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Motor skill learning

Jason L Neva, Jennifer A Ma, Dan Orsholits, Matthieu P Boisgontier, Lara A Boyd
Pairing an acute bout of lower-limb cycling exercise with skilled motor practice enhances acquisition and learning. However, it is not known whether an acute bout of exercise enhances a specific form of motor learning, namely motor adaptation, and if subsequent inter-limb transfer of this adaptation is enhanced. Seventeen young healthy participants performed a bout of cycling exercise and rest, on separate days, prior to right-arm reaching movements to visual targets under 45° rotated feedback of arm position (acquisition), followed by an immediate test of inter-limb transfer with the untrained left arm...
February 18, 2019: Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation Cérébrale
Victor Gonzalez-Sanchez, Sofia Dahl, Johannes Lunde Hatfield, Rolf Inge Godøy
Virtuosity in music performance is often associated with fast, precise, and efficient sound-producing movements. The generation of such highly skilled movements involves complex joint and muscle control by the central nervous system, and depends on the ability to anticipate, segment, and coarticulate motor elements, all within the biomechanical constraints of the human body. When successful, such motor skill should lead to what we characterize as fluency in musical performance. Detecting typical features of fluency could be very useful for technology-enhanced learning systems, assisting and supporting students during their individual practice sessions by giving feedback and helping them to adopt sustainable movement patterns...
2019: Frontiers in Psychology
Elizabeth M Wakefield, Alana E Foley, Raedy Ping, Julia N Villarreal, Susan Goldin-Meadow, Susan C Levine
Past research has shown that children's mental rotation skills are malleable and can be improved through action experience-physically rotating objects-or gesture experience-showing how objects could rotate (e.g., Frick, Ferrara, & Newcombe, 2013; Goldin-Meadow et al., 2012; Levine, Goldin-Meadow, Carlson, & Hemani-Lopez, 2018). These two types of movements both involve rotation, but differ on a number of components. Here, we break down action and gesture into components-feeling an object during rotation, using a grasping handshape during rotation, tracing the trajectory of rotation, and seeing the outcome of rotation-and ask, in two studies, how training children on a mental rotation task through different combinations of these components impacts learning gains across a delay...
February 18, 2019: Developmental Psychology
Laura Milena Rueda-Delgado, Kirstin Friederike Heise, Andreas Daffertshofer, Dante Mantini, Stephan Patrick Swinnen
We investigated how older adults preserve the capability to acquire new motor skills in the face of age-related brain alterations. We assessed neural changes associated with learning a bimanual coordination task over 4 days of practice in healthy young (n = 24) and older adults (n = 24). The electroencephalogram was recorded during task performance at the start and end of training. Motor performance improved with practice in both groups, but the amount of learning was lower in the older adults. Beta power (15-30 Hz) in sensorimotor and prefrontal cortices of older adults was reduced with training, indicative of higher neural activity...
January 6, 2019: Neurobiology of Aging
Fábio Saraiva Flôres, Luis P Rodrigues, Fernando Copetti, Frederico Lopes, Rita Cordovil
Through development, a child's varied movement contexts provide different opportunities or affordances for action that are fundamental to promoting motor competence. Although home is the primary environment for infants, as children age, school and sport environments gain importance. Studies focusing on affordances for motor behavior in children have mainly addressed the home microsystem, providing an incomplete picture of affordances across different settings, particularly later in development. Here, we undertook a narrative literature review of various affordances for children's motor development...
February 16, 2019: Perceptual and Motor Skills
Tania Campos-Ordonez, David Zarate-Lopez, Nereida Ibarra-Castaneda, Jonathan Buritica, Oscar Gonzalez-Perez
Cyclohexane (CHX) is an organic solvent commonly used as a drug-of-abuse. This drug increases the oxidative stress and glial reactivity in the hippocampus, which suggests that this brain region is vulnerable to CHX effects. This study aimed to establish the behavioral changes and the pathological alterations that occur in the Cornu Ammonis 3 (CA3) and Dentate Gyrus (DG) after a long-lasting exposure to CHX. We exposed CD1 mice to a recreational-like dose of CHX (~ 30,000 ppm) for 30 days and explored its consequences in motor skills, reward-seeking behavior, and the CA3 and DG hippocampal subfields...
