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Jessica Pflipsen, Cian McDermott, Eva Mary Doherty, Niamh Humphries
BACKGROUND: In recent years, attrition from Emergency Medicine (EM) training in Ireland has increased. Australian data illustrates that increasing numbers of Irish-trained doctors are embarking on EM training in Australia. This has implications for EM in Ireland, particularly for Emergency Departments already under strain. An adequate supply of qualified specialist EM doctors is essential to provide high-quality patient care. AIMS: The aim of this study is to gain insights into the reasons for attrition from EM training in Ireland...
February 18, 2019: Irish Journal of Medical Science
Roopali Soni, Anastasia Katana, Joe I Curry, Paul D Humphries, Angela Huertas-Ceballos
Necrotising enterocolitis (NEC) in preterm babies is a serious gastrointestinal emergency with potentially devastating consequences. Prompt and accurate diagnosis continues to be a challenge for health professionals. Early identification of clinical warning signs is extremely important, but the diagnosis relies heavily on the interpretation of abdominal radiographs. Postgraduate training of paediatricians and neonatologists in neonatal abdominal radiography is scarce, and there is variability of radiological input to neonatal services...
February 18, 2019: Archives of Disease in Childhood. Education and Practice Edition
Amanda K Silva, Laura S Humphries, Andrés A Maldonado, Lawrence J Gottlieb
BACKGROUND: Composite mandibular reconstruction requires multiple tissue components inset in different planes. Intrinsic chimeric flap design provides this, and may be best suited for these reconstructions. METHODS: A retrospective review of mandible reconstructions with composite, intrinsic chimeric, or 2 free flaps was performed. Patient and flap characteristics and complications were analyzed. RESULTS: Seventy-five patients were reviewed...
February 18, 2019: Head & Neck
Peera Hemarajata, Romney M Humphries
Objectives: Ceftazidime/avibactam resistance due to mutation in the omega loop of KPC-2 has been documented in vitro and in vivo. This study evaluated the mechanism of ceftazidime/avibactam resistance in a KPC-2-expressing Klebsiella pneumoniae isolated from a patient following ceftazidime/avibactam combination therapy with gentamicin for the treatment of ventilator-associated pneumonia. Methods: Ceftazidime/avibactam-susceptible and -resistant isolates of K. pneumoniae were evaluated by broth microdilution and WGS...
February 7, 2019: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
Ambrose R Orr, Josephine E Quagraine, Peter Suwondo, Santosh George, Lisa M Harrison, Fabio Pio Dornas, Benjamin Evans, Adalgisa Caccone, Debbie Humphries, Michael D Wilson, Michael Cappello
Hookworm infection causes anemia, malnutrition, and growth delay, especially in children living in sub-Saharan Africa. The World Health Organization recommends periodic mass drug administration (MDA) of anthelminthics to school-age children (SAC) as a means of reducing morbidity. Recently, questions have been raised about the effectiveness of MDA as a global control strategy for hookworms and other soil-transmitted helminths (STHs). Genomic DNA was extracted from Necator americanus hookworm eggs isolated from SAC enrolled in a cross-sectional study of STH epidemiology and deworming response in Kintampo North Municipality, Ghana...
February 2019: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
Olivia Ellis, Peera Hemarajata, Akbar Shahkolahi, Godfred Masinde, Kerry Buchs, Romney M Humphries, Jeffrey D Klausner
There are no commercially available Food and Drug Administration-cleared rapid tests for Neisseria gonorrhoeae antimicrobial susceptibility testing. This study evaluated the performance of a laboratory-developed real-time polymerase chain reaction assay for genotyping the gyrA gene to determine antimicrobial susceptibility to ciprofloxacin. Validation and clinical performance of the gyrA assay were evaluated across 3 geographic locations (Los Angeles, San Francisco, Philadelphia). Following validation, clinical specimens were collected in Aptima Combo2® CT/NG transport medium from asymptomatic persons who tested positive for Neisseria gonorrhoeae and evaluated for assay percent reportable (i...
January 14, 2019: Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease
Johanna M Buschhaus, Brock Humphries, Kathryn E Luker, Gary D Luker
Fluorescence lifetime imaging (FLIM) is a powerful imaging modality used to gather fluorescent reporter data independent of intracellular reporter intensity or imaging depth. We applied this technique to image real-time activation of a reporter for the proteolytic enzyme, caspase-3, in response to apoptotic cell death. This caspase-3 reporter activity provides valuable insight into cancer cell responsiveness to therapy and overall viability at a single-cell scale. Cleavage of a aspartate-glutamate-valine-aspartate (DEVD) linkage sequence alters Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET) within the reporter, affecting its lifetime...
