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Membrane Bioreactor

Kendrick B Turner, Scott N Dean, Scott A Walper
Bacterial membrane vesicles, whether naturally occurring or engineered for enhanced functionality, have significant potential as tools for bioremediation, enzyme catalysis, and the development of therapeutics such as vaccines and adjuvants. In many instances, the vesicles themselves and the naturally occurring proteins are sufficient to lend functionality. Alternatively, additional function can be conveyed to these biological nanoparticles through the directed packaging of peptides and proteins, specifically recombinant enzymes chosen to mediate a specific reaction or facilitate a controlled response...
2019: Methods in Enzymology
Ruo-Hong Li, Wei-Jun Wang, Bing Li, Jia-Yu Zhang, Jie Liu, Gui-Juan Zhang, Xue-Chao Guo, Xi-Hui Zhang, Xiao-Yan Li
A novel acidogenic phosphorus recovery (APR) process was developed in combination with Fe(III)-based chemical phosphorus removal and a membrane bioreactor (MBR) for enhanced wastewater treatment and effective P recovery. Two different system configurations were evaluated: Fe-dosing MBR (Fe-MBR), with the Fe-dosing into the MBR, and Fe-enhanced primary sedimentation followed by the MBR (FeP-MBR). The results show that both systems performed well for enhanced nutrient (N and P) removals and P recovery, with approximately 50% of the total P recovered from the municipal wastewater in the form of vivianite...
February 13, 2019: Bioresource Technology
Lijie Zhou, Wei-Qin Zhuang, Yashika De Costa, Siqing Xia
With the rapid development and application of consumer products containing nanoparticles (NPs), especially titanium dioxide (TiO2 ) NPs, the potential effects of suspended NPs on wastewater treatment has been a concern over the recent years. This study investigated the potential effects of suspended TiO2 NPs on activated sludge flocculation properties in a membrane bioreactor (MBR). Results showed that suspended TiO2 NPs inhibited the viability of activated sludge flocs, and led to bacterial protein secretion for bacterial protection, causing an overall protein increase of soluble microbial products...
February 11, 2019: Chemosphere
Roent Dune A Cayetano, Jong-Hun Park, Seoktae Kang, Sang-Hyoun Kim
The applicability of a dynamic membrane (DM) was examined in the anaerobic treatment of high-strength food waste. A DM was established on woven polyester with a pore size of 50 µm, which achieved a solids retention time to hydraulic retention time ratio of 2.1:12.1. The highest average rate of methane production (1.1 L CH4 /L/d) was achieved with an organic loading rate (OLR) of 5.0 g chemical oxygen demand (COD)/L/d. Propionate was the most abundant volatile fatty acid (VFA) for OLRs above 3.1 g/L/d, but concentrations were maintained below 0...
February 7, 2019: Bioresource Technology
Hendrik Naujokat, Maximilian Lipp, Yahya Açil, Henning Wieker, Falk Birkenfeld, Andre Sengebusch, Florian Böhrnsen, Jörg Wiltfang
AIM: Reconstruction of bone defects with autologous grafts has certain disadvantages. The aim of this study is to introduce a new type of living bioreactor for engineering of bone flaps and to evaluate the effect of different barrier membranes. MATERIALS & METHODS: Scaffolds loaded with bone morphogenetic proteins and bone marrow aspirate wrapped with either a collagen membrane or a periosteal flap were implanted in the greater omentum of miniature pigs. RESULTS: Both histological and radiographic evaluation showed proven bone formation and increased density after 8 and 16 weeks, with an enhanced effect of the periosteal transplant...
February 15, 2019: Regenerative Medicine
Miranda L Jacobs, Margrethe A Boyd, Neha P Kamat
The expression and integration of membrane proteins into vesicle membranes is a critical step in the design of cell-mimetic biosensors, bioreactors, and artificial cells. While membrane proteins have been integrated into a variety of nonnatural membranes, the effects of the chemical and physical properties of these vesicle membranes on protein behavior remain largely unknown. Nonnatural amphiphiles, such as diblock copolymers, provide an interface that can be synthetically controlled to better investigate this relationship...
February 13, 2019: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Amin Noormohamadi, Maryam Homayoonfal, Mohammad Reza Mehrnia, Fatemeh Davar
The aim of this research is benefiting from the synergistic effect of simultaneous presence of Fe3 O4 and ZrO2 in the form of Fe3 O4 coated ZrO2 (Fe3 O4 @ZrO2 ) nanoparticles within the structure of PAN membrane to reduce membrane fouling. The role of Fe3 O4 nanoparticles in increasing the pore size and magnetic saturation as well as the role of ZrO2 in decreasing surface roughness and hydrophobicity can mitigate membrane fouling in magnetic assisted membrane bioreactors. For this purpose, Fe3 O4 , ZrO2 , and Fe3 O4 @ZrO2 nanoparticles were embedded into PAN membrane structure and magnetic (Mn M), hydrophilic (Hn M), and magnetic-hydrophilic (HMn M) membranes were synthesized...
