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Corticospinal excitability

Evan J Lockyer, Anna P Nippard, Kaitlyn Kean, Nicole Hollohan, Duane C Button, Kevin E Power
BACKGROUND: The present study compared corticospinal excitability to the biceps brachii muscle during arm cycling at a self-selected and a fixed cadence (SSC and FC, respectively). We hypothesized that corticospinal excitability would not be different between the two conditions. METHODS: The SSC was initially performed and the cycling cadence was recorded every 5 s for one minute. The average cadence of the SSC cycling trial was then used as a target for the FC of cycling that the participants were instructed to maintain...
February 14, 2019: Brain Sciences
Ricci Hannah, Anna Iacovou, John C Rothwell
BACKGROUND: Recent studies have shown that neurophysiological outcomes of transcranial direct current stimulation (TDCS) are influenced by current flow in brain regions between the electrodes, and in particular the orientation of current flow relative to the cortical surface. OBJECTIVE: We asked whether the directional effects of TDCS on physiological measures in the motor system would also be observed on motor behaviours. METHODS: We applied TDCS during the practice of a ballistic movement task to test whether it affected learning or the retention of learning 48 h later...
January 28, 2019: Brain Stimulation
Kimiya Fujio, Hiroki Obata, Noritaka Kawashima, Kimitaka Nakazawa
The prediction of upcoming perturbation modulates postural responses in the ankle muscles. The effects of this prediction on postural responses vary according to predictable factors. When the amplitude of perturbation can be predicted, the long-latency response is set at an appropriate size for the required response, whereas when the direction of perturbation can be predicted, there is no effect. The neural mechanisms underlying these phenomena are poorly understood. Here, we examined how the corticospinal excitability of the ankle muscles [i...
2019: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
Siobhan C Dongés, Janet L Taylor, James L Nuzzo
NEW FINDINGS: What is the central question of this study? Corticospinal excitability to biceps brachii is known to modulate according to upper-limb posture. Here, cervicomedullary stimulation was used to investigate potential spinal contributions to elbow angle dependent changes in corticospinal excitability at rest. What is the main finding and its importance? At more extended elbow angles, biceps responses to cervicomedullary stimulation were decreased, whereas cortically-evoked responses (normalised to cervicomedullary-evoked responses) were increased...
January 28, 2019: Experimental Physiology
Ashlyn K Frazer, Glyn Howatson, Juha P Ahtiainen, Janne Avela, Timo Rantalainen, Dawson J Kidgell
Frazer, AK, Howatson, G, Ahtiainen, JP, Avela, J, Rantalainen, T, and Kidgell, DJ. Priming the motor cortex with anodal transcranial direct current stimulation affects the acute inhibitory corticospinal responses to strength training. J Strength Cond Res 33(2): 307-317, 2019-Synaptic plasticity in the motor cortex (M1) is associated with strength training (ST) and can be modified by transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS). The M1 responses to ST increase when anodal tDCS is applied during training due to gating...
February 2019: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
Stephen P Bailey, Julie Hibbard, Darrin La Forge, Madison Mitchell, Bart Roelands, G Keith Harris, Stephen Folger
PURPOSE: The purpose of this investigation is to determine the effects of different forms of a CHO MR on quadriceps muscle performance and corticospinal motor excitability. METHODS: Ten subjects (5 females, 5 males; 25±1 years; 1.71±0.03 m 73±5 kg) completed 4 trials. A different MR condition was applied during each trial (Placebo (PLA), 6.4% glucose (GLU), 6.4% maltose (MAL), 6.4% maltodextrin (MDX)). Maximal voluntary contraction (MVIC) of the right quadriceps and motor-evoked potential (MEP) of the right rectus femoris was determined pre (10 min), immediately after, and post (10 min) MR...
January 24, 2019: International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance
Stephan G Bodkin, Grant E Norte, Joseph M Hart
PURPOSE: To investigate relationships between quadriceps strength and neural activity, and to establish a clinical threshold of corticospinal excitability able to discriminate between patients with quadriceps strength indicative of satisfactory and unsatisfactory knee function after ACLR. METHODS: 29 patients following primary, unilateral ACL reconstruction (11 female, 23.2±8.1 years of age, 7.3±2.5 months since surgery) participated. Subjective knee function was quantified using the International Knee Documentation Committee (IKDC) subjective evaluation...
