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Joshua T B Williams, Abraham M Nussbaum
The Reverend Rowland Hill, MA, was a well-liked 18th-century British preacher who became one of the greatest vaccination advocates of his time.1 Born on August 23, 1744, into a wealthy family in the English countryside, Hill enjoyed a privileged upbringing and attended Cambridge University. There Hill met his destiny through a chance encounter with George Whitefield, a traveling preacher and founder of Methodism. Inspired by Whitefield, Hill left academia after earning an MA and was ordained as a deacon in the Church of England...
March 21, 2019: American Journal of Public Health
Baljinder K Sahdra, Joseph Ciarrochi, Philip D Parker, Rhonda Craven, Robert Brockman, Emma K Devine, James Conigrave, Doris F Chang
OBJECTIVES: To what extent is the frame of reference of overlapping friendship communities important for young people's feelings of discrimination and subjective well-being? That is, do youth feel better or worse to the extent that they feel less or more discrimination than their friends? METHOD: Participants ( N = 898; M age = 14.13; SD age = 3.37; 46% females; 46% Whites; 20% Indigenous; 34% other minorities) were high school students of three ethnically diverse, low socioeconomic status public schools in New South Wales, Australia...
March 21, 2019: Cultural Diversity & Ethnic Minority Psychology
Jacqueline Zarkos, Daniel Addai, Anna Tolekova
Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) complicates 3.5% of pregnancies in England and Wales and continues to show an increase in incidence each year. GDM can lead to diabetes postpartum, it is associated with an increased perinatal risk, and an increase in neonatal mortality. This review article looks at different studies regarding protein diets and their potential effects on GDM. We aimed to determine if a certain protein diet could potentially help protect against GDM using. We found that while a few studies have shown that increasing proteins in the diet of pregnant women, specifically that from poultry, whey, fish, nuts and legumes, may reduce the risk of GDM, there is certainly room for further research on the topic...
February 28, 2019: Open Access Macedonian Journal of Medical Sciences
Dorna Esrafilzadeh, Ali Zavabeti, Rouhollah Jalili, Paul Atkin, Jaecheol Choi, Benjamin J Carey, Robert Brkljača, Anthony P O'Mullane, Michael D Dickey, David L Officer, Douglas R MacFarlane, Torben Daeneke, Kourosh Kalantar-Zadeh
The original version of this Article contained errors in the author affiliations. Affiliation 1 incorrectly read 'School of Chemical Engineering, University of New South Wales (UNSW), Sydney, NSW 2031, Australia' and affiliation 4 incorrectly read 'School of Engineering, RMIT University, Melbourne, VIC 3001, Australia.' This has now been corrected in both the PDF and HTML versions of the Article.
March 20, 2019: Nature Communications
Dinah Hickish, Debbie Roberts
BACKGROUND: Palliative care in the UK has become more medicalised over the last 50 years, and it was recognised as a medical speciality in 2004. However, out of financial expediency, an inpatient hospice in North Wales has become nurse-led. AIMS: This article considers the history of care of the dying and discusses how nurses are best placed to be masters of care of the dying. METHODS: The model of nurse-led care is described in terms of how this innovation in practice has developed, allowing the advanced nurse practitioner role to be extended to an autonomous level of hospice care not practised anywhere else in the UK...
March 2, 2019: International Journal of Palliative Nursing
Tom Brougham, Elizabeth T Smith, Phil R Bell
[This corrects the article DOI: 10.1098/rsos.180826.].
February 2019: Royal Society Open Science
Mohamed A Lebda, Waleed N El-Hawarry, Ramy M Shourbela, Ali H El-Far, Ramadan S Shewita, Shaker A Mousa
Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) is the most common aquaculture fish, but its exposure to various pollutants and may be susceptible to infectious diseases due to reduction in their antioxidant status and immune defense. Therefore, researchers have tried to find feed supplements of natural origin to increase the health status of fish and decrease the incidence of drug resistance. The current study was conducted to investigate the effect of dietary supplementation of Miswak (Salvadora persica, SP) on Nile tilapia...
March 16, 2019: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
Julie Dao, Catherine Spooner, Winston Lo, Mark F Harris
Many Australian adults with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) do not follow recommended self-management behaviours that could prevent or delay complications. This exploratory study aimed to investigate the factors influencing self-management of T2DM in general practice. Semi-structured qualitative interviews were conducted with patients with T2DM (n = 10) and their GPs (n = 4) and practice nurses (n = 3) in a low socioeconomic area of Sydney, New South Wales, Australia. The interviews were analysed thematically using the socio-ecological model as a framework for coding...