February 11, 2019: Environmental Technology
Baoyu Ren, Chengyue Li, Xihui Zhang, Zhenghua Zhang
Ferrous dosing is used to reduce phosphorus concentration and alleviate polymeric membrane fouling in membrane bioreactor (MBR). However, limited studies have been conducted to investigate the impacts of ferrous dosing on ceramic membrane fouling, nutrient removal efficiency and microbial community. Accordingly, the aim of this study was to investigate the effect of intermittent ferrous dosing with Fe/P molar ratios of 2 and 1 (with a dosing frequency of every two days) on the overall nutrient removal, functional microbial changes and membrane fouling in ceramic membrane bioreactors (CMBR) in treatment of wastewater...
February 2, 2019: Science of the Total Environment
Patrick Mullen, Kaushik Venkiteshwaran, Daniel H Zitomer, Brooke K Mayer
Nutrient recovery from municipal wastewater was evaluated using anion exchange media loaded with hydrated ferric oxide (HFO) and copper (Cu2+ ) (Dow-HFO-Cu resin) to selectively capture phosphate, followed by clinoptilolite for ammonium removal and recovery. Nutrients were concentrated in the regenerants and recovered as precipitated struvite. Media exchange capacity after multiple ion exchange cycles was determined using permeate from an anaerobic membrane bioreactor (AnMBR) treating synthetic or actual municipal wastewater from a full-scale water reclamation facility...
February 8, 2019: Water Environment Research: a Research Publication of the Water Environment Federation
Sang Yeob Kim, Hector A Garcia, Carlos M Lopez-Vazquez, Chris Milligan, Dennis Livingston, Aridai Herrera, Marin Matosic, Josip Curko, Damir Brdjanovic
The operation of membrane bioreactors (MBRs) at higher than usual mixed liquor suspended solids (MLSS) concentrations may enhance the loading rate treatment capacity while minimizing even further the system's footprint. This requires operating the MBR at the highest possible MLSS concentration and biomass activity (e.g., at high loading rates and low solid retention times (SRTs)). Both a negative effect of the MLSS concentrations and a positive effect of the SRT on the oxygen transfer have been reported when using conventional fine bubble diffusers...
February 8, 2019: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Gabriela K Paulus, Luc M Hornstra, Nikiforos Alygizakis, Jaroslav Slobodnik, Nikolaos Thomaidis, Gertjan Medema
This study quantified antibiotic and antibiotic resistance gene (ARG) concentrations in hospital and communal wastewaters as well as the influents and effluents of the receiving urban wastewater treatment plants (UWWTP) in two Dutch cities. In only one city, hospital wastewater was treated on-site using advanced technologies, including membrane bioreactor treatment (MBR), ozonation, granulated activated carbon (GAC) and UV-treatment. On-site hospital wastewater (HWW) treatment reduced gene presence of hospital-related antibiotic resistance genes and antibiotic concentrations in the receiving urban wastewater treatment plant...
February 5, 2019: International Journal of Hygiene and Environmental Health
Jinhui Huang, Ying Yang, Guangming Zeng, Yanling Gu, Yahui Shi, Kaixin Yi, Yichen Ouyang, Jianglin Hu, Lixiu Shi
Quorum quenching (QQ) has been proved to be an efficient method to mitigate biofouling in membrane bioreactors (MBRs). In this paper, in order to enhance practicability of QQ microcapsules, we prepared three types microcapsules with same alginate cores (SAs). The microcapsules with polyacrylonitrile (PAN) layer showed excellent performance in preventing cell leakage from the microcapsules, increasing service life and improving mechanical strength. And confocal laser scanning microscopy images demonstrated that there were very little dead bacteria in the microcapsules with both chitosan and PAN layer than microcapsules with only PAN layer because chitosan layer can protect bacteria entrapped in cores from the hurt caused by poisonous PAN solution...
January 29, 2019: Bioresource Technology
Ying-Chu Chen
Wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) using membrane bioreactor (MBR) technology have been considered a significant source of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. This study chose a small-scale wastewater treatment plant using MBR technology to estimate its potential for GHG emissions. The total GHG emissions from this wastewater treatment plant ranged from 2,802 to 11,946 kg CO2 -eq/month within the 4-year study period, and they were mainly attributable to electricity consumption (79.94%) followed by chemical usages (17...