February 15, 2019: Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology
Yuantao Yang, Huailiang Zheng, Yongbo Li, Minqiang Xu, Yushu Chen
Fault diagnosis of rotating machinery is crucial to improve safety, enhance reliability and reduce maintenance cost. The manual feature extraction and selection of traditional fault diagnosis methods depend on signal processing skills and expert experience, which is labor-intensive and time-consuming. As a typical intelligent fault diagnosis method, the convolutional neural network automatically learns features from original data, but it is extremely difficult to design and train a deep network architecture...
January 24, 2019: ISA Transactions
Jacqueline A Palmer, Alice Halter, Whitney Gray, Steven L Wolf, Michael R Borich
Repeated pairing of electrical stimulation of a peripheral nerve with transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) over the primary motor cortex (M1) representation for a target muscle can induce neuroplastic adaptations in the human brain related to motor learning. The extent to which the motor state during this form of paired associative stimulation (PAS) influences the degree and mechanisms of neuroplasticity or motor learning is unclear. Here, we investigated the effect of volitional muscle contraction during PAS on: (1) measures of general corticomotor excitability and intracortical circuit excitability; and (2) motor performance and learning...
2019: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
Kayo Nakamura, Andrew John Moorhouse, Dennis Lawrence Cheung, Kei Eto, Ikuko Takeda, Paul Wiers Rozenbroek, Junichi Nabekura
The neuronal K+ -Cl- cotransporter KCC2 maintains a low intracellular Cl- concentration and facilitates hyperpolarizing GABAA receptor responses. KCC2 also plays a separate role in stabilizing and enhancing dendritic spines in the developing nervous system. Using a conditional transgenic mouse strategy, we examined whether overexpression of KCC2 enhances dendritic spines in the adult nervous system and characterized the effects on spine dynamics in the motor cortex in vivo during rotarod training. Mice overexpressing KCC2 showed significantly increased spine density in the apical dendrites of layer V pyramidal neurons, measured in vivo using two-photon imaging...
February 13, 2019: Journal of Physiological Sciences: JPS
Melissa L Caras, Dan H Sanes
Skill learning is fundamental to the acquisition of many complex behaviors that emerge during development. For example, years of practice give rise to perceptual improvements that contribute to mature speech and language skills. While fully honed learning skills might be thought to offer an advantage during the juvenile period, the ability to learn actually continues to develop through childhood and adolescence, suggesting that the neural mechanisms that support skill learning are slow to mature. To address this issue, we asked whether the rate and magnitude of perceptual learning varies as a function of age as male and female gerbils trained on an auditory task...
February 12, 2019: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
John Cairney, Dean Dudley, Matthew Kwan, Rheanna Bulten, Dean Kriellaars
Physical literacy (PL) provides a powerful lens for examining movement in relation to physical activity (PA) and motor skill outcomes, environmental context, and broader social and affective learning processes. To date, limited consideration has been given to the role PL plays in promoting positive health behaviours. There is no clear conceptual framework based on existing empirical evidence that links PL to health, nor has an evidence-informed case been made for such a position. The purpose of this paper is to (1) present a conceptual model positioning PL as a health determinant, and (2) present evidence in support of PL as a health determinant, drawing on research largely from outside physical education...
February 11, 2019: Sports Medicine
Katja Kornysheva, Daniel Bush, Sofie S Meyer, Anna Sadnicka, Gareth Barnes, Neil Burgess
Fluent retrieval and execution of movement sequences is essential for daily activities, but the neural mechanisms underlying sequence planning remain elusive. Here participants learned finger press sequences with different orders and timings and reproduced them in a magneto-encephalography (MEG) scanner. We classified the MEG patterns for each press in the sequence and examined pattern dynamics during preparation and production. Our results demonstrate the "competitive queuing" (CQ) of upcoming action representations, extending previous computational and non-human primate recording studies to non-invasive measures in humans...
February 5, 2019: Neuron
Brian P Johnson, Steven M Scharf, Avelino C Verceles, Kelly P Westlake
Sleep is an important component of motor memory consolidation and learning, providing a critical tool to enhance training and rehabilitation. Following initial skill acquisition, memory consolidation is largely a result of non-rapid eye movement sleep over either a full night or a nap. Targeted memory reactivation is one method used to enhance this critical process, which involves the pairing of an external cue with task performance at the time of initial motor skill acquisition, followed by replay of the same cue during sleep...
