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Georg Hölzl, Peter Dörmann
Chloroplasts contain high amounts of monogalactosyldiacylglycerol (MGDG) and digalactosyldiacylglycerol (DGDG) and low levels of the anionic lipids sulfoquinovosyldiacylglycerol (SQDG), phosphatidylglycerol (PG), and glucuronosyldiacylglycerol (GlcADG). The mostly extraplastidial lipid phosphatidylcholine is found only in the outer envelope. Chloroplasts are the major site for fatty acid synthesis. In Arabidopsis, a certain proportion of glycerolipids is entirely synthesized in the chloroplast (prokaryotic lipids)...
February 20, 2019: Annual Review of Plant Biology
Jenine McCutcheon, Ian M Power, Jeremiah Shuster, Anna Lee Harrison, Gregory Dipple, Gordon Southam
The stability and longevity of carbonate minerals make them an ideal sink for surplus atmospheric carbon dioxide. Biogenic magnesium carbonate mineral precipitation from the magnesium-rich tailings generated by many mining operations could offset net mining greenhouse gas emissions, while simultaneously giving value to mine waste products. In this investigation, cyanobacteria in a wetland bioreactor enabled the precipitation of magnesite (MgCO3), hydromagnesite [Mg5(CO3)4(OH)2·4H2O], and dypingite [Mg5(CO3)4(OH)2·5H2O] from a synthetic wastewater comparable in chemistry to what is produced by acid leaching of ultramafic mine tailings...
February 20, 2019: Environmental Science & Technology
Heesun Yu, Ryangha Lee, Hyoungsu Kim, Dongjoo Lee
A Lewis acid-promoted highly regio- and diastereoselective C(sp3 )-C(sp2 ) cross-coupling reaction between unprotected aryl-substituted 1,2-diols and styryl-, aryl-, heteroaryl-, and polyarylboronic acids has been developed in a one-pot procedure. The regioselective opening of aryl-substituted cyclic boronic esters promoted by a Lewis acid, followed by subsequent intramolecular 1,4-transfer of the carbon ligand from boron to a resonance-stabilized benzylic carbenium ion minimizing the allylic 1,3-strain in a stereoselective fashion led to the corresponding α-substituted syn-phenylethyl alcohols...
February 20, 2019: Journal of Organic Chemistry
Freddy Marpaung, Konstantin Konstantinov, Yusuke Yamauchi, Md Shahriar A Hossain, Jongbeom Na, Jeonghun Kim
Metal-organic frameworks (MOFs)-derived nanoporous carbon materials have received significant interest due to their advantages of controllable porosity, good thermal/chemical stability, high electrical conductivity, catalytic activity, easy modification with other elements and materials, etc. Thus, MOF-derived carbons have been used in numerous applications such as environment, energy storage systems (i.e., batteries, supercapacitors), catalysts, etc. Until now, many strategies have been developed in order to enhance the properties and performances of MOF-derived carbons...
February 20, 2019: Chemistry, An Asian Journal
Kai Yao, Zhanwei Xu, Jianfeng Huang, Meng Ma, Licai Fu, Xuetao Shen, Jia Li, Maosen Fu
Molybdenum disulfide (MoS2 ), a 2D-layered compound, is regarded as a promising anode for sodium-ion batteries (SIBs) due to its attractive theoretical capacity and low cost. The main challenges associated with MoS2 are the low rate capability suffering from the sluggish kinetics of Na+ intercalation and the poor cycling stability owning to the stack of MoS2 sheets. In this work, a unique architecture of bundled defect-rich MoS2 (BD-MoS2 ) that consists of MoS2 with large vacancies bundled by ultrathin MoO3 is achieved via a facile quenching process...
February 20, 2019: Small
Sana Asif, Kenta Asawa, Yuuki Inoue, Kazuhiko Ishihara, Björn Lindell, Robin Holmgren, Bo Nilsson, Anneli Rydén, Marianne Jensen-Waern, Yuji Teramura, Kristina N Ekdahl
Artificial surfaces that come into contact with blood induce an immediate activation of the cascade systems of the blood, leading to a thrombotic and/or inflammatory response that can eventually cause damage to the biomaterial or the patient, or to both. Heparin coating has been used to improve hemocompatibility, and another approach is 2-methacryloyloxyethyl phosphorylcholine (MPC)-based polymer coatings. Here, the aim is to evaluate the hemocompatibility of MPC polymer coating by studying the interactions with coagulation and complement systems using human blood in vitro model and pig in vivo model...
February 20, 2019: Macromolecular Bioscience
Philipp Gotico, Bernard Boitrel, Régis Guillot, Marie Sircoglou, Annamaria Quaranta, Zakaria Halime, Winfried Leibl, Ally Aukauloo
Inspired by nature's orchestra of chemical subtleties to activate and reduce CO2 , we have developed a family of iron porphyrin derivatives in to which we have introduced urea groups functioning as multipoint hydrogen-bonding pillars on the periphery of the porphyrinic ring. This structure closely resembles the hydrogen-bond stabilization scheme of the carbon dioxide (CO2 ) adduct in the carbon monoxide dehydrogenase (CODH). We found that such changes to the second coordination sphere significantly lowered the overpotential for CO2 reduction in this family of molecular catalysts and importantly increased the CO2 binding rate while maintaining high turnover frequency (TOF) and selectivity...
