayed cognitive decline in 25 participants with Alzheimer's disease (AD), mild cognitive impairment, or normal cognition. For participants considered to have AD pathology, trazodone non-users declined at a rate 2.4 times greater than those taking trazodone for sleep over a 4-year period. In the analysis of sleep complaints, the relationship between trazodone, a widely used medication for sleep problems in the elderly, and cognition was associated with subjective improvement of sleep disruption...
2019: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
Heidi Taipale, Pasi Lampela, Marjaana Koponen, Antti Tanskanen, Jari Tiihonen, Sirpa Hartikainen, Anna-Maija Tolppanen
BACKGROUND: Antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) have sedative properties which may lead to an increased risk of pneumonia. OBJECTIVES: To investigate whether incident AED use is associated with an increased risk of pneumonia among community-dwelling persons with Alzheimer's disease (AD). In addition, we determined the risk according to duration of AED use and specific AEDs. METHODS: Persons with AD were identified from the MEDALZ dataset which includes all community-dwelling persons who received a clinically verified diagnosis of AD during 2005-2011 in Finland (N=70,718)...
February 11, 2019: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
Dhritiman Chakrabarti, Sriganesh Kamath, K R Madhusudan Reddy, Deepti B Srinivas, Nitin Manohar, Dheeraj Masapu
Background and Aims: The study was conceived to elucidate the effects of dexmedetomidine as an anesthetic adjunct to propofol (total intravenous anesthesia) on anesthetic dose reduction and anesthesia recovery parameters in cerebello-pontine angle (CPA) surgeries. Material and Methods: This prospective randomized study was conducted on 49 patients (25 with dexmedetomidine, 24 without). After standardized anesthetic induction, anesthesia was maintained using propofol (via target controlled infusion, titrated to maintain BIS between 40 and 60), fentanyl (0...
October 2018: Journal of Anaesthesiology, Clinical Pharmacology
Julian Arevalo Ludeña, Jose Juan Arcas Bellas, Rafael Alvarez Rementeria, Luis Enrique Muñoz Alameda
Background and Aims: Orotracheal intubation (OTI) with fiberoptic bronchoscope (FOB) in spontaneous ventilation is one of the main techniques for patients with predicted difficult airway. Latest generation supraglottic airway devices have been designed to allow OTI through them. We assessed the safety and effectiveness of FOB-guided OTI through i-gel™ device which was inserted in spontaneously breathing patients with predicted difficult airway. Material and Methods: Eighty-five patients with difficult airway predictors were included...
October 2018: Journal of Anaesthesiology, Clinical Pharmacology
Rajkumar Chandran, Zhi Yuen Beh, Fung Chen Tsai, Suran Dhanushka Kuruppu, Jia Yin Lim
Background and Aims: Above knee amputation (AKA) is associated with considerable mortality and morbidity. There is paucity of data describing the use of peripheral nerve blocks (PNB) as the sole anesthetic technique in high-risk patients undergoing AKA. Our objectives were to evaluate the use of PNB as sole anesthetic technique in the above-mentioned population and its clinical outcomes. Material and Methods: This was a retrospective descriptive study conducted in a tertiary hospital...
October 2018: Journal of Anaesthesiology, Clinical Pharmacology
Francesca Ingravallo, Kim de Nooijer, Valentina Pucci, Cinzia Casini, Guido Miccinesi, Judith A C Rietjens, Piero Morino
OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether and when palliative sedation was discussed with hospice patients with cancer and/or with their families and factors associated with patient involvement in such discussions. METHODS: Medical records of all patients with cancer who died in an Italian hospice in 2014-2015 (N = 326) were retrospectively reviewed. Multiple logistic regression was used to assess the association between patients' characteristics and palliative sedation discussion with the patient versus palliative sedation discussion only with the family...
February 17, 2019: European Journal of Cancer Care
Amanda H Plunkett, Mike J Schoonover, Jenna M Young, Jared D Taylor, Todd C Holbrook
OBJECTIVE: To determine the influence of location and movement on subtourniquet pressure (STP) generated by application of a wide-rubber tourniquet (WRT) on equine limbs. STUDY DESIGN: Randomized experimental cross-over design. ANIMALS: Six standing, sedated horses. METHODS: Horses were sedated with detomidine hydrochloride (0.2 μg/kg IV), and 4 investigators applied WRTs to the antebrachium (AB), gaskin (GK), and midmetacarpus (MC) of each horse in a predetermined, randomized order...
February 17, 2019: Veterinary Surgery: VS
Wei Du, Danijela Gnjidic, Sallie-Anne Pearson, Sarah N Hilmer, Andrew J McLachlan, Fiona Blyth, Rosalie Viney, Grace Joshy, Cathy Day, Emily Banks
OBJECTIVES: To quantify the relationship between home medicines review (HMR) receipt in older adults and sociodemographic, medication-related and health factors. DESIGN: Prospective cohort analysis. SETTINGS, PARTICIPANTS, MEASUREMENTS: Questionnaire data from a population-based cohort study of individuals aged ≥45 years, Sydney, Australia were linked with primary healthcare data, medication and hospitalisation data, to ascertain factors associated with HMR receipt during the period July 2009-June 2014...
