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Germain Honvo, Olivier Bruyère, Anton Geerinck, Nicola Veronese, Jean-Yves Reginster
INTRODUCTION: There are some controversies about treatment modalities in osteoarthritis (OA), including chondroitin sulfate (CS). The objective of this study was to determine whether CS is effective at alleviating pain and improving function in patients with knee OA and to identify the factors that explain inconsistencies in clinical trial results. METHODS: We conducted a systematic review of randomized, placebo-controlled trials, searching the databases Medline, Cochrane central register for controlled trials and Scopus...
March 16, 2019: Advances in Therapy
Sho Nagamine, Takashi Ashikaga, Shinichiro Masuda, Kota Komiyama, Takaaki Tsuchiyama, Takashi Shibui, Kenzo Hirao
Excimer laser coronary angioplasty (ELCA) is a unique revascularization modality that can vaporize plaque and thrombus. Compared to thrombus aspiration therapy, ELCA is reported to provide better microcirculation and reduced peripheral embolism in treatment for acute coronary syndrome. Excimer laser catheters come in various sizes, and we sought to compare the 0.9- and 1.4-mm-diameter catheters. We retrospectively enrolled 90 acute myocardial infarction (AMI) patients who underwent primary percutaneous coronary intervention with excimer laser from August 2013 to March 2017 in our hospital...
March 16, 2019: Lasers in Medical Science
J-W Feng, X-H Yang, B-Q Wu, D-L Sun, Y Jiang, Z Qu
BACKGROUND: Central lymph node metastasis (LNM) in papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) is common. But the association between primary tumor characteristics and specific features of metastatic lymph nodes in PTC has not been fully identified. Determining risk factors for LNM may help surgeons determine rational extent of lymph node dissection. METHODS: Data from 432 patients who underwent thyroidectomy with cervical lymph node dissection for PTC were retrospectively analyzed...
March 16, 2019: Clinical & Translational Oncology
Robert Colbourn, Aditi Naik, Sabina Hrabetova
Seizure activity is governed by changes in normal neuronal physiology that lead to a state of neuronal hyperexcitability and synchrony. There is a growing body of research and evidence suggesting that alterations in the volume fraction (α) of the brain's extracellular space (ECS) have the ability to prolong or even initiate seizures. These ictogenic effects likely occur due to the ECS volume being critically important in determining both the concentration of neuroactive substances contained within it, such as ions and neurotransmitters, and the effect of electric field-mediated interactions between neurons...
March 16, 2019: Neurochemical Research
Fengqin Gao, Mancheng Hu, Shuni Li, Quanguo Zhai, Yucheng Jiang
A multitude of industrial processes are catalyzed by two or more enzymes working together in a cascade way. However, designing efficient enzymatic cascade reactions is still a challenge. In this work, a TiO2 thin film with mesoporous pores was prepared and used as carrier for co-immobilization of chloroperoxidase (CPO) and glucose peroxidase (GOx). By adjusting the dosage of hexadecyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) and the ratio of the two enzymes, CPO and GOx were well distributed and positional orientated to their own appropriate pores to form an ordered "occupation" based on a "feet in right shoes" effect...
March 16, 2019: Bioprocess and Biosystems Engineering
Woonhyeok Jeong, Young Seok Kim, Tai Suk Roh, Eun Hye Kang, Bok Ki Jung, In Sik Yun
PURPOSE: Non-activated platelet-rich plasma (nPRP) slowly releases growth factors that induce bone regeneration. Adipose tissue-derived stem cells (ASCs) are also known to induce osteoblast differentiation. In this study, we investigated the combined effect of nPRP and ASC treatment compared with single therapy on bone regeneration. METHODS: Thirty New Zealand white rabbits with 15 × 15 mm2 calvarial defects were randomly divided into four treatment groups: control, nPRP, ASC, or nPRP + ASC groups...
March 16, 2019: Child's Nervous System: ChNS: Official Journal of the International Society for Pediatric Neurosurgery
Markus Bongert, Johannes Gehron, Marius Geller, Andreas Böning, Philippe Grieshaber
OBJECTIVES: Limb ischaemia during extracorporeal life support (ECLS) using femoral artery cannulation is frequently observed even in patients with regular vessel diameters and without peripheral arterial occlusive disease. We investigated underlying pathomechanisms using a virtual fluid-mechanical simulation of the human circulation. METHODS: A life-sized model of the human aorta and major vascular branches was virtualized using 3-dimensional segmentation software (Mimics, Materialise)...
