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Fang Liu, Yunjian Xu, Lingyan Zhou, Asif Ali, Haiyang Jiang, Suwen Zhu, Xiaoyu Li
RAD51 (DNA repair gene) family genes play ubiquitous roles in immune response among species from plants to mammals. In this study, we cloned the ZmRAD51A gene (a member of RAD51 ) in maize and generated ZmRAD51A overexpression ( ZmRAD51A -OE) in rice, tobacco, and Arabidopsis . The expression level of ZmRAD51A was remarkably induced by salicylic acid (SA) application in maize, and the transient overexpression of ZmRAD51A in tobacco induced a hypersensitive response. The disease resistance was significantly enhanced in ZmRAD51A - OE (overexpressing) plants, triggering an increased expression of defense-related genes...
February 13, 2019: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Beifang Wang, Yingxin Zhang, Zhenzhen Bi, Qunen Liu, Tingting Xu, Ning Yu, Yongrun Cao, Aike Zhu, Weixun Wu, Xiaodeng Zhan, Galal Bakr Anis, Ping Yu, Daibo Chen, Shihua Cheng, Liyong Cao
Premature leaf senescence affects plant yield and quality, and numerous researches about it have been conducted until now. In this study, we identified an early senescent mutant es4 in rice ( Oryza sativa L.); early senescence appeared approximately at 60 dps and became increasingly senescent with the growth of es4 mutant. We detected that content of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and malondialdehyde (MDA), as well as activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD) were elevated, while chlorophyll content, soluble protein content, activity of catalase (CAT), activity of peroxidase (POD) and photosynthetic rate were reduced in the es4 mutant leaves...
2019: Frontiers in Plant Science
Noriko Mori, Takuya Katayama, Ryota Saito, Kazuhiro Iwashita, Jun-Ichi Maruyama
In the Pezizomycotina (filamentous ascomycete) species, genes that encode proteins with an HET domain (Pfam: PF06985) are reportedly involved in heterokaryon incompatibility (HI) in which cell death or growth defects are induced after fusion of cells that are genetically incompatible owing to diversities in their nucleotide sequence. HET domain genes are commonly found in Pezizomycotina genomes and are functionally characterized in only a few species. Here, we compared 44 HET domain genes between an incompatible strain pair of Aspergillus oryzae RIB40 and RIB128 and performed inter-strain expression of 37 sequence-diverse genes for mimicking HI...
February 18, 2019: Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry
Ziyi Yin, Chen Chen, Jie Yang, Wanzhen Feng, Xinyu Liu, Rongfang Zuo, Jingzhen Wang, Lina Yang, Kaili Zhong, Chuyun Gao, Haifeng Zhang, Xiaobo Zheng, Ping Wang, Zhengguang Zhang
Macroautophagy/autophagy is critical for normal appressorium formation and pathogenicity of the rice blast fungus Magnaporthe oryzae, but the molecular base of autophagy linked to pathogenicity remains elusive in this or other pathogenic fungi. We found that MoHat1, a histone acetyltransferase (HAT) homolog, had a role in the regulation of autophagy through the acetylation of autophagy related proteins MoAtg3 and MoAtg9. We also found that MoHat1 was subject to regulation by the protein kinase MoGsk1 that modulated the translocation of MoHat1 from the nucleus to the cytoplasm with the assistance of MoSsb1, a protein chaperone...
February 18, 2019: Autophagy
Takuji Miyamoto, Rie Takada, Yuki Tobimatsu, Yuri Takeda, Shiro Suzuki, Masaomi Yamamura, Keishi Osakabe, Yuriko Osakabe, Masahiro Sakamoto, Toshiaki Umezawa
Breeding approaches to enrich lignins in biomass could be beneficial for improving the biorefinery process because lignins increase biomass heating value and represent a potent source of valuable aromatic chemicals. However, despite the fact that grasses are promising lignocellulose feedstocks, limited information is yet available for molecular-breeding approaches to upregulate lignin biosynthesis in grass species. In this study, we generated lignin-enriched transgenic rice (Oryza sativa), a model grass species, via targeted mutagenesis of the transcriptional repressor OsMYB108 using CRISPR/Cas9-mediated genome editing...