June 13, 2018: Cells
Brock A Humphries, Johanna M Buschhaus, Yu-Chih Chen, Henry R Haley, Tonela Qyli, Benjamin Chiang, Nathan Shen, Shrila Rajendran, Alyssa Cutter, Yu-Heng Cheng, Yu-Ting Chen, Jason Cong, Phillip C Spinosa, Euisik Yoon, Kathryn E Luker, Gary D Luker
Migration and invasion of cancer cells constitute fundamental processes in tumor progression and metastasis. Migratory cancer cells commonly upregulate expression of plasminogen activator inhibitor 1 (PAI1), and PAI1 correlates with poor prognosis in breast cancer. However, mechanisms by which PAI1 promotes migration of cancer cells remain incompletely defined. Here we show that increased PAI1 drives rearrangement of the actin cytoskeleton, mitochondrial fragmentation, and glycolytic metabolism in triple negative breast cancer (TNBC) cells...
February 4, 2019: Molecular Cancer Research: MCR
Elizabeth A Pearsall, Rui Cheng, Satoshi Matsuzaki, Kelu Zhou, Lexi Ding, Bumsoo Ahn, Michael Kinter, Kenneth M Humphries, Alexander B Quiambao, Rafal A Farjo, Jian-Xing Ma
Diabetic retinopathy (DR) is a common neurovascular complication of type 1 diabetes. Current therapeutics target neovascularization characteristic of end-stage disease, but are associated with significant adverse effects. Targeting early events of DR such as neurodegeneration may lead to safer and more effective approaches to treatment. Two independent prospective clinical trials unexpectedly identified that the PPARα agonist fenofibrate had unprecedented therapeutic effects in DR, but gave little insight into the physiological and molecular mechanisms of action...
2019: PloS One
Amjad Alharbi, Gerry Humphris, Ruth Freeman
AIM: to test the psychometric properties of an Arabic version of the Child Fear Survey Schedule-Dental Subscale (CFSS-DS) a using confirmatory factor analysis. METHODS: 2 convenience samples were obtained: Sample [1]: 600 boys (33%) and girls attending 4 public schools in Onizah and Sample [2] 800 girls attending 8 public schools in Buridah. The questionnaire asked the participant's age, gender and completion of the CFSS-DS. The data were subjected to exploratory factor analysis (EFA), parallel factor analysis, Cronbach alpha, confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) and goodness of fit statistics...
February 1, 2019: International Journal of Paediatric Dentistry
Robert Tchounzou, André Gaetan Simo Wambo, Théophile Nana Njamen, Ingrid Ofakem Ilick, Humphry Tatah Neng, François Dadao, Albert Mouelle Sone
PURPOSE: Cervical cancer constitutes a public health problem in Cameroon where it represents 13.8% of cancers in women. We wanted to evaluate compliance with cervical cancer care with a focus on patients who are lost to follow-up from the time that symptoms suggestive of cervical cancer are clinically recognized to treatment. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Sociodemographic data, attitude toward diagnosis and treatment, and reason for discontinuing care were recorded and analyzed for a period of 5 years from January 2010 to December 2015...
January 2019: Journal of Global Oncology
J N Ferguson, R C Meyer, K D Edwards, M Humphry, O Brendel, U Bechtold
Natural selection driven by water availability has resulted in considerable variation for traits associated with drought tolerance and leaf level water-use efficiency (WUE). In Arabidopsis, little is known about the variation of whole-plant water use (PWU) and whole-plant WUE (TE). To investigate the genetic basis of PWU, we developed a novel proxy trait by combining flowering time and rosette water use to estimate lifetime PWU. We validated its usefulness for large scale screening of mapping populations in a subset of ecotypes...
February 1, 2019: Plant, Cell & Environment
Bumsoo Ahn, Rojina Ranjit, Pavithra Premkumar, Gavin Pharaoh, Katarzyna M Piekarz, Satoshi Matsuzaki, Dennis R Claflin, Kaitlyn Riddle, Jennifer Judge, Shylesh Bhaskaran, Kavithalakshmi Satara Natarajan, Erika Barboza, Benjamin Wronowski, Michael Kinter, Kenneth M Humphries, Timothy M Griffin, Willard M Freeman, Arlan Richardson, Susan V Brooks, Holly Van Remmen
BACKGROUND: Excess reactive oxygen species (ROS) and muscle weakness occur in parallel in multiple pathological conditions. However, the causative role of skeletal muscle mitochondrial ROS (mtROS) on neuromuscular junction (NMJ) morphology and function and muscle weakness has not been directly investigated. METHODS: We generated mice lacking skeletal muscle-specific manganese-superoxide dismutase (mSod2KO) to increase mtROS using a cre-Lox approach driven by human skeletal actin...
February 1, 2019: Journal of Cachexia, Sarcopenia and Muscle
Yuan Yang, Wen Li, Yunhong Wen, Hongmei Wang, Hengwen Sun, Weijiang Liang, Bin Zhang, Gerry Humphris
OBJECTIVE: The current systematic review aims to provide an overview of fear of cancer recurrence (FCR) in adolescent and young adult cancer survivors (15-39 yrs at cancer diagnosis, AYAs). METHODS: MEDLINE, PubMed, PsycINFO and Embase databases were independently searched to identify relevant quantitative articles. PRISMA systematic review procedures were followed with quality assessment. RESULTS: Seventeen studies were included in the current review...