March 15, 2019: Interactive Cardiovascular and Thoracic Surgery
Shailendra Segobin, Alice Laniepce, Ludivine Ritz, Coralie Lannuzel, Céline Boudehent, Nicolas Cabé, Laurent Urso, François Vabret, Francis Eustache, Hélène Beaunieux, Anne-Lise Pitel
The thalamus, a relay organ consisting of several nuclei, is shared between the frontocerebellar circuit and the Papez circuit, both particularly affected in alcohol use disorder. Shrinkage of the thalamus is known to be more severe in alcoholics with Korsakoff's syndrome than in those without neurological complications (uncomplicated alcoholics). While thalamic atrophy could thus be a key factor explaining amnesia in Korsakoff's syndrome, the loci and nature of alterations within the thalamic nuclei in uncomplicated alcoholics and alcoholics with Korsakoff's syndrome remains unclear...
March 15, 2019: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
Laura Crucianelli, Lucy Serpell, Yannis Paloyelis, Lucia Ricciardi, Paul Robinson, Paul Jenkinson, Aikaterini Fotopoulou
INTRODUCTION: Anorexia nervosa (AN) is an eating disorder characterised by restriction of energy intake, fears of gaining weight and related body image disturbances. The oxytocinergic system has been proposed as a pathophysiological candidate for AN. Oxytocin is a neuropeptide involved in bodily processes (eg, breast feeding) and in the onset of social behaviours (eg, bonding). Studies investigating the effect of intranasal oxytocin (IN-OT) in AN showed that it can improve attentional bias for high-calorie food and fat bodies stimuli, and related stress...
March 15, 2019: BMJ Open
Jean-Michel Hatt, Maya Kummrow, Sandra Wenger, Marcus Clauss
Courtship behaviour of tortoises includes biting, ramming, chasing, same-sex sexual behaviour, and it commonly is excessive in European tortoise species kept as pets. As a result, males are kept individually. To assess the effect of orchiectomy on excessive courtship behaviour in European tortoises, 50 tortoises ( Testudo graeca , T hermanni and T marginata ) underwent endoscopically assisted orchiectomy from April through September 2013 to 2017. Statistical analyses were performed in relation to species, body mass, testicular size and season and owners were invited to fill out a follow-up questionnaire...
March 16, 2019: Veterinary Record
J W Bloodworth, M C Baptie, K F Preedy, J Best
Emamectin benzoate is used as an in-feed treatment for the control of sea lice parasites in all of the main farmed Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) facilities worldwide (Norway, Chile, Scotland and Canada). Investigations into its effect on non-target benthic fauna resulting from its excretion from farmed fish and uneaten feed have been limited. This paper presents the findings from a study that intended to assess the impact of emamectin benzoate on benthic fauna using a new low detection method for emamectin benzoate...
February 28, 2019: Science of the Total Environment
Chao Zhang, Xiaohong Yao, Ying Chen, Qiang Chu, Yang Yu, Jinhui Shi, Huiwang Gao
Dust deposition can bring nutrients and trace elements to the upper ocean and affect phytoplankton growth and community structure. We conducted a comparative study using on-board microcosm experiments amended with varying amounts of dust (0.2, 1, and 2 mg L-1 ) in the East China Sea (eutrophic zone), the subtropical gyre (low-nutrient and low-chlorophyll zone, LNLC), and the Kuroshio-Oyashio transition region (high-nutrient and low-chlorophyll zone, HNLC) of the Northwest Pacific Ocean. The additions of dust supplied a considerable amount of nitrogen (N) and negligible phosphorus (P) relative to the seawater collected for incubation experiments (baseline), contributing to increases in Chlorophyll a with increasing dust additions...
February 28, 2019: Science of the Total Environment
F Oduber, A I Calvo, C Blanco-Alegre, A Castro, T Nunes, C Alves, M Sorribas, D Fernández-González, A M Vega-Maray, R M Valencia-Barrera, F Lucarelli, S Nava, G Calzolai, E Alonso-Blanco, B Fraile, P Fialho, E Coz, A S H Prevot, V Pont, R Fraile
Saharan air masses can transport high amounts of mineral dust particles and biological material to the Iberian Peninsula. During winter, this kind of events is not very frequent and usually does not reach the northwest of the Peninsula. However, between 21 and 22 February 2016 and between 22 and 23 February 2017, two exceptional events were registered in León (Spain), which severely affected air quality. An integrative approach including: i) typical synoptic conditions; ii) aerosol chemical composition; iii) particle size distributions; iv) pollen concentration; v) aerosol optical depth (AOD); vi) radiative forcing and vii) estimation of the impact of aerosols in the respiratory tract, was carried out...