February 18, 2019: Plant Journal: for Cell and Molecular Biology
Hyunjung Chung, Seongbeom Kim, Ki-Tae Kim, Bae-Geun Hwang, Hye-Jeong Kim, Sang-Joon Lee, Yong-Hwan Lee
Because molecular oxygen functions as the final acceptor of electrons during aerobic respiration and a substrate for diverse enzymatic reactions, eukaryotes employ various mechanisms to maintain cellular homeostasis under varying oxygen concentration. Human fungal pathogens change the expression of genes involved in virulence and oxygen-required metabolisms such as ergosterol (EGR) synthesis when they encounter oxygen limitation (hypoxia) during infection. The oxygen level in plant tissues also fluctuates, potentially creating hypoxic stress to pathogens during infection...
February 17, 2019: Environmental Microbiology
Furong Liu, Megan Mcdonald, Benjamin Schwessinger, Anna Joe, Rory Pruitt, Teresa Erickson, Xiuxiang Zhao, Valley Stewart, Pamela C Ronald
The rice XA21-mediated immune response is activated on recognition of the RaxX peptide produced by the bacterium Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae (Xoo). The 60-residue RaxX precursor is post-translationally modified to form a sulfated tyrosine peptide that shares sequence and functional similarity with the plant sulfated tyrosine (PSY) peptide hormones. The 5-kb raxX-raxSTAB gene cluster of Xoo encodes RaxX, the RaxST tyrosylprotein sulfotransferase, and the RaxA and RaxB components of a predicted type I secretion system...
February 18, 2019: Molecular Plant Pathology
Stéphanie Arrivault, Thiago Alexandre Moraes, Toshihiro Obata, David B Medeiros, Alisdair R Fernie, Alix Boulouis, Martha Ludwig, John E Lunn, Gian Luca Borghi, Armin Schlereth, Manuela Guenther, Mark Stitt
Low atmospheric CO2 in recent geological time led to the evolution of carbon concentrating mechanisms (CCMs) like C4 photosynthesis in over 65 terrestrial plant lineages. We know little about the impact of low CO2 on the Calvin-Benson cycle (CBC) in C3 species that did not evolve CCMs, representing over 90% of terrestrial plant species. Metabolite profiling provides a top-down strategy to investigate the operational balance in a pathway. We profiled CBC-intermediates in a panel of C4 (Zeamays, Setaria viridis, Flaveria bidentis,F...
February 18, 2019: Journal of Experimental Botany
Shuhui Song, Dongmei Tian, Zhang Zhang, Songnian Hu, Jun Yu
Domestic rice (Oryza sativa L.) is one of the most important cereal crops, feeding a large number of worldwide populations. Along with various high-throughput genome sequencing projects, rice genomics has been making great headway toward direct field applications of basic research advances in understanding the molecular mechanisms of agronomical traits and utilizing diverse germplasm resources. Here, we briefly review its achievements over the past two decades and present the potential for its bright future...
February 13, 2019: Genomics, Proteomics & Bioinformatics
Lichao Huang, Long Chen, Lan Wang, Yaolong Yang, Yuchun Rao, Deyong Ren, Liping Dai, Yihong Gao, Weiwei Zou, Xueli Lu, Guangheng Zhang, Li Zhu, Jiang Hu, Guang Chen, Lan Shen, Guojun Dong, Zhenyu Gao, Longbiao Guo, Qian Qian, Dali Zeng
Water deficit is a major environmental threat affecting crop yields worldwide. In this study, a drought stress-sensitive mutant drought sensitive 8 (ds8) was identified in rice (Oryza sativa L.). The DS8 gene was cloned using a map-based approach. Further analysis revealed that DS8 encoded a Nck-associated protein 1 (NAP1)-like protein, a component of the SCAR/WAVE complex, which played a vital role in actin filament nucleation activity. The mutant exhibited changes in leaf cuticle development. Functional analysis revealed that the mutation of DS8 increased stomatal density and impaired stomatal closure activity...