February 20, 2019: Angewandte Chemie
Zhirong Zhao-Karger, Ping Gao, Thomas Ebert, Svetlana Klyatskaya, Zhi Chen, Mario Ruben, Maximilian Fichtner
Organic materials are both environmentally and economically attractive as potential electrode candidates. This Research News reports on a new class of stable and electrically conductive organic electrodes based on metal porphyrins with functional groups that are capable of electrochemical polymerization, rendering the materials promising for electrochemical applications. Their structural flexibility and the unique highly conjugated macrocyclic structure allows the produced organic electrodes to act as both cathode and anode materials giving access to fast charging as well as high cycling stability...
February 20, 2019: Advanced Materials
Julio C Ruiz, Olga V Hunter, Nicholas K Conrad
Nuclear RNAs are subject to a number of RNA decay pathways that serve quality control and regulatory functions. As a result, any virus that expresses its genes in the nucleus must have evolved mechanisms that avoid these pathways, but the how viruses evade nuclear RNA decay remains largely unknown. The multifunctional Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) ORF57 (Mta) protein is required for the nuclear stability of viral transcripts. In the absence of ORF57, we show that viral transcripts are subject to degradation by two specific nuclear RNA decay pathways, PABPN1 and PAPα/γ-mediated RNA decay (PPD) in which decay factors are recruited through poly(A) tails, and an ARS2-mediated RNA decay pathway dependent on the 5' RNA cap...
February 20, 2019: PLoS Pathogens
Fasil Wagnew, Getiye Dejenu, Setegn Eshetie, Animut Alebel, Wubet Worku, Amanuel Alemu Abajobir
BACKGROUND: More than 29 million that is an estimated 5%, under-five children suffer from severe acute malnutrition (SAM) globally, with a nine times higher risk of mortality than that of well-nourished children. However, little is known regarding outcomes and predictors of SAM in Ethiopia. Therefore, this study aims to determine treatment cure rate and its predictors among children aged 6-59 months with SAM admitted to a stabilization center. METHODOLOGY: A retrospective record review was employed in SAM children at the University of Gondar Comprehensive Specialized Hospital (UOGCSH) from 2014 to 2016...
2019: PloS One
Mariana M Oliveira, Davi C Aragon, Vanessa S Bomfim, Tânia M B Trevilato, Larissa G Alves, Anália R Heck, Francisco E Martinez, José S Camelo
Breast milk is considered the gold standard nutritional resource for very low birth weight (VLBW) infants in terms of nutrients and protective factors. If mother's milk is not available, the second choice is donated and fortified human milk (HM) from the Human Milk Bank (HMB). This study hypothesized that HM could be lyophilized and used as an additive to increase the levels of macronutrients and micronutrients available to VLBW infants. This study aimed to constitute a lyophilized HM concentrate and determine the osmolality and the concentration of macronutrients and micronutrients in HM samples at "baseline" and in "HM concentrates", analyzed immediately (HMCI), and after 3 (HMC3m) and 6 (HMC6m) months of freezing...
2019: PloS One
Hongdan Yang, Fengxia Zhang, Ching-Jung Huang, Jun Liao, Ying Han, Piliang Hao, Youjun Chu, Xiaoai Lu, Wenshu Li, Hongtao Yu, Jungseog Kang
Accurate partitioning of chromosomes during mitosis is essential for genetic stability and requires the assembly of the dynamic mitotic spindle and proper kinetochore-microtubule attachment. The spindle assembly checkpoint (SAC) monitors the incompleteness and errors in kinetochore-microtubule attachment and delays anaphase. The SAC kinase Mps1 regulates the recruitment of downstream effectors to unattached kinetochores. Mps1 also actively promotes chromosome alignment during metaphase, but the underlying mechanism is not completely understood...
February 20, 2019: Molecular Biology of the Cell
Anja Langenstroer, Kalathil K Kartha, Yeray Dorca, Jörn Dröste, Vladimir Stepanenko, Rodrigo Q Albuquerque, Michael Ryan Hansen, Luis Sanchez, Gustavo Fernández
The phenomenon of polymorphism is ubiquitous in biological systems and has been also observed in various types of self-assembled materials in solution and the solid state. In the field of supramolecular polymers, different kinetic vs. thermodynamic self-assembled species may exist in competition, a phenomenon termed as pathway complexity. In these examples, the transient kinetic species often has a very short lifetime and rapidly converts into the thermodynamic product. In this article, we report a π-conjugated Pt(II) complex 1 that self-assembles in nonpolar medium into two supramolecular polymers with distinct molecular packing (slipped (A) vs...