January 31, 2019: Psycho-oncology
Jacqueline Saw, Andrew Starovoytov, Karin Humphries, Tej Sheth, Derek So, Kunal Minhas, Neil Brass, Andrea Lavoie, Helen Bishop, Shahar Lavi, Colin Pearce, Suzanne Renner, Mina Madan, Robert C Welsh, Sohrab Lutchmedial, Ram Vijayaraghavan, Eve Aymong, Bryan Har, Reda Ibrahim, Heather L Gornik, Santhi Ganesh, Christopher Buller, Alexis Matteau, Giuseppe Martucci, Dennis Ko, Giovanni Battista John Mancini
Aims: Spontaneous coronary artery dissection (SCAD) was underdiagnosed and poorly understood for decades. It is increasingly recognized as an important cause of myocardial infarction (MI) in women. We aimed to assess the natural history of SCAD, which has not been adequately explored. Methods and results: We performed a multicentre, prospective, observational study of patients with non-atherosclerotic SCAD presenting acutely from 22 centres in North America. Institutional ethics approval and patient consents were obtained...
January 30, 2019: European Heart Journal
Romney Humphries, Tiziana Di Martino
Using conventional methods, organism identification (ID) and antibiotic susceptibility testing (AST) results are available ∼1.5-3 days after positive blood culture. New technologies can reduce this time to 8-12 h, allowing therapy to be optimized substantially sooner. To make full use of fast ID and AST results requires overcoming various hurdles to effective implementation, including restructuring laboratory workflows to optimize timeliness of results and modifying clinical pathways to respond more quickly when results are available...
January 1, 2019: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
Emily K Studd, Manuelle Landry-Cuerrier, Allyson K Menzies, Stan Boutin, Andrew G McAdam, Jeffrey E Lane, Murray M Humphries
The miniaturization and affordability of new technology is driving a biologging revolution in wildlife ecology with use of animal-borne data logging devices. Among many new biologging technologies, accelerometers are emerging as key tools for continuously recording animal behavior. Yet a critical, but under-acknowledged consideration in biologging is the trade-off between sampling rate and sampling duration, created by battery- (or memory-) related sampling constraints. This is especially acute among small animals, causing most researchers to sample at high rates for very limited durations...
January 2019: Ecology and Evolution
Jean-Paul Charbonnier, Esther Pompe, Camille Moore, Stephen Humphries, Bram van Ginneken, Barry Make, Elizabeth Regan, James D Crapo, Eva M van Rikxoort, David A Lynch
Airway wall thickening in cigarette smokers is thought to be a result of inflammatory changes and airway remodeling. This study investigates if CT-derived airway wall thickening associates to disease severity in smokers with and without COPD and if airway wall thickening is reversible by smoking cessation. We examined 2000 smokers and 46 never-smokers who returned for a 5-year follow-up visit in the COPDGene-study. Multivariable regression analyses were performed at visit 1 to associate airway wall thickness (expressed as Pi10) with percent predicted forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1 %-predicted), 6-min walking distance (6MWD), and St...
January 2019: Respiratory Medicine
Sara Rubinelli, Jonathan Silverman, Karolien Aelbrecht, Myriam Deveugele, Arnstein Finset, Gerry Humphris, Peter Martin, Marcy Rosenbaum, Sandra van Dulmen, Evelyn van Weel-Baumgarten
In 2017, EACH celebrated its change of name from European Association for Communication in Healthcare to EACH: International Association for Communication in Healthcare. This paper aims to present the developments and achievements of EACH over the past five years with a focus on its mission in promoting and advancing the field of communication in healthcare. Specifically, the paper focuses on how EACH, first, promotes research in the field of health communication, second, provides support, resources and sharing for healthcare communication teachers and, third, aims at influencing policy through dissemination of evidence...
January 8, 2019: Patient Education and Counseling
Darragh E Crosbie, James Keaney, Lawrence C S Tam, W Daniel Stamer, Matthew Campbell, Peter Humphries
PURPOSE: Here, we are testing the hypothesis that dynamic contrast enhanced MRI (DCE-MRI) is a useful approach for non-invasively evaluating age-related changes in aqueous humor outflow and its contribution to elevated intraocular pressure in the DBA/2J model of pigmentary glaucoma. METHODS: A rodent-specific 7 T MRI was used to assess eye anatomy (anterior chamber (AC) and vitreous body (VB) morphology, eye size, lens size) and aqueous humor dynamics (via intravenous administration of Gd-DTPA and Gd-BOPTA contrast agents) in C57BL/6 and DBA/2J mice at 3 and 9 months of age...
January 17, 2019: Magnetic Resonance Imaging
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