February 16, 2019: Plant Journal: for Cell and Molecular Biology
Jingjing Hou, Caihong Cao, Yini Ruan, Yanyan Deng, Yaxin Liu, Kun Zhang, Lubin Tan, Zuofeng Zhu, Hongwei Cai, Fengxia Liu, Hongying Sun, Ping Gu, Chuanqing Sun, Yongcai Fu
The emergence of sterile individuals in the hybrid backcross progeny of wild and cultivated rice limits the use of wild rice alleles for improving cultivated rice, but the molecular mechanisms underlying this sterility remain unclear. Here, we identified the semi-sterile introgression line YIL42, derived from a cross between the indica rice variety Teqing (Oryza sativa L.) and Oryza rufipogon Griff. accession YJCWR (Yuanjiang common wild rice), which exhibits semi-sterility. Using positional cloning, we isolated EMBRYO SAC ABORTION 1 (ESA1), which encodes a nuclear-membrane localized protein containing an armadillo (ARM) repeat domain...
February 15, 2019: Plant Physiology
Xin Sun, Fei Han, Hui Wang, Fupeng Song, Xiumin Cui, Yanhong Lou, Yuping Zhuge
Bioremediation is preferred in heavy metal remediation, and the high-performance microbe is of prime importance. In the present research, three Pb-resistant microbes were isolated and growth characteristics and adsorption capacities were evaluated. The results showed that R. oryzae SD-1, T. asperellum SD-5, and M. irregularis SD-8 can grow well under 100 mg L-1 Pb2+ ions stress. There is a higher minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of Pb but lower MICs of Cd and Zn in T. asperellum SD-5. However, there were similar MICs of Cu among the three microbes...
December 2018: Water Science and Technology: a Journal of the International Association on Water Pollution Research
Frank H Arthur
Wheat, corn, and brown rice were treated with different combinations of a deltamethrin suspension concentrate (SC) formulation and a new emulsifiable concentrate (EC) formulation, at rates of either 0.5 or 1.0 ppm alone or in combination with 1.25 and 2.5 ppm methoprene (10 treatments in all, including an untreated control). Treated commodities were stored at ambient conditions on the floor of an empty grain bin in Manhattan, KS, USA, in 5-kg lots for individual replicates. The commodities were sampled and bio-assayed every three months for 15 months by exposing 10 mixed-sex parental adults of selected adult stored product insects on 70⁻80 g of the commodity...
February 5, 2019: Insects
Arpita Das, Krishnendu Pramanik, Rishu Sharma, Saikat Gantait, Joydeep Banerjee
Germin-like proteins (GLPs) are involved in biotic and abiotic stress tolerance in different plant species. Rice (Oryza sativa L.) genome contains about 40 GLP family member proteins in nine chromosomes. Although some of the rice GLP (OsGLP) promoters have been studied through in silico analysis as well as experimentally, studies regarding the distribution pattern of the biotic and abiotic stress associated transcription factor binding sites (TFbs) in the promoter regions of OsGLP genes have not been attempted thoroughly...
2019: PloS One
Tingzhang Hu, Yuanli Liu, Shanshan Zhu, Juan Qin, Wenping Li, Nong Zhou
The group 5 LEA (late embryogenesis abundant) proteins are an atypical LEA protein group, which is associated with resistance to multiple stresses. In this study, OsLea14-A gene was isolated from Oryza sativa L., which encodes a 5C LEA protein with 151 amino acids. The qPCR analysis showed that OsLea14-A expressed in all tissues and organs at all times. The expression of OsLea14-A in the panicles of plumping stage were dramatically increased. The heterologous expression of OsLea14-A in Escherichia coli improved its growth performance under salinity, desiccation, high temperature, and freeze-thaw stresses...
