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Calf pulmonary surfactant

Kamlesh Kumar, Mariya Chavarha, Ryan W Loney, Thomas M Weiss, Shankar B Rananavare, Stephen B Hall
To determine how different components affect the structure of pulmonary surfactant, we measured X-ray scattering by samples derived from calf surfactant. The surfactant phospholipids demonstrated the essential characteristics of the Lγ phase: a unit cell with a lattice constant appropriate for two bilayers, and crystalline chains detected by wide-angle X-ray scattering (WAXS). The electron density profile, obtained from scattering by oriented films at different relative humidities (70-97%), showed that the two bilayers, arranged as mirror images, each contain two distinct leaflets with different thicknesses and profiles...
June 5, 2018: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
Ling Li, Chen Yang, Xiuliang Feng, Yongping Du, Zhihong Zhang, Yueping Zhang
AIM: This study aimed to study the effects of intratracheal instillation of budesonide on lung maturity of premature fetal rabbits. The developmental pattern of pulmonary alveoli in rabbits is similar to that in humans. METHOD: Fetal rabbits were taken out from female rabbits on the 28th day of pregnancy (full term = 31 days) by cesarean section (c-section). The fetal rabbits were divided into four groups: control (normal saline, NS), budesonide (budesonide, BUD), calf pulmonary surfactant for injection (pulmonary surfactant, PS), and calf pulmonary surfactant + budesonide for injection (pulmonary surfactant + budesonide, PS + BUD)...
January 2018: Pediatric Pulmonology
Daniel M Schenck, Jennifer Fiegel
Lung surfactant has been observed at all surfaces of the airway lining fluids and is an important contributor to normal lung function. In the conducting airways, the surfactant film lies atop a viscoelastic mucus gel. In this work, we report on the characterization of the tensiometric and phase domain behavior of lung surfactant at the air-liquid interface of mucus-like viscoelastic gels. Poly(acrylic acid) hydrogels were formulated to serve as a model mucus with bulk rheological properties that matched those of tracheobronchial mucus secretions...
March 9, 2016: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Douglas F Willson, Jonathon D Truwit, Mark R Conaway, Christine S Traul, Edmund E Egan
BACKGROUND: Surfactant has been shown to be dysfunctional in ARDS, and exogenous surfactant has proven effective in many forms of neonatal and pediatric acute lung injury (ALI). In view of the positive results of our studies in children along with evidence that surfactant-associated protein B containing pharmaceutical surfactants might be more effective, we designed a multiinstitutional, randomized, controlled, and masked trial of calfactant, a calf lung surfactant, in adults and children with ALI/ARDS due to direct lung injury...
August 2015: Chest
Wen-Li Zhou, Qi Zhou, Cong Li, Hui Wu
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the efficacy of calf pulmonary surfactant (PS) in the treatment of respiratory distress syndrome (RDS) in late preterm and full-term infants. METHODS: A randomized controlled trial was designed to evaluate the efficacy of calf PS intratracheally given at different times and doses in infants with RDS who had a gestational age of ≥35 weeks and an oxygenation index (OI) of 10-20. The subjects were randomly assigned to treatment group 1 (n=58), treatment group 2 (n=58), and control group (n=59)...
March 2014: Zhongguo Dang Dai Er Ke za Zhi, Chinese Journal of Contemporary Pediatrics
Ya-ping Lu, Yi Hu, Gu-ping Shi, Ming Yao, Bing Huang, Xu-yan Zhou, Jian-liang Sun, Jian-long DU, Guo-hao Xie, Xiang-ming Fang
OBJECTIVE: To explore the efficacy and safety of combined inflating lung and insufflating calf pulmonary surfactant under general anesthesia for treating postoperative intractable atelectasis. METHODS: From August 2006 to January 2013, 15 patients with obstinate postoperative atelectasis receiving pressure control lung expansion were enrolled. The bronchial cannula was intubated into the affected side to assist the expanding of the lung, and the calf pulmonary surfactant was insufflated selectively...
June 18, 2013: Zhonghua Yi Xue za Zhi [Chinese medical journal]
Adrian L Schwan, Suneel P Singh, Jason A Davy, Alan J Waring, Larry M Gordon, Frans J Walther, Zhengdong Wang, Robert H Notter
This paper reports the chemical synthesis and purification of a novel phospholipase-resistant C16:0, C16:1 diether phosphonoglycerol with structural analogy to ester-linked anionic phosphatidylglycerol (PG) in endogenous pulmonary surfactant. This diether phosphonoglycerol (PG 1) is studied for phospholipase A(2) (PLA(2)) resistance and for surface activity in synthetic exogenous surfactants combined with Super Mini-B (S-MB) peptide and DEPN-8, a previously-reported diether phosphonolipid analog of dipalmitoyl phosphatidylcholine (DPPC, the major zwitterionic phospholipid in native lung surfactant)...
