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Petronela Pascariu, Corneliu Cojocaru, Niculae Olaru, Petrisor Samoila, Anton Airinei, Maria Ignat, Liviu Sacarescu, Daniel Timpu
Synthesis and characterization of novel ZnO:RE nanostructured materials doped with 1% rare-earth elements (RE = La, Er, Sm) and their testing for photocatalytic applications were reported. The materials were obtained via electrospining, followed by calcination at 700 ° C. The samples were characterized in terms of surface morphology (SEM, TEM), crystalline structure (XRD) and band gap energies. TEM results showed the formation of a unidimensional structure (ZnO) with an average fiber diameter of 600 nm and a morphology consisting of interconnected nanoparticles having dimensions in the range 25-134 nm (ZnO doped with RE)...
March 19, 2019: Journal of Environmental Management
Andrew J Tague, Papanin Putsathit, Melanie L Hutton, Katherine A Hammer, Steven M Wales, Daniel R Knight, Thomas V Riley, Dena Lyras, Paul A Keller, Stephen G Pyne
Clostridioides (formerly Clostridium) difficile is a Gram-positive anaerobic bacterial pathogen that causes severe gastrointestinal infection in humans. The current chemotherapeutic options are vastly inadequate, expensive and limited; this results in an exorbitant medical and financial burden. New, inexpensive chemotherapeutic treatments for C. difficile infection with improved efficacy are urgently needed. A streamlined synthetic pathway was developed to allow access to 38 novel mono- and di-cationic biaryl 1,2,3-triazolyl peptidomimetics with increased synthetic efficiency, aqueous solubility and enhanced antibacterial efficacy...
March 1, 2019: European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
Berenice Ovalle-Magallanes, Andrés Navarrete, Pierre S Haddad, Armando R Tovar, Lilia G Noriega, Claudia Tovar-Palacio, Rachel Mata
BACKGROUND: Swietenia humilis seeds are consumed in Mexico to treat type 2 diabetes; the antihyperglycemic effect of this species was previously demonstrated and related to the presence of tetranortriterpenoids of the mexicanolide class. PURPOSE AND STUDY DESIGN: The present investigation was conducted to determine the mechanism of action of selected mexicanolides, including 2-hydroxy-destigloyl-6-deoxyswietenine acetate (1), methyl-2-hydroxy-3-β-tigloyloxy-1-oxomeliac-8(30)-enate (2) and humilinolide H (3), using in vivo experiments with hyperglycemic mice, and cell-based models...
March 13, 2019: Phytomedicine: International Journal of Phytotherapy and Phytopharmacology
Tereza Leonhardt, Jan Borovička, Jan Sácký, Jiří Šantrůček, Jan Kameník, Pavel Kotrba
It has been firmly established that macrofungi can accumulate large amounts of heavy metals in their sporocarps. However, the mechanisms of the accumulation and storage are being uncovered only recently. We have previously documented that Russula bresadolae can accumulate over 1 g Zn kg-1 dry weight and that sequestration of a substantial proportion of overaccumulated Zn involves binding with peptides, RaZBPs, seen so far only in this species. In this work we examined Zn contents of 360 sporocarp collections from unpolluted environments covering 114 species of the genus Russula...
March 12, 2019: Chemosphere
Adrienne J Bartlett, Amanda M Hedges, Kyna D Intini, Lisa R Brown, France J Maisonneuve, Stacey A Robinson, Patricia L Gillis, Shane R de Solla
Neonicotinoids are the most widely used insecticides in the world. They are preferentially toxic to insects while displaying a low toxicity toward vertebrates, and this selective toxicity has resulted in the rapid and ubiquitous use of these compounds. However, neonicotinoids have been detected in agricultural surface waters and are known to cause adverse effects in non-target aquatic organisms. A wide range of toxicity has been reported for aquatic crustaceans, but most of the studies focus on the acute effects of imidacloprid, and few data are available regarding chronic effects of other neonicotinoids or neonicotinoid replacements (e...
March 19, 2019: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
Mariarosaria Di Tommaso, Bianca Carotenuto, Viola Seravalli, Elena R Magro Malosso, Serena Pinzauti, Michela Torricelli, Felice Petraglia
OBJECTIVES: To define the duration of umbilical cord pulsatility (UCP) after vaginal delivery and to evaluate its possible association with maternal characteristics and obstetric and neonatal variables. STUDY DESIGN: Prospective observational study on women with a singleton pregnancy at term who had a vaginal delivery and cord clamping at the cessation of pulsations. The collection of UCP duration was performed through a stopwatch and by manual palpation of the umbilical cord...
March 12, 2019: European Journal of Obstetrics, Gynecology, and Reproductive Biology
S R Niakan Kalhori, M Ghazisaeedi, R Azizi, A Naserpour
OBJECTIVES: Disease burden and high financial cost of seasonal influenza emphasize the importance of studying the epidemics transmission dynamics. Our aim in this article is to extend the Susceptible Exposed Infectious Recovered (SEIR) model, a well-studied classical compartmental epidemic model, by incorporating socio-environmental factors. Particularly, the potential influence of mass media function and absolute humidity are examined on the model simultaneously. STUDY DESIGN: The proposed model is fitted to Center for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) influenza data of region five of the US for four outbreak seasons...