February 15, 2019: BMJ Open
Raana Mahmood, Rahila Ikram, Ghazala H Rizwani, Humera Khatoon
The study is conducted to observe and investigate the effects of oral dosing of methanolic extracts of Cuminum nigrum (L) and Centratherum anthelminticum (L) on neuropharmacological activities of mice. Methanolic extracts of Cuminum nigrum (L) and Centratherum anthelminticum (L) were soluble in Dimethyl sulphoxide (DMSO) i.e. an organic solvent, so it is used in this study. Screening for anxiolytic and antidepressant effects were performed using open field test, head dip test, stationary rod test, cage crossing test, light and dark box and swimming- induced depression test...
January 2019: Pakistan Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
R Woods, L Geyer, R Mehanna, J Russell
OBJECTIVES: The first tracheostomy tube change is typically performed on days 5-7 post-operatively, however recent international consensus guidelines suggested that, with maturation sutures, days 3-5 is appropriate. We evaluate whether a first tube change on day 2 post-operatively is safe and effective. METHODS: We carried out a retrospective review of all patients undergoing tracheostomy between 2009 and 2018. Exclusion criteria were patients on whom the senior authors did not operate, operations done elsewhere, cases where maturation sutures were not used or a patient died prior to first tube change...
February 8, 2019: International Journal of Pediatric Otorhinolaryngology
Jack Cunliffe, David Décary-Hêtu, Thomas A Pollak
BACKGROUND: Nonmedical prescription psychiatric drug use (NMPDU) is an increasing global health problem, with recent concern focusing on darknet cryptomarkets as sources of procurement. There is a shortage of evidence regarding comparative worldwide NMPDU trends, due in part to data collection difficulties. This problem is particularly marked for non-opioid drugs, particularly those psychiatric drugs which act on the central nervous system (CNS) and have high misuse potential and are associated with high levels of dependency and fatal overdose...
February 12, 2019: International Journal on Drug Policy
J Maron, E Gomes de Matos, D Piontek, L Kraus, O Pogarell
OBJECTIVES: This study evaluated mediating effects of the health status on the association between socio-economic status (SES) and medicine use. It was hypothesized that more privileged people show a reduced use of medicines, as compared with the underprivileged, because of their superior health status. It was further hypothesized that people may apply medication based on their type of health complaint (ill physical versus mental status). STUDY DESIGN: Data were taken from the 2012 German Epidemiological Survey of Substance Abuse, a nationally representative cross-sectional study of n = 9084 individuals of the German general population aged 18-64 years...
February 13, 2019: Public Health
Vinícius Silva Lima, Abraão Tiago Batista Guimarães, Amanda Pereira da Costa Araújo, Fernanda Neves Estrela, Ives Charlie da Silva, Nathalie Ferreira Silva de Melo, Leonardo Fernandes Fraceto, Guilherme Malafaia
The advent of biotechnology provided the synthesis of nanoproducts with diverse applications in the field of medicine, agriculture, food, among others. However, the toxicity of many nanoparticles (NP) currently used, which can penetrate natural systems and impact organisms, is not known. Thus, in this study, we evaluated whether the short exposure (5 days) to low concentrations of chitosan-coated zein nanoparticles (ZNP-CS) (0.2 ng/kg, 40 ng/kg, and 400.00 ng/kg) was capable of causing behavioral alterations compatible with cognitive deficit, as well as anxiety and depression-like behavior in Swiss mice...
February 15, 2019: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Forbes McGain, Kelvin Lam, Samantha Bates, Miriam Towns, Craig French
BACKGROUND: Although propofol is widely used for sedation in intensive care units around Australia, evaluation of bedside nursing practices of the administration of propofol have been limited. We investigated whether there was a discrepancy between the amount of propofol delivered by the infusion pump and that recorded electronically and consequently patient exposure to avoidable harms. AIMS: The aim of this research was to compare the total amount of propofol administered to intensive care patients via a programmable infusion pump with that documented in the electronic medical record (EMR)...
February 12, 2019: Australian Critical Care: Official Journal of the Confederation of Australian Critical Care Nurses
Zerrin Defne Dundar, Sedat Kocak, Abdullah Sadik Girisgin
INTRODUCTION: In this study, we aimed to investigate the prognostic power of the first lactate level measured in the emergency department (ED), National Early Warning Score (NEWS), and NEWS-lactate (NEWS-L) on ED admission in critically ill geriatric patients. METHODS: This retrospective observational study was conducted in the ED of a university hospital. Consecutive patients ≥65 years of age admitted to our ED between July 1, 2017, and December 31, 2017, and transferred to the intensive care unit after the ED follow-up period were included in the study...
February 7, 2019: American Journal of Emergency Medicine
Hanaa Dakour-Aridi, Manasi Arora, Besma Nejim, Satinderjit Locham, Mahmoud B Malas
OBJECTIVE: Drug abuse may affect lower extremity vessels due to ischemia following intra-arterial injections, vasospasm, arterial and venous pseudoaneurysms, arteriovenous fistulae, vasculitis and complicated abscesses. Little is known about the outcomes of Lower Extremity Bypass (LEB) for peripheral arteries disease (PAD) in patients with a history of drug abuse disorder. The aim of this study is to evaluate the outcomes of LEB in this patient population. METHODS: A retrospective study of the Premier Healthcare Database 2009-2015 was performed...
February 12, 2019: Annals of Vascular Surgery
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