January 23, 2019: Scandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science in Sports
Akiyoshi Matsugi
PURPOSE: The contribution of gamma-aminobutyric acidergic inhibitory neural circuits in the primary motor cortex, as estimated by the cortical silent period, during weak and strong force output has not been defined. The aim of this study was to investigate whether cortical silent period is modulated with change from weak to strong force control. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Eleven healthy right-handed adults participated in this study. With the aid of visual feedback, participants were asked to control the force of abduction of the right index finger to 10%, 20%, 40%, 60%, 80%, and 100% of the maximum voluntary contraction...
January 17, 2019: Somatosensory & Motor Research
Monica M MacDonald, Hawazin Khan, Sarah N Kraeutner, Francesco Usai, Emily Anne Rogers, Derek S Kimmerly, Gail Dechman, Shaun G Boe
Aerobic exercise (AE) modulates cortical excitability. It can alter both corticospinal excitability and intra-cortical networks, which has implications for its use as a tool to facilitate processes such as motor learning, where increased levels of excitability are conducive to the induction of neural plasticity. Little is known about how different intensities of AE modulate cortical excitability or how individual-level characteristics impact on it. Therefore, we investigated whether AE intensities, lower than those previously employed, would be effective in increasing cortical excitability...
January 16, 2019: Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, Physiologie Appliquée, Nutrition et Métabolisme
Jarugool Tretriluxana, Jenjira Thanakamchokchai, Chutima Jalayondeja, Narawut Pakaprot, Suradej Tretriluxana
OBJECTIVE: To examine the long-term effects of the low-frequency repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (LFrTMS) combined with task-specific training on paretic hand function following subacute stroke. METHODS: Sixteen participants were randomly selected and grouped into two: the experimental group (real LFrTMS) and the control group (sham LF-rTMS). All the 16 participants were then taken through a 1-hour taskspecific training of the paretic hand. The corticospinal excitability (motor evoke potential [MEP] amplitude) of the non-lesioned hemisphere, and the paretic hand performance (Wolf Motor Function Test total movement time [WMFT-TMT]) were evaluated at baseline, after the LF-rTMS, immediately after task-specific training, 1 and 2 weeks after the training...
December 2018: Annals of Rehabilitation Medicine
Moussa A Chalah, Paul Kauv, Alain Créange, Jérôme Hodel, Jean-Pascal Lefaucheur, Samar S Ayache
BACKGROUND: Fatigue is a multifactorial symptom frequently reported by multiple sclerosis (MS) patients. To date, the pathophysiology of MS fatigue remains poorly understood and little is known about the relationship between this symptom and various clinical, neuropsychological, neurophysiological and radiological data. The aim of this work is to understand the underlying mechanisms of MS fatigue by means of a multidimensional evaluation. METHODS: Fatigued (n = 21) and non-fatigued (n = 17) MS patients were enrolled based on the Modified Fatigue Impact Scale...
December 21, 2018: Multiple Sclerosis and related Disorders
Jakob Škarabot, Paul Ansdell, Callum G Brownstein, Kevin Thomas, Glyn Howatson, Stuart Goodall, Rade Durbaba
Electrical stimulation over the mastoids or thoracic spinous processes has been used to assess subcortical contribution to corticospinal excitability, but responses are difficult to evoke in the resting lower limbs or are limited to only a few muscle groups. This might be mitigated by delivering the stimuli lower on the spinal column, where the descending tracts contain a greater relative density of motoneurons projecting to lower limb muscles. We investigated activation of the corticospinal axons innervating tibialis anterior (TA) and rectus femoris (RF) by applying a single electrical stimulus over the first lumbar spinous process (LS)...
December 27, 2018: European Journal of Neuroscience
Satoko Koganemaru, Yusuke Mikami, Hitoshi Maezawa, Masao Matsuhashi, Satoshi Ikeda, Katsunori Ikoma, Tatsuya Mima
The corticospinal system and local spinal circuits control human bipedal locomotion. The primary motor cortex is phase-dependently activated during gait; this cortical input is critical for foot flexor activity during the swing phase. We investigated whether gait-combined rhythmic brain stimulation can induce neuroplasticity in the foot area of the motor cortex and alter gait parameters. Twenty-one healthy subjects participated in the single-blinded, cross-over study. Each subject received anodal transcranial patterned direct current stimulation over the foot area of the right motor cortex during gait, sham stimulation during gait, and anodal transcranial patterned direct current stimulation during rest in a random order...