February 20, 2019: Journal of the American Chemical Society
Jing Yang, Junxue An, Lianpeng Tong, Baihua Long, Ting Fan, Lele Duan
Water oxidation is regarded as the bottleneck of the water splitting and the development of water oxidation catalysts is of importance in the view of reducing reaction barriers and promoting water oxidation efficiency. Recently, the Sun group has disclosed a family of highly active water oxidation catalysts, [Ru(bda)(L)2 ] (bda2- = 2,2'-bipyridine-6,6'-dicarboxylate; L = N-containing ligands). Herein, we replaced the bda2- ligand with a 2,2'-bipyridine-6,6'-dicarbothioate (bct2- ) ligand and prepared a mononuclear ruthenium complex [Ru(bct)(pic)2 ] (Ru-bct, pic = 4-picoline)...
February 20, 2019: Inorganic Chemistry
Alain Dautant, Julien Henri, Thomas E Wales, Philippe Meyer, John R Engen, Florian Georgescauld
In order to be fully active and participate in the metabolism of phosphorylated nucleotides, most nucleoside diphosphate kinases (NDPK) have to assemble into stable hexamers. Here we studied the role played by six inter-subunit salt bridges R80-D93 in the stability of NDPK from the pathogen Mycobacterium tuberculosis ( Mt). Mutating R80 into Ala or Asn abolished the salt bridges. Unexpectedly, compensatory stabilizing mechanisms appeared for R80A and R80N mutants and we studied them by biochemical and structural methods...
February 20, 2019: Biochemistry
Xing Ou, Liang Cao, Xinghui Liang, Fenghua Zheng, Hong-Sheng Zheng, Xianfeng Yang, Jeng-Han Wang, Chenghao Yang, Meilin Liu
SnS2 has been extensive studied as an anode material for sodium storage owing to its high theoretical specific capacity, whereas, the unsatisfied initial coulombic efficiency (ICE) caused by the partial irreversible conversion reaction during the charge/discharge process is one of the critical issues that hamper its practical applications. Hence, heterostructured SnS2/Mn2SnS4/carbon nanoboxes (SMS/C NBs) have been developed by a facial wet-chemical method and utilized as the anode material of SIBs. SMS/C NBs can deliver an initial capacity of 841...
February 20, 2019: ACS Nano
T Scott Stroup, Tobias Gerhard, Stephen Crystal, Cecilia Huang, Zhiqiang Tan, Melanie M Wall, Chacku Mathai, Mark Olfson
Importance: People with schizophrenia are commonly treated with psychotropic medications in addition to antipsychotics, but there is little evidence about the comparative effectiveness of these adjunctive treatment strategies. Objective: To study the comparative real-world effectiveness of adjunctive psychotropic treatments for patients with schizophrenia. Design, Setting, and Participants: This comparative effectiveness study used US national Medicaid data from January 1, 2001, to December 31, 2010, to examine the outcomes of initiating treatment with an antidepressant, a benzodiazepine, a mood stabilizer, or another antipsychotic among adult outpatients (aged 18-64 years) diagnosed with schizophrenia who were stably treated with a single antipsychotic...
February 20, 2019: JAMA Psychiatry
Iara Inácio Botega, Ariane Zamarioli, Patrícia Madalena San Gregório Guedes, Raquel Assed Bezerra da Silva, João Paulo Mardegan Issa, Mariana Maloste Butezloff, Yara Terezinha Corrêa Silva Sousa, João Paulo Bianchi Ximenez, José Batista Volpon
PURPOSE: To evaluate the effects of food restriction on fracture healing in growing rats. METHODS: Sixty-eight male Wistar rats were assigned to two groups: (1) Control and (2) Dietary restriction. After weaning the dietary restricted animals were fed ad libitum for 42 days with 50% of the standard chow ingested by the control group. Subsequently, the animals underwent bone fracture at the diaphysis of the right femur, followed by surgical stabilization of bone fragments...
February 14, 2019: Acta Cirúrgica Brasileira
M Guidoni, M M de Christo Scherer, M M Figueira, E F P Schmitt, L C de Almeida, R Scherer, S Bogusz, M Fronza
Vegetable oils have been used for a plethora of health benefits by their incorporation in foods, cosmetics, and pharmaceutical products, especially those intended for skin care. This study aimed to investigate the cutaneous benefits of a vegetable oil blend (VOB) formulation and its fatty acid composition. The anti-inflammatory activity was studied in macrophages of RAW 264.7 cells by investigating the release of nitric oxide (NO), superoxide anion generation (O2-), tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), and interleukin 6 (IL-6)...
February 14, 2019: Brazilian Journal of Medical and Biological Research, Revista Brasileira de Pesquisas Médicas e Biológicas
Sandra S Nurttila, Riccardo Zaffaroni, Simon Mathew, Joost N H Reek
Hydrogen as a renewable fuel is viable when produced sustainably via proton reduction catalysis (PRC). Many homogeneous electrocatalysts perform PRC with high rates, but they all require a large overpotential to drive the reaction. Natural hydrogenase enzymes achieve reversible PRC with potentials close to the thermodynamic equilibrium through confinement of the active site in a well-defined protein pocket. Inspired by nature, we report a strategy that relies on the selective encapsulation of a synthetic hydrogenase mimic in a novel supramolecular cage...
February 20, 2019: Chemical Communications: Chem Comm
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