March 20, 2019: Australian Journal of Primary Health
Numan Salah, Waleed M Al-Shawafi, Ahmed Alshahrie, Neazar Baghdadi, Yesri M Soliman, Adnan Memic
Zinc oxide nanostructures (ZnO-NS) have shown to be of great value for several biological and biomedical applications. In particular, they have been used in bioimaging and delivery applications as well as inhibitors of microbial growth. In this work a new methodology for producing highly crystalline, size controlled ZnO-NS using a chemical microwave assisted synthetic route is described. A wide range of sizes and shapes of ZnO-NS could be controlled by varying the molar ratio of zinc nitrate to hexamethylenetetramine (HMT) from 3:20 to 30:20...
June 2019: Materials Science & Engineering. C, Materials for Biological Applications
Daniela Migliarese Isaac, Abeer S Alzaben, Vera C Mazurak, Jason Yap, Pamela R Wizzard, Patrick N Nation, Yuan-Yuan Zhao, Jonathan M Curtis, Consolato Sergi, Paul W Wales, Diana R Mager, Justine M Turner
OBJECTIVES: In parenteral nutrition dependent infants and children, intestinal failure (IF) associated liver disease (IFALD) remains an important problem. A comparative study was undertaken of parenteral mixed lipid (ML), ω-3 predominant fish oil (FO), and ω-6 predominant soybean oil (SO) emulsions in regards to hepatic phytosterol, neutral lipid, fatty acid (FA) content and the relationship to cholestasis in piglets. METHODS: Neonatal piglets received parenteral nutrition, varying in lipid dose (5 or 10 g/kg/d) and formulation: SO5 (n = 5), SO10 (n = 5), FO5 (n = 5) and ML10 (n = 5)...
March 5, 2019: Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition
Christopher L Welle, Brian T Welch, Waleed Brinjikji, Eric C Ehman, Sudhakar K Venkatesh, Matthew P Johnson, Vivek N Iyer, Michael D Leise, Christopher P Wood
PURPOSE: Hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia (HHT) is an autosomal dominant multi-organ vascular disorder that commonly affects the gastrointestinal tract and the liver resulting in telangiectasias and arteriovenous malformations (AVMs). Previous studies looking at the prevalence of liver and abdominal organ involvement in HHT have been limited by differing imaging techniques and sample size limitations. We sought to define the prevalence of HHT related abdominal vascular abnormalities using optimized multiphasic contrast-enhanced abdominal computed tomography (CT) exams in a large cohort of HHT patients...
March 19, 2019: Abdominal Radiology
Seokjin Moon, Yuh Hijikata, Stephan Irle
Nitrogen-doped graphene (N-graphene) has been intensively studied for tailoring the electronic property of the graphene, because different nitrogen configurations influence the electronic properties of N-graphene in different ways. However, atomically precise control of the nitrogen configurations during the doping process remains a challenge in the synthesis of N-graphene. Moreover, additional structural transformations of the graphene carbon network structure as a side-effect of plasma doping are little understood and are as of yet uncontrollable...
March 19, 2019: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
Samuel Green, H Hodgson, J Bobrowski
Exercise CAMBRIAN PATROL is an internationally recognised, arduous patrolling exercise held annually in Mid-South Wales. The 2017 iteration of the exercise generated three uncommon shoulder injuries in three consecutive days, all of which were thought to have a similar aetiology. This article presents a case series of three instances of scapular winging in soldiers carrying heavy weight. We review the relevant anatomy and pathophysiology of long thoracic nerve injury and discuss management strategies of scapular winging...
March 17, 2019: Journal of the Royal Army Medical Corps
Thomas J Sorenson, Giuseppe Lanzino, Kelly D Flemming, Deena M Nasr, Shannon Y Chiu, Bruce E Pollock, Waleed Brinjikji
PURPOSE: Brainstem arteriovenous malformations (AVMs) present a formidable therapeutic challenge, and a variety of surgical and non-surgical treatment strategies can be used to obliterate the AVM nidus, eliminating its risk of hemorrhage. However, complete obliteration of brainstem AVMs is often not possible. We aimed to investigate the natural history of brainstem AVMs with incomplete nidus obliteration after initial treatment. METHODS: Data from consecutive patients who presented to our institution during the study period with a brainstem AVM and residual nidus after treatment were retrospectively reviewed...
