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Vitamin D review

Tobore Onojighofia Tobore
Alzheimers' disease (AD) is the most common cause of dementia, with an estimated 5 million new cases occurring annually. Among the elderly, AD shortens life expectancy, results in disability, decreases quality of life, and ultimately, leads to institutionalization. Despite extensive research in the last few decades, its heterogeneous pathophysiology and etiopathogenesis have made it difficult to develop an effective treatment and prevention strategy. Aging is the biggest risk factor for AD and evidence suggest that the total number of older people in the population is going to increase astronomically in the next decades...
February 8, 2019: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
Neelam Kaushal, Divya Vohora, Rajinder K Jalali, Sujeet Jha
Objectives: An understanding of bone mineral density (BMD) pattern in a population is crucial for prevention and diagnosis of osteoporosis and management of its complications in later life. This study aimed to screen the bone health status and factors associated with osteoporosis in an apparently healthy Indian population. Methods: A retrospective review of medical records was done in a tertiary-care hospital for the subjects who had undergone preventive health-check-ups that included BMD measurements at femur-neck, total-femur, and lumbar-spine...
June 2018: Osteoporosis and Sarcopenia
Mitra Hariri, Sara Zohdi
New evidence suggests that low serum Vitamin D may cause nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Hypovitaminosis D is associated with the severity and incidence of NAFLD. The objective of this study was to conduct a systematic review on randomized controlled trials (RCTs) assessing the effect of Vitamin D on serum metabolic profile among NAFLD patients. Databases including PubMed, Institute for Scientific Information Web of Science, Scopus, and Google Scholar were searched up to November 2016. RCTs which studied Vitamin D effect on metabolic profiles and liver function, and conducted among adults were included...
2019: International Journal of Preventive Medicine
Maria Grau-Perez, Golareh Agha, Yuanjie Pang, Jose D Bermudez, Maria Tellez-Plaza
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Epigenetic modifications are environmentally responsive and may play a mechanistic role in the development of disease. Mendelian randomization uses genetic variation to assess the causal effect of modifiable exposures on health outcomes. We conducted a systematic review of Mendelian randomization studies evaluating the causal role of DNA methylation (DNAm) changes on the development of health states, emphasizing on studies that formally evaluate exposure-DNAm, in addition to DNAm-outcome, causal associations...
February 18, 2019: Current Environmental Health Reports
Athira Unnikrishnan, J Peter R Pelletier, Shahla Bari, Marc Zumberg, Abbas Shahmohamadi, Bruce D Spiess, Mary Jane Michael, Neil Harris, Danielle Harrell, Molly W Mandernach
BACKGROUND: Delayed hemolytic transfusion reaction (DHTR) with hyperhemolysis is a potentially fatal complication resulting from alloimmunization that can cause severe hemolysis of both transfused and intrinsic red blood cells (RBCs). Patients with sickle cell disease often receive multiple RBC units during their lifetime and thus are likely to develop alloantibodies that increase the risk for DHTR. Treatment to decrease hemolysis includes intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG), steroids, eculizumab, rituximab, and plasmapheresis in addition to erythropoietin (EPO), intravenous (IV) iron, vitamin B12, and folate to support erythropoiesis...
February 15, 2019: Transfusion
Nidhi Chauhan, Susanta Kumar Padhy, Ruchita Shah, Savita Malhotra
Background: Vitamin D is increasingly recognized as important for brain health, apart from its role in endocrine and bone health. There is a growing recognition of worldwide "epidemic" of Vitamin D deficiency, and growing data from adult population illustrate the association between Vitamin D deficiency and psychiatric disorders. In children, its role is implicated in brain development, function, and psychiatric disorders. Aim: The aim of this study was to study the extent of Vitamin D deficiency in children and adolescents with psychiatric disorders...
January 2019: Journal of Neurosciences in Rural Practice
Elsa Gonzalez Nguyen-Tang, Paloma Parvex, Alexandra Goischke, Alexandra Wilhelm-Bals
Vitamin D deficiency is increasing in Switzerland. If cases of rickets are scarce, pediatricians are often dealing with patients presenting vitamin D deficiency. The increase in vitamin D deficiency is certainly due to modification of life habits in recent decades. Clinical presentation varies according to age and severity of deficit. Treatments differ based on the level of vitamin D deficiency and symptoms. Vitamin D deficiency rickets is the most common cause of rickets and is predominantly seen in patients with risks factors They are other types of rickets like pseudo-vitamin D deficiency and hypophosphatemic rickets that the clinician needs to recognize...