February 11, 2019: Journal of Sleep Research
Ysabel Jacob, Paola Chivers, Ryan S Anderton
The current study aimed to determine whether previously identified candidate polymorphisms were associated with match performance in sub-elite Australian Rules Football (ARF) players. The genotypes of thirty players were analysed along with 3x1-kilometre time trial results, ARF-specific skill assessments (handball and kicking), and match performance (direct game involvements) per minute (DGIs/min) to investigate if there was a relationship between any of the variables. Results support previous findings that aerobic time trials are a significant predictor of DGIs/min in sub-elite ARF players...
January 20, 2019: Journal of Exercise Science and Fitness
Marcos Daou, Jence A Rhoads, Taylor Jacobs, Keith R Lohse, Matthew W Miller
Past research has revealed practicing and studying a motor skill with the expectation of teaching it to another person increases the amount of time participants spend preparing for movement during practice trials of the skill. However, it is unknown whether the increased motor preparation time explains the benefit of expecting to teach on motor learning. To address this question, we had participants practice golf putting with the expectation of teaching the skill to another participant the following day or the expectation of being tested on the skill the following day...
February 6, 2019: Human Movement Science
Francesco Clemente, Giacomo Valle, Marco Controzzi, Ivo Strauss, Francesco Iberite, Thomas Stieglitz, Giuseppe Granata, Paolo Maria Rossini, Francesco Maria Petrini, Silvestro Micera, Christian Cipriani
Tactile afferents in the human hand provide fundamental information about hand-environment interactions, which is used by the brain to adapt the motor output to the physical properties of the object being manipulated. A hand amputation disrupts both afferent and efferent pathways from/to the hand, completely invalidating the individual's motor repertoire. Although motor functions may be partially recovered by using a myoelectric prosthesis, providing functionally effective sensory feedback to users of prosthetics is a largely unsolved challenge...
February 8, 2019: Journal of Neural Engineering
Lucas Eduardo Antunes Bicalho, Maicon Rodrigues Albuquerque, Herbert Ugrinowitsch, Varley Teoldo da Costa, Juliana Otoni Parma, Thais Dos Santos Ribeiro, Guilherme Menezes Lage
The benefits of less repetitive practice in motor learning have been explained by the increased demand for memory processes during the execution of motor skills. Recently, a new perspective associating increased demand for perception with less repetitive practice has also been proposed. Augmented information gathering and visual scanning characterize this higher perceptual demand. To extend our knowledge about mental effort and perceptual differences in practice organization, the association between oculomotor behavior and type of practice was investigated...
February 5, 2019: Human Movement Science
Reza Abdollahipour, William M Land, Ana Cereser, Suzete Chiviacowsky
BACKGROUND: Research has demonstrated the advantages of an external relative to internal focus of attention for enhancing motor performance and learning across diverse tasks, contexts and populations. However, research has yet to examine whether this finding holds true for individuals who have a major visual impairment in discrete and locomotion-based continuous motor tasks. METHODS: In experiment 1, twenty-four visually impaired participants were asked to kick a soccer ball with their dominant foot to a target 7 meters away...
February 8, 2019: Disability and Rehabilitation
Alli Gokeler, Dorothee Neuhaus, Anne Benjaminse, Dustin R Grooms, Jochen Baumeister
Athletes who wish to resume high-level activities after an injury to the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) are often advised to undergo surgical reconstruction. Nevertheless, ACL reconstruction (ACLR) does not equate to normal function of the knee or reduced risk of subsequent injuries. In fact, recent evidence has shown that only around half of post-ACLR patients can expect to return to competitive level of sports. A rising concern is the high rate of second ACL injuries, particularly in young athletes, with up to 20% of those returning to sport in the first year from surgery experiencing a second ACL rupture...
February 5, 2019: Sports Medicine
Laura Crocco, Patricia McCabe, Catherine Madill
INTRODUCTION: Classical singing is a complex and multifaceted skill that requires the amalgamation of multiple cognitive, perceptual and motor functions. The teaching of classical singing is consequently a unique skill that holds further complexity. The singer is required to achieve and maintain consistently high performance development of a specific motor activity, much like the sports athlete. This pilot study examines a method of using the principles of motor learning to more objectively and reliably investigate the teaching behaviors of classical singing teachers...
January 31, 2019: Journal of Voice: Official Journal of the Voice Foundation
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