February 2019: Water Environment Research: a Research Publication of the Water Environment Federation
Yi-Hua Lyu, Yue-Xia Zhou, Yi Li, Jin Zhou, Yi-Xiao Xu
Bacteria play an important role in preventing algal blooms and reducing their harm to the environment. To improve the algicidal activity of Pseudoalteromonas SP48 which had an inhibition effect on dinoflagellate Alexandrium tamarense, its growth medium and fermentation conditions were optimized for this bacterium. In this study, we used two steps to establish the optimum conditions. First, the proper proportion of medium was selected based on an orthogonal design. Then, the fermentation conditions were further optimized through uniform design in an enlarged 5L bioreactor...
February 7, 2019: MicrobiologyOpen
Rupam Sarma, Md Saiful Islam, Mark P Running, Dibakar Bhattacharyya
We have developed a multienzyme functionalized membrane reactor for bioconversion of lignin model compound involving enzymatic catalysis. Layer-by-layer approach was used to immobilize three different enzymes (glucose oxidase, peroxidase and laccase) into pH-responsive membranes. This novel membrane reactor couples the in situ generation of hydrogen peroxide (by glucose oxidase) to oxidative conversion of a lignin model compound, guaiacylglycerol-B-guaiacylether (GGE). Preliminary investigation of the efficacy of these functional membranes towards GGE degradation is demonstrated under convective flow mode...
April 2018: Polymers
Gaetano Di Bella, Daniele Di Trapani
The cake layer deposited on the membrane modules of membrane bioreactors (MBRs), especially under a submerged configuration, represents a relevant and fundamental mechanism deeply influencing the development of membrane fouling. It negatively affects the total resistance to filtration, while exerting a positive effect as a "pre-filter" promoting the "dynamic membrane" that protects the physical membrane from internal fouling. These two opposite phenomena should be properly managed, where the submerged membranes are usually subjected to a periodical cake layer removal through ordinary (permeate backwashing and air scouring) and/or irregular cleaning actions (manual physical cleaning)...
February 1, 2019: Membranes
André Aguiar Battistelli, Rayra Emanuelly da Costa, Leonardo Dalri-Cecato, Tiago José Belli, Flávio Rubens Lapolli
This study evaluated the effects of electrochemical processes on the mixed liquor characteristics of an electro-membrane bioreactor (e-MBR) applied to municipal wastewater treatment. A laboratory-scale e-MBR was assessed under two experimental runs: without the electric field (run I) and with electric field, controlled by the application of an electric current set in 10.0 A m-2 under intermittent exposure mode of 6 minutes ON/18 minutes OFF (run II). The electric field caused approximately 55% removal of both soluble microbial products (SMP) and extracellular polymeric substances (EPS), whereas the proteins/carbohydrates ratio in EPS was increased from 1...
December 2018: Water Science and Technology: a Journal of the International Association on Water Pollution Research
Hooman Vatankhah, Aleksandra Szczuka, William A Mitch, Nohemi Almaraz, Jacob Brannum, Christopher Bellona
Ozonation followed by biologically active filtration (BAF) (O3-BAF) treatment has become an alternative to reverse osmosis in potable wastewater reuse applications due to the ability to produce a high-quality effluent while reducing brine production and disposal. In this study, effluent from a sequencing batch membrane bioreactor (SBMBR) was treated by O3-BAF at three specific ozone doses (0.5, 0.7, and 1.0 mg O3/mg DOC) and different empty bed contact times (EBCT; 15-45 min). The reaction of O3 with granular activated carbon (GAC) (O3/GAC) to promote the formation of hydroxyl radicals (...
January 30, 2019: Environmental Science & Technology
Renjie Li, Jennifer A Jay, Michael K Stenstrom
Many important diseases are showing resistance to commonly used antibiotics, and the resistance is potentially caused by widespread use of antibiotics for maintaining human health and improving food production. Antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) and antibiotic-resistant bacteria (ARB) are associated with this increase, and their fate in water resource recovery facilities is an important, emerging area of research. This literature review summarizes current findings of worldwide research on the fate of ARB and ARGs in various types of treatment plants...
January 2019: Water Environment Research: a Research Publication of the Water Environment Federation
Michaela A U Hoesl, Dennis Kleimaier, Ruomin Hu, Matthias Malzacher, Cordula Nies, Eric Gottwald, Lothar R Schad
BACKGROUND: Triple-quantum (TQ) filtered sequences have become more popular in sodium MR due to the increased usage of scanners with field strengths exceeding 3T. Disagreement as to whether TQ signal can provide separation of intra- and extracellular compartments persists. PURPOSE: To provide insight into TQ signal behavior on a cellular level. STUDY TYPE: Prospective. PHANTOM/SPECIMEN: Cell-phantoms in the form of liposomes, encapsulated 0 mM, 145 mM, 154 mM Na+ in a double-lipid membrane similar to cells...
January 25, 2019: Journal of Magnetic Resonance Imaging: JMRI
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