February 27, 2019: Science of the Total Environment
Qing Yu, Jing Chen, Weihua Qin, Siming Cheng, Yuepeng Zhang, Mushtaq Ahmad, Wei Ouyang
Water-soluble organic acids are widely involved in various atmospheric physicochemical processes and appear as an important fraction of atmospheric aerosols. Nineteen water-soluble organic acids in 12-h PM1 , PM2.5 and PM10 samples collected in urban Beijing during haze episodes in winter and spring of 2017 were identified to investigate their characteristics and secondary formation mechanism. The molecular distributions of water-soluble organic acids as well as the high ratio of phthalic acid (Ph)/azelaic acid (C9 ) indicated severe aromatic secondary organic aerosol pollution during the haze episodes, especially in winter...
March 10, 2019: Science of the Total Environment
Zefeng Song, Xinyao Yang, Fangmin Chen, Fangyuan Zhao, Ying Zhao, Lili Ruan, Yinggang Wang, Yuesuo Yang
Environmental processes of nanoplastics in heterogeneous natural groundwater systems remain unclear. In this study, the control of particle size and surface functional groups on the fate and transport of nanoplastics in an organic matter (OM) rich aquifer was explored using batch and column tests. The carboxyl-modified 200 nm (200CNP), carboxyl-modified 50 nm (50CNP), and amino-modified 50 nm (50ANP) polystyrene latex beads were used as surrogates for nanoplastics of contrasting sizes and surface functional groups...
March 8, 2019: Science of the Total Environment
Jin Li, Xiaohu Yin, Zongkuan Liu, Zhaolin Gu, Jiaxin Niu
Military nitrocellulose waste is flammable and explosive, and thus requires safe disposal and resource utilization. The alkaline hydrolysis process is a potential treatment method for nitrocellulose waste. In this study, a reaction yield model of nitrocellulose alkaline hydrolysis reaction was studied. For this purpose, a theoretical reaction yield model of nitrocellulose alkaline hydrolysis was developed based on Fick's law and scanning electron microscopy analysis. Additionally, the reaction yield model was experimentally validated...
March 11, 2019: Journal of Hazardous Materials
Hongyang Wu, Wenjuan Wang, Yanfang Huang, Guihong Han, Shuzhen Yang, Shengpeng Su, Hafiza Sana, Weijun Peng, Yijun Cao, Jiongtian Liu
Toxic metal pollutants threaten water environment. It exists undesirably metal-ion concentration limits with conventional precipitation flotation. An enhanced precipitation flotation system focusing on efficient removal for bivalent metal-ions was researched. The system involved the addition of humics and Fe3+ to generate and regulate the precipitates. The characteristics of precipitates were investigated by particle analysis, conditional stability constants and DLVO theory calculations, and SEM&TEM imaging...
March 12, 2019: Journal of Hazardous Materials
Gabriel Barbieri, Fabio Pinto da Silva
The use of three-dimensional models for analysis has been increasing in various fields. This study aimed to analyze the process of acquiring 3D meshes by photogrammetry using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images. 3D models were reconstructed from different numbers of SEM images using a free photogrammetry software. The 3D models obtained were aligned and compared quantitatively to a model obtained by microtomography (microCT). The results suggest that it is possible to reconstruct 3D photogrammetric models with micrometric precision using SEM...
March 1, 2019: Micron: the International Research and Review Journal for Microscopy
David O'Connor, Deyi Hou, Yong Sik Ok, Jan Mulder, Lei Duan, Qingru Wu, Shuxiao Wang, Filip M G Tack, Jörg Rinklebe
Mercury (Hg) is a potentially harmful trace element in the environment and one of the World Health Organization's foremost chemicals of concern. The threat posed by Hg contaminated soils to humans is pervasive, with an estimated 86 Gg of anthropogenic Hg pollution accumulated in surface soils worldwide. This review critically examines both recent advances and remaining knowledge gaps with respect to cycling of mercury in the soil environment, to aid the assessment and management of risks caused by Hg contamination...
March 14, 2019: Environment International
Pinja Näkki, Outi Setälä, Maiju Lehtiniemi
Microplastics (MPs) are ubiquitous in the marine environment. High concentrations of MPs are found from seafloor sediments, which have been proposed to act as their final sinks. Because bioturbation is an important process affecting the burial of MPs, a mesocosm experiment was established to study whether sediment infauna may also promote MP return to the sediment surface. Thin layers of frozen sediment containing an environmentally realistic concentration (<1300 MPs per kg of dry sediment) of MP fragments in two size classes (>500 μm and 100-300 μm) were added to depths of 2 cm and 5 cm in the experimental cylinders filled with sediment...
March 4, 2019: Environmental Pollution
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