March 19, 2019: Public Health
Joaquin A Vizcarra, Álvaro Sánchez-Ferro, Walter Maetzler, Luca Marsili, Lucia Zavala, Anthony E Lang, Pablo Martinez-Martin, Tiago A Mestre, Ralf Reilmann, Jeffrey M Hausdorff, E Ray Dorsey, Serene S Paul, Judith W Dexheimer, Benjamin D Wissel, Rebecca L M Fuller, Paolo Bonato, Ai Huey Tan, Bastiaan R Bloem, Catherine Kopil, Margaret Daeschler, Lauren Bataille, Galit Kleiner, Jesse M Cedarbaum, Jochen Klucken, Aristide Merola, Christopher G Goetz, Glenn T Stebbins, Alberto J Espay
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 22, 2019: Movement Disorders: Official Journal of the Movement Disorder Society
Sarah S Sanjakdar, William J Flerlage, Hyun S Kang, Douglas A Napier, Jaqueline R Dougherty, Andrea Mountney, Janice S Gilsdorf, Deborah A Shear
This study assessed the effect of caffeine on neurobehavioral recovery in the WRAIR penetrating ballistic-like brain injury (PBBI) model. Unilateral frontal PBBI was produced in the right hemisphere of anesthetized rats at moderate (7%-PBBI) or severe (10%-PBBI) injury levels. Animals were randomly assigned to pretreatment groups: acute caffeine (25 mg/kg CAF gavage, 1 h prior to PBBI), or chronic caffeine (0.25 g/L CAF drinking water, 30 days prior to PBBI). Motor function was evaluated on the rotarod at fixed-speed increments of 10, 15, and 20 RPM...
March 1, 2019: Military Medicine
Peter J Carr, James C R Rippey, Marie L Cooke, Niall S Higgins, Michelle L Trevenen, Aileen Foale, Gerben Keijzers, Claire M Rickard
BACKGROUND: It is well established that the idle peripheral intravenous catheter (PIVC) provides no therapeutic value and is a clinical, economic and above all, patient concern. This study aimed to develop a decision aid to assist with clinical decision making to promote clinically indicated peripheral intravenous catheter (CIPIVC) insertion in the emergency department (ED) setting. Providing evidence for a uniform process could assist clinicians in a decision-making process for PIVC insertion...
2019: PloS One
Ben F M Wijnen, Bea Hemmen, Ans I E Bouman, Henk van de Meent, Ton Ambergen, Peter R G Brink, Henk A M Seelen, Silvia M A A Evers
BACKGROUND: Multidisciplinary rehabilitation has been recommended for multi-trauma patients, but there is only low-quality evidence to support its use with these patients. This study examined whether a Supported Fast track multi-Trauma Rehabilitation Service (Fast Track) was cost-effective compared to conventional trauma rehabilitation service (Care As Usual) in patients with multi-trauma from a societal perspective with a one-year follow-up. METHODS: An economic evaluation alongside a prospective, multi-center, non-randomized, controlled clinical study, was conducted in the Netherlands...
2019: PloS One
L Beynel, S W Davis, C A Crowell, S A Hilbig, W Lim, D Nguyen, H Palmer, A Brito, A V Peterchev, B Luber, S H Lisanby, R Cabeza, L G Appelbaum
Working memory is the ability to perform mental operations on information that is stored in a flexible, limited capacity buffer. The ability to manipulate information in working memory is central to many aspects of human cognition, but also declines with healthy aging. Given the profound importance of such working memory manipulation abilities, there is a concerted effort towards developing approaches to improve them. The current study tested the capacity to enhance working memory manipulation with online repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation in healthy young and older adults...
2019: PloS One
Masato Kobayashi, Toshitaka Kato, Kohshin Washiyama, Masaaki Ihara, Asuka Mizutani, Kodai Nishi, Leo G Flores, Ryuichi Nishii, Keiichi Kawai
BACKGROUND: Although a 3-arm DOTA construct, which has three carboxylic acids, h has been applied for conjugation to many peptides, we investigated if a 4-arm DOTA construct conjugated to peptides improves chemical properties for melanoma imaging of the melanocortin 1 receptor compared to 3-arm DOTA-conjugated peptides. METHODS: Specific activities, radiolabeling efficiencies, and partition coefficients were evaluated using 111In-labeled 3-arm and 4-arm DOTA-α-melanocyte-stimulating hormone (MSH)...
2019: PloS One
Radwa Hassan Abou-Saleh, J R McLaughlan, Richard J Bushby, Benjamin R G Johnson, Steven Freear, Stephen D Evans, Neil Henderson Thomson
The production and stability of microbubbles (MBs) is enhanced by increasing the viscosity of both the formation and storage solution, respectively. Glycerol is a good candidate for biomedical applications of MBs, since it is biocompatible, although the exact molecular mechanisms of its action is not fully understood. Here we investigate the influence glycerol has on lipid-shelled MB properties, using a range of techniques. Population lifetime and single bubble stability were studied using optical microscopy...