December 1, 2011: MedChemComm
Ryan W Loney, Walter R Anyan, Samares C Biswas, Shankar B Rananavare, Stephen B Hall
Adsorption of pulmonary surfactant to an air-water interface lowers surface tension (γ) at rates that initially decrease progressively, but which then accelerate close to the equilibrium γ. The studies here tested a series of hypotheses concerning mechanisms that might cause the late accelerated drop in γ. Experiments used captive bubbles and a Wilhelmy plate to measure γ during adsorption of vesicles containing constituents from extracted calf surfactant. The faster fall in γ reflects faster adsorption rather than any feature of the equation of state that relates γ to surface concentration (Γ)...
April 19, 2011: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
Goran Enhorning
Beta(2)-adrenergic agonists cause a release of pulmonary surfactant into lung airways. The surfactant phospholipids maintain the patency of the conducting airways, but this function is inhibited by plasma proteins entering an inflamed airway. The physical behavior of the surfactant can be studied with a pulsating bubble surfactometer and a capillary surfactometer. Calf lung surfactant extract was found to be inhibited by plasma proteins and by a lowering of temperature. Severe breathing difficulties and malfunctioning surfactant developed in BALB/c mice inhaling ozone or infected with respiratory syncytial virus, mainly as a result of proteins invading the airways...
April 2008: Chest
Zhengdong Wang, Ute Schwab, Elizabeth Rhoades, Patricia R Chess, David G Russell, Robert H Notter
The transmission of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (TB) requires extensive damage to the lungs to facilitate bacterial release into the airways, and it is therefore likely that the microorganism has evolved mechanisms to exacerbate its local pathology. This study examines the inhibitory effects of lipids extracted and purified chromatographically from TB on the surface-active function of lavaged bovine lung surfactant (LS) and a clinically relevant calf lung surfactant extract (CLSE). Total lipids from TB greatly inhibited the surface activity of LS and CLSE on the pulsating bubble surfactometer at physical conditions applicable for respiration in vivo (37 degrees C, 20 cycles/min, 50% area compression)...
May 2008: Tuberculosis
Frans J Walther, Alan J Waring, Jose M Hernandez-Juviel, Larry M Gordon, Adrian L Schwan, Chun-Ling Jung, Yusuo Chang, Zhengdong Wang, Robert H Notter
BACKGROUND: This study examines the surface activity and resistance to phospholipase degradation of a fully-synthetic lung surfactant containing a novel diether phosphonolipid (DEPN-8) plus a 34 amino acid peptide (Mini-B) related to native surfactant protein (SP)-B. Activity studies used adsorption, pulsating bubble, and captive bubble methods to assess a range of surface behaviors, supplemented by molecular studies using Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, circular dichroism (CD), and plasmon resonance...
October 17, 2007: PloS One
Florence Lhert, Wenfei Yan, Samares C Biswas, Stephen B Hall
To determine if hydrophobic surfactant proteins affect the stability of pulmonary surfactant monolayers at an air/water interface, the studies reported here compared the kinetics of collapse for the complete set of lipids in calf surfactant with and without the proteins. Monomolecular films spread at the surface of captive bubbles were compressed at 37 degrees C to surface pressures above 46 mN/m, at which collapse first occurred. The rate of area-compression required to maintain a constant surface pressure was measured to directly determine the rate of collapse...
December 15, 2007: Biophysical Journal
Zhengdong Wang, Yusuo Chang, Adrian L Schwan, Robert H Notter
This study investigates the activity and inhibition resistance in excised rat lungs of a novel synthetic surfactant containing the phospholipase-resistant diether phosphonolipid DEPN-8 plus 1.5% bovine surfactant protein (SP)-B/C compared to calf lung surfactant extract (CLSE). DEPN-8 + 1.5% SP-B/C surpassed CLSE in normalizing surfactant-deficient pressure-volume (P-V) deflation mechanics in lavaged excised lungs in the presence of phospholipase A(2) (PLA(2)) or C18:1 lyso-phosphatidylcholine (LPC). DEPN-8 + 1...
October 2007: American Journal of Respiratory Cell and Molecular Biology
Kaushik Nag, Ashley Hillier, Kyle Parsons, Mauricia Fritzen Garcia
Lung surfactant (LS) a lipid-protein mixture is secreted by type-II pneumocytes and prevents alveolar collapse as well as maintains upper airway patency. In certain lung pathophysiology dysfunction of the LS occurs due to leakage of serum derived materials interacting with surfactant at the respiratory air-water interface. Bovine lipid extract surfactant (BLES) with and without foetal calf serum (FCS) were studied as models of bronchiolar airway patency using a capillary surfactometer, and in alveolar (terminal) airway using adsorbed Langmuir films in a surface balance...