March 15, 2019: Journal of Clinical Neuroscience: Official Journal of the Neurosurgical Society of Australasia
Chris Hurt, Rajeswari Ramaraj, Angela Farr, Meleri Morgan, Namor Williams, Ceri J Philips, Geraint T Williams, Georgina Gardner, Catherine Porter, Julian Sampson, Sharon Hillier, Hayley Heard, Sunil Dolwani
BACKGROUND: Most post-colonoscopy interval colorectal cancers are proximal; serrated polyps are often precursors to these cancers and are considered difficult to detect. We assessed the safety, feasibility, and economic effect of chromocolonoscopy on detection of proximal serrated neoplasia. METHODS: We did an open-label, multicentre, randomised, controlled non-inferiority trial including patients from Bowel Screening Wales centres. Participants who tested positive for faecal occult blood and who were eligible for and considered fit to have colonoscopy (patients with known cases of polyposis syndromes, Lynch syndrome, and chronic inflammatory disease were excluded) were randomly assigned (1:1; with the use of minimisation, stratified by centre with an 80:20 random element) to either standard white light colonoscopy (standard group) or chromocolonoscopy (indigo carmine dye [0·2%]; chromocolonoscopy group) using a secure, internet-based, computerised, randomisation system that used centralised, dynamic allocation...
March 15, 2019: Lancet. Gastroenterology & Hepatology
Lamya Garabet, Waleed Ghanima, Anbjørg Rangberg, Raul Teruel-Montoya, Constantino Martinez, Maria Luisa Lozano, Camilla F Nystrand, James B Bussel, Per Morten Sandset, Christine M Jonassen
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small non-coding RNAs involved in the regulation of gene expression. Dysregulated expression of several miRNAs has been found in primary immune thrombocytopenia (ITP) suggesting that miRNAs are likely involved in the pathogenesis of ITP. We aimed to explore the differential expression of miRNAs in patients with ITP before and after starting treatment with thrombopoietin-receptor agonists (TPO-RAs) to clarify their roles in the pathophysiology of ITP, and as potential diagnostic and prognostic markers of this disorder...
March 18, 2019: Platelets
Kevin L Li, Andrew Y Lee, Waleed M Abuzeid
The correlation between aspirin sensitivity, asthma, and nasal polyposis was recognized in the early 20th century. Today, this classic triad of symptoms, eponymously named Samter's Triad, is known as aspirin exacerbated respiratory disease (AERD). Aspirin exacerbated respiratory disease affects approximately 0.3⁻0.9% of the general population in the USA and approximately 7% of asthmatic patients. The management of AERD is challenging as no single modality has proven to have high rates of symptom control. Consequently, disease management typically involves a multimodality approach across both medical and surgical disciplines...
March 17, 2019: Medical Sciences: Open Access Journal
Ivan C Hanigan, Margaret I Rolfe, Luke D Knibbs, Farhad Salimi, Christine T Cowie, Jane Heyworth, Guy B Marks, Yuming Guo, Martin Cope, Adrian Bauman, Bin Jalaludin, Geoffrey G Morgan
BACKGROUND: Epidemiological studies show that long-term exposure to ambient air pollution reduces life expectancy. Most studies have been in environments with relatively high concentrations such as North America, Europe and Asia. Associations at the lower end of the concentration-response function are not well defined. OBJECTIVES: We assessed associations between all-cause mortality and exposure to annual average particulate matter <2.5 μm (PM2.5 ) and nitrogen dioxide (NO2 ) in Sydney, Australia, where concentrations are relatively low...
March 14, 2019: Environment International
Shivram Kumar, Giuseppe Lanzino, Waleed Brinjikji, Kate W Hocquard, Kelly D Flemming
GOAL: Sporadic brain cavernous malformations commonly correlate with developmental venous anomalies; however, developmental venous anomalies may exist without cavernous malformations. Infratentorial location and specific angioarchitectural features of the developmental venous anomaly increase the odds of a concomitant malformation. Animal data also suggest chronic inflammatory disease, oxidative stress, and angiogenesis promote cavernous malformation development. We sought to determine potential clinical and radiologic factors promoting development of sporadic cavernous malformations...
March 13, 2019: Journal of Stroke and Cerebrovascular Diseases: the Official Journal of National Stroke Association
Yasmin Jauhari, Melissa Ruth Gannon, Carmen Tsang, Kieran Horgan, David Dodwell, Karen Clements, Jibby Medina, Sarah Tang, Ruth Pettengell, David Alan Cromwell
BACKGROUND: There is little clinical evidence to guide treatment decisions for ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) in older women. This study evaluated how the management of DCIS in women aged 70 or more compared with women aged 50-69 in England and Wales. METHOD: The study identified women aged ≥50 years with new unilateral DCIS diagnosed between 2014 and 2016 from linked cancer registration and routine hospital datasets for England and Wales. Rates of surgery and adjuvant radiotherapy were examined by age, deprivation, fitness measures (comorbidity and frailty), method of presentation and tumour grade using multilevel logistic regression...
March 7, 2019: European Journal of Surgical Oncology
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