February 13, 2019: Revue Médicale Suisse
O I Bratchikov, S O Artishchev, I A Tyuzikov
This review, based on the results of modern epidemiological and clinical-experimental studies, highlights the important pathophysiological role of vitamin D and the disturbances of its metabolism (deficiency/insufficiency) in the pathogenesis of the metabolic syndrome (MS) in men, which according to available literature, is associated with adenoma of the prostate (AP). General information about the endocrinology of vitamin D and its role in maintaining various aspects of mens health is presented. The authors analyze currently known pathophysiological mechanisms involving vitamin D interacting with each other within the framework of the pathogenesis of MS and AP...
October 2018: Urologii︠a︡
Umberto Aimasso, Valentina D'onofrio, Chiara D'eusebio, Andrea Devecchi, Costanza Pira, Fabio D Merlo, Antonella De Francesco
Helicobacter pylori (HP) is a gram negative flagellated pathogen acid-resistant bacterium; it belongs to the order Campylobacterales that is wide spread all over the world, infecting more than 50% of the world population. HP infection is etiologically associated with non-atrophic and atrophic gastritis, peptic ulcer and with 3 to 6-fold increased relative risk for developing gastric adenocarcinoma and mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MA LT) lymphoma. For this reason HP is recognized by the World Health Organization as a Class I human carcinogen...
February 12, 2019: Minerva Gastroenterologica e Dietologica
Luke A Robles, Karen Dawe, Richard M Martin, Julian P T Higgins, Sarah J Lewis
BACKGROUND: Evidence from studies on prostate cancer progression have identified vitamin D to be a potentially important nutrient. However, the World Cancer Research Fund and American Institute for Cancer Research have reported the quality of this evidence to be limited and warrant further investigation. We plan to use the recently developed WCRF International/University of Bristol mechanistic systematic review framework to determine whether the observed association between vitamin D and prostate cancer exists through a plausible biological pathway...
February 12, 2019: Systematic Reviews
Renée L Davis, Alongkorn Aksornsri, Michelle M Papachrisanthou
PROBLEM: No consensus on vitamin D deficiency (VDD) screening in children and adolescents exists. Early VDD detection can improve the health of children. VDD can cause bone mineralization diseases, such as rickets in children. The purpose of this review is to determine existing VDD screening recommendations or clinical practice guidelines in children and adolescents. ELIGIBILITY CRITERIA: Inclusion criteria were VDD screening 'guideline', 'clinical practice guideline', and 'recommendations' for children and adolescents in English, published 2001-2018...
February 9, 2019: Journal of Pediatric Nursing
Tair Ben-Porat, Anat Weiss-Sadan, Amihai Rottenstreich, Shiri Sherf-Dagan, Chaya Schweiger, Irit Mor Yosef-Levi, Dana Weiner, Odile Azulay, Nasser Sakran, Rivki Harari, Ram Elazary
Bariatric surgery (BS) may be effective for chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients by reducing microalbuminuria and proteinuria, and by facilitating their meeting inclusion criteria for kidney transplantation. However, nutritional management for this population is complex and specific guidelines are scarce. A literature search was performed to create dietetic practice for these patients based on the most recent evidence. For the purposes of nutritional recommendations, we divided the patients into 2 subgroups: 1) patients with CKD and dialysis, and 2) patients after kidney transplantation...
January 1, 2019: Advances in Nutrition
Claudia Savard, Claudia Gagnon, Anne-Sophie Morisset
Studies that examined associations between low circulating 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) and adverse pregnancy outcomes used various designs, assay methods and time points for measurement of 25(OH)D concentrations, which creates some confusion in the current literature. We aimed to investigate the variability in the timing and measurement methods used to evaluate vitamin D status during pregnancy. Analysis of 198 studies published between 1976 and 2017 showed an important variability in the choice of 1) threshold values for 25(OH)D insufficiency or deficiency, 2) 25(OH)D measurement methods, and 3) trimester in which 25(OH)D concentrations were measured...