March 22, 2019: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
Eui Jin Hwang, Sunggyun Park, Kwang-Nam Jin, Jung Im Kim, So Young Choi, Jong Hyuk Lee, Jin Mo Goo, Jaehong Aum, Jae-Joon Yim, Julien G Cohen, Gilbert R Ferretti, Chang Min Park
Importance: Interpretation of chest radiographs is a challenging task prone to errors, requiring expert readers. An automated system that can accurately classify chest radiographs may help streamline the clinical workflow. Objectives: To develop a deep learning-based algorithm that can classify normal and abnormal results from chest radiographs with major thoracic diseases including pulmonary malignant neoplasm, active tuberculosis, pneumonia, and pneumothorax and to validate the algorithm's performance using independent data sets...
March 1, 2019: JAMA Network Open
Bernadette Brent, Nchafatso Obonyo, Samuel Akech, Mohammed Shebbe, Ayub Mpoya, Neema Mturi, James A Berkley, Robert M R Tulloh, Kathryn Maitland
Importance: Mortality among African children hospitalized with severe malnutrition remains high, with sudden, unexpected deaths leading to speculation about potential cardiac causes. Malnutrition is considered high risk for cardiac failure, but evidence is limited. Objective: To investigate the role of cardiovascular dysfunction in African children with severe, acute malnutrition (SAM). Design, Setting, and Participants: A prospective, matched case-control study, the Cardiac Physiology in Malnutrition (CAPMAL) study, of 88 children with SAM (exposed) vs 22 severity-matched patients without SAM (unexposed) was conducted between March 7, 2011, and February 20, 2012; data analysis was performed from October 1, 2012, to March 1, 2016...
March 1, 2019: JAMA Network Open
Albert Isidro-Llobet, Martin N Kenworthy, Subha Mukherjee, Michael E Kopach, Katarzyna Wegner, Fabrice Gallou, Austin G Smith, Frank Roschangar
In recent years, there has been a growing interest in therapeutic peptides within the pharmaceutical industry with more than 50 peptide drugs on the market, approximately 170 in clinical trials, and >200 in preclinical development. However, the current state of the art in peptide synthesis involves primarily legacy technologies with use of large amounts of highly hazardous reagents and solvents and little focus on green chemistry and engineering. In 2016, the ACS Green Chemistry Institute Pharmaceutical Roundtable identified development of greener processes for peptide API as a critical unmet need, and as a result, a new Roundtable team formed to address this important area...
March 22, 2019: Journal of Organic Chemistry
Ana R S Oliveira, José Piaggio, Lee W Cohnstaedt, D Scott McVey, Natalia Cernicchiaro
The purpose of this risk assessment (RA) was to qualitatively estimate the risk of emergence of the Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) in the United States (US). We followed the framework for RA of emerging vector-borne livestock diseases (de Vos et al., 2011), which consists of a structured questionnaire, whose answers to questions can be delivered in risk categories, descriptive statements, or yes or no type of answers, being supported by the literature. The most likely pathways of introduction of JEV identified were: a) entry through infected vectors (by aircraft, cargo ships, tires, or wind), b) import of infected viremic animals, c) entry of viremic migratory birds, d) import of infected biological materials, e) import of infected animal products, f) entry of infected humans, and g) import/production of contaminated biological material (e...
March 22, 2019: Transboundary and Emerging Diseases
Zexu Wang, Xiaofan Wu, Zhining Li, Zedu Huang, Fener Chen
We report here the stereoselective bioreduction of α-nitro ketones catalyzed by ketoreductases (KREDs) with publicly known sequences. YGL039w and RasADH/SyADH were able to reduce 23 class I substrates (1-aryl-2-nitro-1-ethanone (1)) and ten class II substrates (1-aryloxy-3-nitro-2-propanone (4)) to furnish both enantiomers of the corresponding β-nitro alcohols, with good-to-excellent conversions (up to >99%) and enantioselectivities (up to >99% ee) being achieved in most cases. To the best of our knowledge, KRED-mediated reduction of class II α-nitro ketones (1-aryloxy-3-nitro-2-propanone (4)) is unprecedented...
March 22, 2019: Organic & Biomolecular Chemistry
G Yu Grigoryan, O N Dreval', A R Sitnikov, Yu A Grigoryan
Trigeminal neuralgia (TN) can be combined with tumors of the cerebellopontine angle (CPA). The optimal surgical management in these cases depends on the anatomical relationship of the trigeminal nerve root (TNR) with tumors and vessels. The purpose of this study is to evaluate variants of the anatomical relationship between the TNR and the surrounding structures as well as to analyze the results of using various surgical techniques for treatment of TN in CPA tumors. MATERIAL AND METHODS: We performed a retrospective analysis of 51 patients (38 females and 13 males aged 22 to 77 years) with TN and ipsilateral CPA tumors...
2019: Zhurnal Voprosy Neĭrokhirurgii Imeni N. N. Burdenko
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