February 14, 2019: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Mirza Hasanuzzaman, Md Mahabub Alam, Kamrun Nahar, Sayed Mohammad Mohsin, M H M Borhannuddin Bhuyan, Khursheda Parvin, Barbara Hawrylak-Nowak, Masayuki Fujita
Nickel (Ni), an essential nutrient of plant but very toxic to plant at supra-optimal concentration that causes inhibition of seed germination emergence and growth of plants as a consequence of physiological disorders. Hence, the present study investigates the possible mechanisms of Ni tolerance in rice seedlings by exogenous application of silicon (Si). Thirteen-day-old hydroponically grown rice (Oryza sativa L. cv. BRRI dhan54) were treated with Ni (NiSO4 .7H2 O, 0.25 and 0.5 mM) sole or in combination with 0...
February 13, 2019: Ecotoxicology
Hanhae Kim, Anna Joe, Muyoung Lee, Sunmo Yang, Xiaozhi Ma, Pamela C Ronald, Insuk Lee
Bacterial species in the genus Xanthomonas infect virtually all crop plants. Although many genes involved in Xanthomonasvirulence have been identified through molecular and cellular studies, the elucidation of virulence-associated regulatory circuits is still far from complete. Functional gene networks have proven useful in generating hypotheses for genetic factors of biological processes in various species. Here, we present a genome-scale co-functional network of Xanthomonas oryzepv. oryzae (Xoo) genes, XooNet (www...
February 1, 2019: Molecules and Cells
Chenxin Li, Hengping Xu, Scott D Russell, Venkatesan Sundaresan
A detailed, step-by-step protocol for isolation of rice gametes for transcriptional profiling, with a general workflow that includes controls for RNA contamination from surrounding cells and tissues is presented. Characterization of the transcriptome and other -omics studies of flowering plant gametes are challenging as a consequence of the small sizes and relative inaccessibility of these cells. Collecting such poorly represented cells is also complicated by potential contamination from surrounding sporophytic, adjacent gametophytic tissues and difficulties in extracting high-quality intact cells...
February 12, 2019: Plant Reproduction
Daowan Lai, Jiajia Meng, Dan Xu, Xuping Zhang, Yafeng Liang, Yu Han, Cong Jiang, Huiquan Liu, Chenfang Wang, Ligang Zhou, Jin-Rong Xu
Ustilaginoidins are a kind of mycotoxins with 9,9'-linked bis-naphtho-γ-pyrones structures produced by the rice false smut pathogen Villosiclava virens. These metabolites displayed a wide range of bioactivities, such as teratogenic, cytotoxic, phytotoxic, and antibacterial activities. So far 26 ustilaginoidins have been isolated from V. virens, among which 18 compounds contained stereogenic center(s), however, most of them were unknown for the absolute configurations, except that of ustilaginoidin D. In this study, the absolute structures of these ustilaginoidins were constructed for the first time by analysis of the biosynthetic monomers obtained from a gene knockout mutant (ΔUV_2091) of V...
February 12, 2019: Scientific Reports
V Sureshkumar, Bipratip Dutta, Vishesh Kumar, G Prakash, Dwijesh C Mishra, K K Chaturvedi, Anil Rai, Amitha Mithra Sevanthi, Amolkumar U Solanke
Nearly two decades of revolution in the area of genomics serves as the basis of present-day molecular breeding in major food crops such as rice. Here we report an open source database on two major biotic stresses of rice, named RiceMetaSysB, which provides detailed information about rice blast and bacterial blight (BB) responsive genes (RGs). Meta-analysis of microarray data from different blast- and BB-related experiments across 241 and 186 samples identified 15135 unique genes for blast and 7475 for BB. A total of 9365 and 5375 simple sequence repeats (SSRs) in blast and BB RGs were identified for marker development...
January 1, 2019: Database: the Journal of Biological Databases and Curation
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