February 12, 2019: International Journal for Vitamin and Nutrition Research. Journal International de Vitaminologie et de Nutrition
Cristina Jardi, Núria Aranda, Cristina Bedmar, Victoria Arija
Adequate dietary intake is vital for infants' growth and development. The aim was to analyse food consumption and energy and nutrient intakes in a group of healthy Spanish infants and toddlers. Cross-sectional study. 154 infants were assessed at 6 months, and followed at 12 and 30 months. Clinical history, anthropometry, type of feeding, food consumption and energy and nutrient intakes (24-hours recall) were estimated. Advice about food consumed, estimated average requirements, the prevalence of inadequate intakes and percentage of adequacy of the recommended dietary allowance were applied...
February 12, 2019: International Journal for Vitamin and Nutrition Research. Journal International de Vitaminologie et de Nutrition
Hai-Di Wu, Hong-Yan Cao, Zi-Kai Song, Shuo Yang, Ming-Long Tang, Yang Liu, Ling Qin
BACKGROUND: Rivaroxaban is a non-vitamin K antagonist oral anticoagulant that does not require coagulation monitoring based on current recommendations. Our goal is to explore whether routine coagulation monitoring should not be required for all patients receiving oral rivaroxaban, what relationship between routine coagulation abnormalities and bleeding, and how to deal with the above clinical situations through our case and review of the literature. CASE SUMMARY: We report a 67-year-old woman with a history of atrial fibrillation who presented to the hospital with worsening dyspnea and cough...
February 6, 2019: World Journal of Clinical Cases
Manal Mohamed Almoudi, Alaa Sabah Hussein, Mohamed Ibrahim Abu Hassan, Robert J Schroth
Dental caries and vitamin D inadequacy are known to affect children worldwide. Vitamin D has a vital role in tooth formation. There is growing evidence linking suboptimal serum vitamin D level with dental caries in children. This paper reviews the literature on both the prevalence of dental caries and vitamin D deficiency among children in four Asian regions, discusses their associated risk factors, and reviews the global evidence on the association between dental caries and vitamin D in children. Caries prevalence among children ranged from 40% to 97% % in Eastern Asia, 38%-73...
February 11, 2019: Pediatrics International: Official Journal of the Japan Pediatric Society
Sarah Milliken, Ruridh M Allen, Ronald F Lamont
The use of antibiotics prenatally, during pregnancy, or neonatally may have adverse effects on the neonatal gut microbiome, and adversely affect the development of the infant immune system, leading to the development of childhood atopy, asthma, allergy and obesity. Areas covered: We reviewed new evidence about vaginal eubiosis and dysbiosis from molecular-based, cultivation-independent techniques, and how this affects the neonatal gut microbiome and early development of the immune system in infants. We have considered the association between maternal use of antibiotics and the potentially beneficial role of vitamin D in the development of atopy, asthma, allergy and obesity...
February 11, 2019: Expert Opinion on Drug Safety
G Koller, S Katz, T L Charrois, C Ye
Glucocorticoid-induced osteoporosis (GIOP) is common in patients prescribed with long-term glucocorticoids. Guidelines suggest patients receiving moderate-dose glucocorticoid therapy receive GIOP preventive care. Previous studies have shown preventive care rates are not optimal. We look at GIOP preventive care rates in rheumatology patients and predictors of various components of care. PURPOSE: Glucocorticoid-induced osteoporosis (GIOP) is a common concern in patients prescribed with long-term glucocorticoids...
February 5, 2019: Archives of Osteoporosis
R A S N Ranasinghe, S D T Maduwanthi, R A U J Marapana
Artocarpus heterophyllus Lam., which is commonly known as jackfruit is a tropical climacteric fruit, belonging to Moraceae family, is native to Western Ghats of India and common in Asia, Africa, and some regions in South America. It is known to be the largest edible fruit in the world. Jackfruit is rich in nutrients including carbohydrates, proteins, vitamins, minerals, and phytochemicals. Both the seeds and the flesh of jackfruit are consumed as curries and boiled forms, while the flesh in fully ripen stage can be eaten directly as a fruit...
2019: International Journal of Food Science
Armin Zittermann, Stefan Pilz, Heiner K Berthold
PURPOSE: For the prevention of nutritional rickets, 400 IU vitamin D daily and circulating 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25OHD) concentrations > 50 nmol/L are recommended, whereas the toxicity threshold is set at 250 nmol/L. We synthesized the evidence for the effect of vitamin D supplementation on incremental 25OHD in infants up to 1 year of age. METHODS: We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis of intervention trials in several databases. A total of 87 records were identified for full-text review and 27 articles with 61 studies were included in the final analysis...
February 5, 2019: European Journal of Nutrition
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