2018: PloS One
Dimitry G Sayenko, Darryn A Atkinson, Amber M Mink, Katelyn M Gurley, V Reggie Edgerton, Susan J Harkema, Yury P Gerasimenko
As part of a project aimed to develop a novel, non-invasive techniques for comprehensive assessment of supraspinal-spinal connectivity in humans, the present study sought to explore the convergence of descending vestibulospinal and corticospinal pathways onto lumbosacral motor pools. Transcutaneous electrical spinal stimulation-evoked motor potentials were recorded from knee and ankle flexors and extensors in resting neurologically intact participants. Descending influences on lumbosacral motor neurons were studied using galvanic vestibular (GVS) or transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) to elicit descending vestibulospinal or corticospinal volleys, respectively...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
Arun Jayaraman, Megan K O'Brien, Sangeetha Madhavan, Chaithanya K Mummidisetty, Heidi R Roth, Kristen Hohl, Annie Tapp, Kimberly Brennan, Masha Kocherginsky, Kenton J Williams, Hideaki Takahashi, William Z Rymer
OBJECTIVE: To test the hypothesis that gait training with a hip-assistive robotic exoskeleton improves clinical outcomes and strengthens the descending corticospinal drive to the lower limb muscles in persons with chronic stroke. METHODS: Fifty participants completed the randomized, single-blind, parallel study. Participants received over-ground gait training with the Honda Stride Management Assist (SMA) exoskeleton or intensity-matched functional gait training, delivered in 18 sessions over 6-8 weeks...
December 19, 2018: Neurology
Lavender A Otieno, George M Opie, John G Semmler, Michael C Ridding, Simranjit K Sidhu
Fatiguing intermittent single-joint exercise causes an increase in corticospinal excitability and a decrease in intracortical inhibition when measured with peripherally recorded motor evoked potentials (MEPs) after transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS). Combined TMS and electroencephalography (TMS-EEG) allows for more direct recording of cortical responses through the TMS-evoked potential (TEP). The aim of this study was to investigate the changes in the excitatory and inhibitory components of the TEP during fatiguing single-joint exercise...
February 1, 2019: Journal of Neurophysiology
Lucile Dupin, Loïc Carment, Laura Guedj, Macarena Cuenca, Marie-Odile Krebs, Marc A Maier, Isabelle Amado, Påvel G Lindberg
The ability to infer from uncertain information is impaired in schizophrenia and is associated with hallucinations and false beliefs. The accumulation of information is a key process for generating a predictive internal model, which statistically estimates an outcome from a specific situation. This study examines if updating the predictive model by the accumulation of information in absence of feedback is impaired in schizophrenia. We explored the implicit adaptation to the probability of being instructed to perform a movement (33%-Go, 50%-Go, or 66%-Go) in a Go/NoGo task in terms of reaction times (RTs), electromyographic activity, and corticospinal excitability (CSE) of primary motor cortex (M1)...
December 17, 2018: Schizophrenia Bulletin
Charlotte Rosso, Jean-Charles Lamy
Background: Resting Motor threshold (rMT) is one of the measurement obtained by Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (TMS) that reflects corticospinal excitability. As a functional marker of the corticospinal pathway, the question arises whether rMT is a suitable biomarker for predicting post-stroke upper limb function. To that aim, we conducted a systematic review of relevant studies that investigated the clinical significance of rMT in stroke survivors by using correlations between upper limb motor scores and rMT...
2018: Frontiers in Neurology
Ghazaleh Darmani, Til O Bergmann, Carl Zipser, David Baur, Florian Müller-Dahlhaus, Ulf Ziemann
Brain responses to transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) recorded by electroencephalography (EEG) are emergent noninvasive markers of neuronal excitability and effective connectivity in humans. However, the underlying physiology of these TMS-evoked EEG potentials (TEPs) is still heavily underexplored, impeding a broad application of TEPs to study pathology in neuropsychiatric disorders. Here we tested the effects of a single oral dose of three antiepileptic drugs with specific modes of action (carbamazepine, a voltage-gated sodium channel (VGSC) blocker; brivaracetam, a ligand to the presynaptic vesicle protein VSA2; tiagabine, a gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) reuptake inhibitor) on TEP amplitudes in 15 healthy adults in a double-blinded randomized placebo-controlled crossover design...
December 13, 2018: Human Brain Mapping
Francis Houde, Sarah Laroche, Veronique Thivierge, Marylie Martel, Marie-Philippe Harvey, Frederique Daigle, Ailin Olivares-Marchant, Louis-David Beaulieu, Guillaume Leonard
Background: Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) is a non-invasive technique that can be used to evaluate cortical function and corticospinal pathway in normal and pathological aging. Yet, the metrologic properties of TMS-related measurements is still limited in the aging population. Objectives: The aim of this cross-sectional study was to document the reliability and smallest detectable change of TMS measurements among community-dwelling seniors. A secondary objective was to test if TMS measurements differ between elders based on lifestyle, medical and socio-demographic factors...
2018: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
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