August 1, 2007: Respiratory Physiology & Neurobiology
Wenfei Yan, Samares C Biswas, Ted G Laderas, Stephen B Hall
Monomolecular films of phospholipids in the liquid-expanded (LE) phase after supercompression to high surface pressures (pi), well above the equilibrium surface pressure (pi(e)) at which fluid films collapse from the interface to form a three-dimensional bulk phase, and in the tilted-condensed (TC) phase both replicate the resistance to collapse that is characteristic of alveolar films in the lungs. To provide the basis for determining which film is present in the alveolus, we measured the melting characteristics of monolayers containing TC dipalmitoyl phosphatidylcholine (DPPC), as well as supercompressed 1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl phosphatidylcholine and calf lung surfactant extract (CLSE)...
May 2007: Journal of Applied Physiology
Yusuo Chang, Zhengdong Wang, Adrian L Schwan, Zhongyi Wang, Bruce A Holm, John E Baatz, Robert H Notter
Two novel C16:0 sulfur-linked phosphonolipids (S-lipid and SO(2)-lipid) and two ether-linked phosphonolipids (C16:0 DEPN-8 and C16:1 UnDEPN-8) were studied for surface behavior alone and in mixtures with purified bovine lung surfactant proteins (SP)-B and/or SP-C. Synthetic C16:0 phosphonolipids all had improved adsorption and film respreading compared to dipalmitoyl phosphatidylcholine, and SO(2)-lipid and DEPN-8 reached maximum surface pressures of 72mN/m (minimum surface tensions of <1mN/m) in compressed films on the Wilhelmy balance (23 degrees C)...
October 2005: Chemistry and Physics of Lipids
Frans J Walther, José M Hernández-Juviel, Larry M Gordon, Alan J Waring, Patrick Stenger, Joseph A Zasadzinski
Surfactant protein B (SP-B) is an essential component of pulmonary surfactant. Synthetic dimeric SP-B(1-25) (SP-B(1-25)), a peptide based on the N-terminal domain of human SP-B, efficiently mimics the functional properties of SP-B. The authors investigated the optimum lipid composition for SP-B(1-25) by comparing the effects of natural lung lavage lipids (NLL), a synthetic equivalent of NLL (synthetic lavage lipids SLL), and a standard lipid mixture (TL) on the activities of SP-B(1-25). Surfactant preparations were formulated by mixing 2 mol% SP-B(1-25) in NNL, SLL, and TL...
July 2005: Experimental Lung Research
Wenfei Yan, Barbora Piknova, Stephen B Hall
Prior studies have shown that during and after slow compressions of monomolecular films containing the complete set of purified phospholipids (PPL) from calf surfactant at an air/water interface, surface pressures (pi) reach and sustain values that are remarkably high relative to expectations from simple systems with model lipids. Microscopy shows that the liquid-expanded, tilted-condensed, and collapsed phases are present together in the PPL films between 45 and 65 mN/m. The Gibbs phase rule restricts equilibrium coexistence of three phases to a single pi for films with two components but not for more constituents...
July 2005: Biophysical Journal
Zhengdong Wang, Adam Foye, Yusuo Chang, Patricia R Chess, Terry W Wright, Samir Bhagwat, Francis Gigliotti, Robert H Notter
This study examines the direct inhibitory effects of Pneumocystis carinii (Pc) organisms and chemical components on the surface activity and composition of whole calf lung surfactant (WLS) and calf lung surfactant extract (CLSE) in vitro. Incubation of WLS suspensions with intact Pc organisms (10(7) per milligram of surfactant phospholipid) did not significantly alter total phospholipid levels or surfactant protein A content. Incubation with intact Pc organisms also did not impair dynamic surface tension lowering in suspensions of WLS or centrifuged large surfactant aggregates on a bubble surfactometer (37 degrees C, 20 cycles/min, 0...
June 2005: American Journal of Physiology. Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology
Jay W Anseth, An J Goffin, Gerald G Fuller, Andrew J Ghio, Peter N Kao, Daya Upadhyay
Lung surfactant lowers surface tension and adjusts interfacial rheology to facilitate breathing. A novel instrument, the interfacial stress rheometer (ISR), uses an oscillating magnetic needle to measure the shear viscosity and elasticity of a surfactant monolayer at the air-water interface. The ISR reveals that calf lung surfactant, Infasurf, exhibits remarkable fluidity, even when exposed to air pollution residual oil fly ash (ROFA), hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), or conditioned media from resting A549 alveolar epithelial cells (AEC)...
August 2005: American Journal of Respiratory Cell and Molecular Biology
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